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Unit I
Means of engaging in International Business
Different modes or way of engaging in international business are mentioned below.
Exporting
Exporting - Exportingis the process of sellingof goodsandservices produced inone country to other countries.
Exportingis the simplestand widelyused ofentering foreignmarkets.
There are three types of exporting: Direct Exporting, Indirect Exporting and Intra-Corporate Transfers
Direct Exports
Directexportsrepresentthe mostbasicmode of exportingmade bya(holding) company,capitalizing on economies
of scale inproductionconcentratedinthe home countryandaffordingbettercontrol overdistribution.Directexport
worksthe bestif the volumesare small.Large volumesof exportmaytriggerprotectionism. The main characteristic
of direct exports entry model is that there are no intermediaries.
Advantages
 Control over selection of foreign markets and choice of foreign representative companies
 Good information feedback from target market, developing better relationships with the buyers
 Better protection of trademarks, patents, goodwill, and other intangible property
 Potentially greater sales, and therefore greater profit, than with indirect exporting.[7]
Disadvantages
 Higher start-up costs and higher risks as opposed to indirect exporting
 Requires higher investments of time, resources and personnel and also organizational changes
 Greater information requirements
 Longer time-to-market as opposed to indirect exporting
Indirectexports - Indirectexportsare the process of exporting through domestically based export intermediaries.
The exporter has no control over its products in the foreign market. Indirect exporting is exporting the products
either in their original form or in the modified form to a foreign country through domestic company.
Advantages
 Fast market access
 Concentration of resources towards production
 Little or no financial commitment as the clients' exports usually covers most expenses associated with
international sales.
 Low riskexistsforcompanieswhoconsidertheirdomesticmarketto be more important and for companies
that are still developing their R&D, marketing, and sales strategies.
 Export management is outsourced, alleviating pressure from management team
 No direct handle of export processes.
Disadvantages
 Little or no control over distribution, sales, marketing, etc. as opposed to direct exporting
 Wrong choice of distributor, and by effect, market, may lead to inadequate market feedback affecting the
international success of the company
 Potentially lower sales as compared to direct exporting (although low volume can be a key aspect of
successfully exporting directly). Export partners that incorrectly select a specific distributor/market may
hinder a firm's functional ability.
Intra-Corporate Transfers
Intra-corporate transfersare sellingof products by a company to its affiliated company in Host company. Selling of
productsby HindustanLeverinIndiatoUnileverinthe USA is example of Intra-Corporate Transfers, this transaction
is treated as exports in India and Imports in the USA
Those companiesthatseriouslyconsiderinternational marketsasa crucial part of theirsuccesswouldlikelyconsider
direct exporting as the market entry tool. Indirect exporting is preferred by companies who would want to avoid
financial risk as a threat to their other goals.
Factors to be considered
 Government policies like export policies, import policies, export financing, foreign exchange etc
 Marketing factors like image, distribution network, customer awareness and customer preferences
 Logical considerationlike physical distributioncosts,warehousingcosts,packaging,transporting, inventory
Licensing
International Licensing - An international licensing agreement allows foreign firms, either exclusively or non-
exclusively to manufacture a proprietor’s product for a fixed term in a specific market.
Summarizing,in this foreign market entry mode, a licensor in the home country makes limited rights or resources
available tothe licensee in the host country. The rights or resources may include patents, trademarks, managerial
skills,technology,andothersthatcan make it possible forthe licenseetomanufacture andsell in the host country a
similarproducttothe one the licensorhasalreadybeenproducingand sellinginthe home countrywithoutrequiring
the licensor to open a new operation overseas. The licensor earnings usually take forms of one time payments,
technical fees and royalty payments usually calculated as a percentage of sales.
Following are the main advantages and reasons to use an international licensing for expanding internationally
 Obtain extra income for technical know-how and services
 Reach new markets not accessible by export from existing facilities
 Quickly expand without much risk and large capital investment
 Pave the way for future investments in the market
 Retain established markets closed by trade restrictions
 Political risk is minimized as the licensee is usually 100% locally owned
 Is highly attractive for companies that are new in international business.
On the other hand, international licensing is a foreign market entry mode that presents some disadvantages and
reasons why companies should not use it as:
 Lower income than in other entry modes
 Loss of control of the licensee manufacture and marketing operations and practices leading to loss of quality
 Risk of having the trademark and reputation ruined by an incompetent partner
 The foreign partner can also become a competitor by selling its production in places where the parental
company is already in.
 Determination of the royalty
 Dispute settlementmechanism – The license and licensor should clearly mention the mechanism to settle the
disputes as disputes are bound to crop up.
 AgreementDuration:Licensingcannotbe shortterm strategy.Hence,the durationof licensing should not be of
the short-term neither it could be too long
Franchising
The franchisingsystemcanbe defined as:“A system in whichsemi-independentbusinessowners(franchisees) pay
fees and royaltiesto a parent company(franchiser) in return for the right to become identified with its trademark,
to sell its products or services, and often to use its business format and system.”
Compared to licensing, franchising agreements tends to be longer and the franchisor offers a broader package of
rightsand resourceswhichusuallyincludes:equipment,managerialsystems,operationmanual,initial trainings, site
approval and all the support necessary for the franchisee to run its business in the same way it is done by the
franchisor. In addition to that, while a licensing agreement involves things such as intellectual property, trade
secrets and others while in franchising it is limited to trademarks and operating know-how of the business.
Famous franchises in India
Galeto Vinto Ice Creams – Italian brand have maximum number of outlets in India
Archies – Mumbai based firm
Advantages of the international franchising mode:
 Low political risk
 Low cost
 Allows simultaneous expansion into different regions of the world
 Well selected partners bring financial investment as well as managerial capabilities to the operation.

Disadvantages of the international franchising mode:
 Franchisees may turn into future competitors
 Demand of franchisees may be scarce when starting to franchise a company, which can lead to making
agreements with the wrong candidates
 A wrong franchisee may ruin the company’s name and reputation in the market
Comparing to other modes such as exporting and even licensing, international franchising requires a greater
financial investment to attract prospects and support and manage franchisees.
The keysuccessfor franchisingistoavoidsharingthe strategicactivitywithany franchisee especially if that activity
isconsideredimportance tothe company.Sharingthatstrategicactivitymayincrease the potential of the franchisee
to be our future competitor due to the knowledge and strategic spill over.
Turnkey projects
A turnkey project is a contract under which a firm agrees to fully design, construct and equip a
manufacturing/business/services/facility and turn the project over to purchaser when it is ready for operation for
remunerations.
A turnkey project refers to a project when clients pay contractors to design and construct new facilities and train
personnel.A turnkeyprojectisaway for a foreigncompanytoexport its process and technology to other countries
by buildingaplantinthat country.Industrial companiesthatspecializeincomplex productiontechnologiesnormally
use turnkey projects as an entry strategy.
One of the majoradvantagesof turnkeyprojectsisthe possibilityforacompanyto establishaplantand earn profits
ina foreigncountry especiallyinwhichforeigndirectinvestmentopportunitiesare limitedand lack of expertise in a
specific area exists.
Potential disadvantagesof aturnkeyprojectfora company include riskof revealingcompaniessecrets to rivals, and
takeoverof theirplantbythe host country.Enteringa marketwitha turnkey project CAN prove that a company has
no long-terminterestinthe countrywhichcanbecome a disadvantage if the country proves to be the main market
for the output of the exported process.
Contract Manufacturing
Some companies outsource their or part of production and concentrate on marketing operations. Nike has
contracted with a number of factories in south-east Asia to produce its athletic footwear and it concentrate on
marketing.
Management Contract
Some companies outsource their management activities – BPO Industry
FDI without Alliances - Wholly owned subsidiaries
Greenfieldinvestment- isthe establishmentof anew whollyownedsubsidiary. It is often complex and potentially
costly,butit isable to provide full control to the firm and has the most potential to provide above average return.
“Wholly owned subsidiaries and expatriate staff are preferred in service industries where close contact with end
customersandhighlevelsof professional skills, specialized know how, and customization is required.” Greenfield
investmentismore likelypreferred where physical capital intensive plants are planned. This strategy is attractive if
there are no competitorstobuy or the transfer competitive advantages that consists of embedded competencies,
skills, routines, and culture.
Greenfieldinvestmentishigh riskdue tothe costsof establishinganew businessinanew country. A firm may need
to acquire knowledgeandexpertiseof the existingmarketbythirdparties,suchconsultant,competitors,orbusiness
partners.Thisentrystrategytakesmuchtime due to the needof establishingnew operations,distributionnetworks,
and the necessitytolearnandimplementappropriatemarketingstrategiestocompete with rivals in a new market.
FDI with Alliances
Merger - A merger is a combination of two or more businesses into one business. Laws in India use the term
'amalgamation'formerger.Ina merger,twoorganizationsjoinforcestobecome anew business,usuallywitha new
name. Because the companies involved are typically of similar size and stature, the term "merger of equals" is
sometimes used – Example Daimler and Chrysler
Acquisition – In an acquisition, on the other hand, one business buys a second and generally smaller company
which may be absorbed into the parent organization or run as a subsidiary. A company under consideration by
another organization for a merger or acquisition is sometimes referred to as the target. Example Tata acquires
Jaguar
Acquisition has become a popular mode of entering foreign markets mainly due to its quick access. Acquisition
strategy offers the fastest, and the largest, initial international expansion of any of the alternative.
Acquisition has been increasing because it is a way to achieve greater market power. The market share usually is
affectedby marketpower.Therefore, many multinational corporations apply acquisitions to achieve their greater
marketpower,whichrequire buyingacompetitor,asupplier,adistributor,orabusinessinhighlyrelatedindustryto
allow exercise of a core competency and capture competitive advantage in the market.
On the other hand, there are many disadvantages and problems in achieving acquisition success.
Integrating two organizations can be quite difficult due to different organization cultures, control system, and
relationships. Integration is a complex issue, but it is one of the most important things for organizations.
 By applying acquisitions, some companies significantly increased their levels of debt which can have negative
effects on the firms because high debt may cause bankruptcy.
 Too much diversification may cause problems. Even when a firm is not too over diversified, a high level of
diversificationcanhave a negative effectonthe firminthe long-term performance due to a lack of management of
diversification.
Joint venture - There are five commonobjectives in a joint venture: market entry, risk/reward sharing, technology
sharingand jointproductdevelopment,andconformingtogovernmentregulations.Otherbenefits include political
connections and distribution channel access that may depend on relationships Such alliances often are favorable
when – Example Hero Honda, Maruti Suzuki
 The partners' strategic goals converge while their competitive goals diverge
 The partners' size, market power, and resources are small compared to the Industry leaders
 Partners are able to learn from one another while limiting access to their own proprietary skills
The key issues to consider in a joint venture are ownership, control, length of agreement, pricing, technology
transfer, local firm capabilities and resources, and government intentions. Potential problems include
 Conflict over asymmetric new investments
 Mistrust over proprietary knowledge
 Performance ambiguity - how to split the pie
 Lack of parent firm support
 Cultural clashes
 If, how, and when to terminate the relationship
Internal and External Factors
ExternalEnvironmentalFactors
1. Social Conditions
A Sociological perspective of environment includes the Demographic Status and Trends, the Work Ethic and Personal Values and
General Cultural Values. Each of these influences how management accomplishes its jobs. Each country has a unique Social
Environment and as business becomes international, management must understand these unique environments.
 Demography - Demography means the total number of population of any particular territory. They have a greater
influence of any business operation. For example in a mass populated area demand of consumer products will
be comparatively higher than any lesser populated area. So, we can say that demography has a direct impact on
business environment. Because demand direct towards maximization of sales. The higher the value of sales the more
would be the profits. The more profits impacts on success business operations.
 Cultural Forces - Culture is that what we are that means our living, eating, food habit, way of dressing and way of
speaking everything accumulated to our culture. For example wearing lungi, eating panta with hilsha fish on Bengali
New Year is part of Bangladeshi culture, every Bangladeshi respect or practices this culture. But it is not acceptable in
western or European culture. Wearing shorts eating fast food, having wine party are their culture. But it is not
acceptable in Bangladeshi culture. As a result demand of shorts and wine is completely higher in the western society
than that of in Bangladeshi society.
 Work Ethics and Personal Value - The importance placed upon work by an individual is known as work ethic. Business
organizations counted upon the desire to work in its employees, a work ethic expressed in dedication and company
loyalty. However work ethic has changed especially in younger workers and it is obvious that the attitudes of the
workers will impact upon the organization as it recruits, trains, rewards, and retains employees.
2. Political Influences
Political environment has a direct impact on any country’s business environment. Some political environments result in
a comparatively better business environment and vice versa. For instance Instable political environment in Iraq, Pakistan is a
major obstacle for their operations. Government policy of a country depends upon the political culture of a country. It can be
different types based on the form of government. Such as, policy in a communist country will not be match with the policy of a
democratic or monarchy form of government. So government policy of a stable politics be better than an unstable political
culture. In a stablepolitical stategovernment can take any business friendly decision to strengthen local businesswith the help of
opposition party.
Law & order situation should be controlled by the government. But if any government failed to control this important factor of
batter business outcomes than the business environment of that country hamper & businessmen feel insecure than no foreign
investor can try to come such as deadly environment. By this way businesses as well as total economy of that country fall down.
3. Legal/Regulatory
Practices Laws are the primary way in which Business is directly affected by the legal system of a country. Legal practices of any
country have a direct impact on the business operation of that country. For example, if there are any bindings on the
international business transaction from the legal authority of any country then no company can break down that rules.
For example we can take the case of License Raj
License Raj which refers to the elaborate licenses, regulations and the accompanying red tape that were required to set up and
run business in India between1947 and 1990. Up to 80 government agencies had to be satisfied before private companies could
produce something and, if granted, the government would regulate production.
4. Economic Conditions
In the functioning of a Business Enterprise we can see that an organization makes use of resources (input factors) to produce
goods and service (output). All this takes place within the general economic environment, which affects each of these factors.
Few of those factors are:
a. Economy Aspects of the economy which must be considered by the management as it makes decisions are
The existing stage of economy and the stage of the Business Cycle
 The Rates of Growth of GNP and Per Capita Income
 Rates of Saving and Investment
 Volume of Exports and Imports
 Inflation Rate
 Interest Rate
 Government Budgetary Allocations
Internal Environmental Factors
1. Land
Generally land means soil but in business land includes everything inside the factory like boundary of land, size of building,
machinery installments etc.
2. Labor
Workforce is another vital element of productions and other business operations. Skilled manpower is not available everywhere
but manpower can be skilled up through a marathon coaching of related tasks. At the same time we will have to think about the
wages, working environment, job security, job satisfactions of the workers. Job satisfactions can provide best performance as
well as creative outputs. Labors can be satisfied through offering different motives. It may be financial rewards and mental
supports.
3. Capital
Capital means financial liquidity of the organization.Fund may be collected from different sources.Such as Fully owned capital or
Through partnership agreement, Taking loan from the financial institutions, Collecting capital from capital market, Joint venture
fund collection from foreign market Collecting fund is not the final tasks for proper business operations. Because proper
utilization of the fund i.e. capital management functions have to be operated efficiently.
4.Business Location
Business location is a major factor for successful operation of any business. Location should be selected based on the following
criterions a) Transportation facilities b) Availability of raw materials c) Availability of labors d) Security Better transporting
facilities resultin quick communication which is an essential factor for every business. Business location should be selected after
thinking availability raw materials, skilled labor force and high security.
5.OwnersEquity
Owner’s equity is that portion of capital where liabilities are not included. Only self owned and other business offered facilities
are included here

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International business management

  • 1. Unit I Means of engaging in International Business Different modes or way of engaging in international business are mentioned below. Exporting Exporting - Exportingis the process of sellingof goodsandservices produced inone country to other countries. Exportingis the simplestand widelyused ofentering foreignmarkets. There are three types of exporting: Direct Exporting, Indirect Exporting and Intra-Corporate Transfers Direct Exports Directexportsrepresentthe mostbasicmode of exportingmade bya(holding) company,capitalizing on economies of scale inproductionconcentratedinthe home countryandaffordingbettercontrol overdistribution.Directexport worksthe bestif the volumesare small.Large volumesof exportmaytriggerprotectionism. The main characteristic of direct exports entry model is that there are no intermediaries. Advantages  Control over selection of foreign markets and choice of foreign representative companies  Good information feedback from target market, developing better relationships with the buyers  Better protection of trademarks, patents, goodwill, and other intangible property  Potentially greater sales, and therefore greater profit, than with indirect exporting.[7] Disadvantages  Higher start-up costs and higher risks as opposed to indirect exporting  Requires higher investments of time, resources and personnel and also organizational changes  Greater information requirements  Longer time-to-market as opposed to indirect exporting
  • 2. Indirectexports - Indirectexportsare the process of exporting through domestically based export intermediaries. The exporter has no control over its products in the foreign market. Indirect exporting is exporting the products either in their original form or in the modified form to a foreign country through domestic company. Advantages  Fast market access  Concentration of resources towards production  Little or no financial commitment as the clients' exports usually covers most expenses associated with international sales.  Low riskexistsforcompanieswhoconsidertheirdomesticmarketto be more important and for companies that are still developing their R&D, marketing, and sales strategies.  Export management is outsourced, alleviating pressure from management team  No direct handle of export processes. Disadvantages  Little or no control over distribution, sales, marketing, etc. as opposed to direct exporting  Wrong choice of distributor, and by effect, market, may lead to inadequate market feedback affecting the international success of the company  Potentially lower sales as compared to direct exporting (although low volume can be a key aspect of successfully exporting directly). Export partners that incorrectly select a specific distributor/market may hinder a firm's functional ability. Intra-Corporate Transfers Intra-corporate transfersare sellingof products by a company to its affiliated company in Host company. Selling of productsby HindustanLeverinIndiatoUnileverinthe USA is example of Intra-Corporate Transfers, this transaction is treated as exports in India and Imports in the USA Those companiesthatseriouslyconsiderinternational marketsasa crucial part of theirsuccesswouldlikelyconsider direct exporting as the market entry tool. Indirect exporting is preferred by companies who would want to avoid financial risk as a threat to their other goals. Factors to be considered  Government policies like export policies, import policies, export financing, foreign exchange etc  Marketing factors like image, distribution network, customer awareness and customer preferences
  • 3.  Logical considerationlike physical distributioncosts,warehousingcosts,packaging,transporting, inventory Licensing International Licensing - An international licensing agreement allows foreign firms, either exclusively or non- exclusively to manufacture a proprietor’s product for a fixed term in a specific market. Summarizing,in this foreign market entry mode, a licensor in the home country makes limited rights or resources available tothe licensee in the host country. The rights or resources may include patents, trademarks, managerial skills,technology,andothersthatcan make it possible forthe licenseetomanufacture andsell in the host country a similarproducttothe one the licensorhasalreadybeenproducingand sellinginthe home countrywithoutrequiring the licensor to open a new operation overseas. The licensor earnings usually take forms of one time payments, technical fees and royalty payments usually calculated as a percentage of sales. Following are the main advantages and reasons to use an international licensing for expanding internationally  Obtain extra income for technical know-how and services  Reach new markets not accessible by export from existing facilities  Quickly expand without much risk and large capital investment  Pave the way for future investments in the market  Retain established markets closed by trade restrictions  Political risk is minimized as the licensee is usually 100% locally owned  Is highly attractive for companies that are new in international business. On the other hand, international licensing is a foreign market entry mode that presents some disadvantages and reasons why companies should not use it as:  Lower income than in other entry modes  Loss of control of the licensee manufacture and marketing operations and practices leading to loss of quality  Risk of having the trademark and reputation ruined by an incompetent partner  The foreign partner can also become a competitor by selling its production in places where the parental company is already in.  Determination of the royalty
  • 4.  Dispute settlementmechanism – The license and licensor should clearly mention the mechanism to settle the disputes as disputes are bound to crop up.  AgreementDuration:Licensingcannotbe shortterm strategy.Hence,the durationof licensing should not be of the short-term neither it could be too long Franchising The franchisingsystemcanbe defined as:“A system in whichsemi-independentbusinessowners(franchisees) pay fees and royaltiesto a parent company(franchiser) in return for the right to become identified with its trademark, to sell its products or services, and often to use its business format and system.” Compared to licensing, franchising agreements tends to be longer and the franchisor offers a broader package of rightsand resourceswhichusuallyincludes:equipment,managerialsystems,operationmanual,initial trainings, site approval and all the support necessary for the franchisee to run its business in the same way it is done by the franchisor. In addition to that, while a licensing agreement involves things such as intellectual property, trade secrets and others while in franchising it is limited to trademarks and operating know-how of the business. Famous franchises in India Galeto Vinto Ice Creams – Italian brand have maximum number of outlets in India Archies – Mumbai based firm Advantages of the international franchising mode:  Low political risk  Low cost  Allows simultaneous expansion into different regions of the world  Well selected partners bring financial investment as well as managerial capabilities to the operation.  Disadvantages of the international franchising mode:  Franchisees may turn into future competitors  Demand of franchisees may be scarce when starting to franchise a company, which can lead to making agreements with the wrong candidates  A wrong franchisee may ruin the company’s name and reputation in the market Comparing to other modes such as exporting and even licensing, international franchising requires a greater financial investment to attract prospects and support and manage franchisees.
  • 5. The keysuccessfor franchisingistoavoidsharingthe strategicactivitywithany franchisee especially if that activity isconsideredimportance tothe company.Sharingthatstrategicactivitymayincrease the potential of the franchisee to be our future competitor due to the knowledge and strategic spill over. Turnkey projects A turnkey project is a contract under which a firm agrees to fully design, construct and equip a manufacturing/business/services/facility and turn the project over to purchaser when it is ready for operation for remunerations. A turnkey project refers to a project when clients pay contractors to design and construct new facilities and train personnel.A turnkeyprojectisaway for a foreigncompanytoexport its process and technology to other countries by buildingaplantinthat country.Industrial companiesthatspecializeincomplex productiontechnologiesnormally use turnkey projects as an entry strategy. One of the majoradvantagesof turnkeyprojectsisthe possibilityforacompanyto establishaplantand earn profits ina foreigncountry especiallyinwhichforeigndirectinvestmentopportunitiesare limitedand lack of expertise in a specific area exists. Potential disadvantagesof aturnkeyprojectfora company include riskof revealingcompaniessecrets to rivals, and takeoverof theirplantbythe host country.Enteringa marketwitha turnkey project CAN prove that a company has no long-terminterestinthe countrywhichcanbecome a disadvantage if the country proves to be the main market for the output of the exported process. Contract Manufacturing Some companies outsource their or part of production and concentrate on marketing operations. Nike has contracted with a number of factories in south-east Asia to produce its athletic footwear and it concentrate on marketing. Management Contract Some companies outsource their management activities – BPO Industry
  • 6. FDI without Alliances - Wholly owned subsidiaries Greenfieldinvestment- isthe establishmentof anew whollyownedsubsidiary. It is often complex and potentially costly,butit isable to provide full control to the firm and has the most potential to provide above average return. “Wholly owned subsidiaries and expatriate staff are preferred in service industries where close contact with end customersandhighlevelsof professional skills, specialized know how, and customization is required.” Greenfield investmentismore likelypreferred where physical capital intensive plants are planned. This strategy is attractive if there are no competitorstobuy or the transfer competitive advantages that consists of embedded competencies, skills, routines, and culture. Greenfieldinvestmentishigh riskdue tothe costsof establishinganew businessinanew country. A firm may need to acquire knowledgeandexpertiseof the existingmarketbythirdparties,suchconsultant,competitors,orbusiness partners.Thisentrystrategytakesmuchtime due to the needof establishingnew operations,distributionnetworks, and the necessitytolearnandimplementappropriatemarketingstrategiestocompete with rivals in a new market. FDI with Alliances Merger - A merger is a combination of two or more businesses into one business. Laws in India use the term 'amalgamation'formerger.Ina merger,twoorganizationsjoinforcestobecome anew business,usuallywitha new name. Because the companies involved are typically of similar size and stature, the term "merger of equals" is sometimes used – Example Daimler and Chrysler Acquisition – In an acquisition, on the other hand, one business buys a second and generally smaller company which may be absorbed into the parent organization or run as a subsidiary. A company under consideration by another organization for a merger or acquisition is sometimes referred to as the target. Example Tata acquires Jaguar Acquisition has become a popular mode of entering foreign markets mainly due to its quick access. Acquisition strategy offers the fastest, and the largest, initial international expansion of any of the alternative. Acquisition has been increasing because it is a way to achieve greater market power. The market share usually is affectedby marketpower.Therefore, many multinational corporations apply acquisitions to achieve their greater marketpower,whichrequire buyingacompetitor,asupplier,adistributor,orabusinessinhighlyrelatedindustryto allow exercise of a core competency and capture competitive advantage in the market. On the other hand, there are many disadvantages and problems in achieving acquisition success.
  • 7. Integrating two organizations can be quite difficult due to different organization cultures, control system, and relationships. Integration is a complex issue, but it is one of the most important things for organizations.  By applying acquisitions, some companies significantly increased their levels of debt which can have negative effects on the firms because high debt may cause bankruptcy.  Too much diversification may cause problems. Even when a firm is not too over diversified, a high level of diversificationcanhave a negative effectonthe firminthe long-term performance due to a lack of management of diversification. Joint venture - There are five commonobjectives in a joint venture: market entry, risk/reward sharing, technology sharingand jointproductdevelopment,andconformingtogovernmentregulations.Otherbenefits include political connections and distribution channel access that may depend on relationships Such alliances often are favorable when – Example Hero Honda, Maruti Suzuki  The partners' strategic goals converge while their competitive goals diverge  The partners' size, market power, and resources are small compared to the Industry leaders  Partners are able to learn from one another while limiting access to their own proprietary skills The key issues to consider in a joint venture are ownership, control, length of agreement, pricing, technology transfer, local firm capabilities and resources, and government intentions. Potential problems include  Conflict over asymmetric new investments  Mistrust over proprietary knowledge  Performance ambiguity - how to split the pie  Lack of parent firm support  Cultural clashes  If, how, and when to terminate the relationship
  • 8. Internal and External Factors ExternalEnvironmentalFactors 1. Social Conditions A Sociological perspective of environment includes the Demographic Status and Trends, the Work Ethic and Personal Values and General Cultural Values. Each of these influences how management accomplishes its jobs. Each country has a unique Social Environment and as business becomes international, management must understand these unique environments.  Demography - Demography means the total number of population of any particular territory. They have a greater influence of any business operation. For example in a mass populated area demand of consumer products will be comparatively higher than any lesser populated area. So, we can say that demography has a direct impact on business environment. Because demand direct towards maximization of sales. The higher the value of sales the more would be the profits. The more profits impacts on success business operations.  Cultural Forces - Culture is that what we are that means our living, eating, food habit, way of dressing and way of speaking everything accumulated to our culture. For example wearing lungi, eating panta with hilsha fish on Bengali New Year is part of Bangladeshi culture, every Bangladeshi respect or practices this culture. But it is not acceptable in western or European culture. Wearing shorts eating fast food, having wine party are their culture. But it is not acceptable in Bangladeshi culture. As a result demand of shorts and wine is completely higher in the western society than that of in Bangladeshi society.  Work Ethics and Personal Value - The importance placed upon work by an individual is known as work ethic. Business organizations counted upon the desire to work in its employees, a work ethic expressed in dedication and company loyalty. However work ethic has changed especially in younger workers and it is obvious that the attitudes of the workers will impact upon the organization as it recruits, trains, rewards, and retains employees. 2. Political Influences Political environment has a direct impact on any country’s business environment. Some political environments result in a comparatively better business environment and vice versa. For instance Instable political environment in Iraq, Pakistan is a major obstacle for their operations. Government policy of a country depends upon the political culture of a country. It can be different types based on the form of government. Such as, policy in a communist country will not be match with the policy of a democratic or monarchy form of government. So government policy of a stable politics be better than an unstable political
  • 9. culture. In a stablepolitical stategovernment can take any business friendly decision to strengthen local businesswith the help of opposition party. Law & order situation should be controlled by the government. But if any government failed to control this important factor of batter business outcomes than the business environment of that country hamper & businessmen feel insecure than no foreign investor can try to come such as deadly environment. By this way businesses as well as total economy of that country fall down. 3. Legal/Regulatory Practices Laws are the primary way in which Business is directly affected by the legal system of a country. Legal practices of any country have a direct impact on the business operation of that country. For example, if there are any bindings on the international business transaction from the legal authority of any country then no company can break down that rules. For example we can take the case of License Raj License Raj which refers to the elaborate licenses, regulations and the accompanying red tape that were required to set up and run business in India between1947 and 1990. Up to 80 government agencies had to be satisfied before private companies could produce something and, if granted, the government would regulate production. 4. Economic Conditions In the functioning of a Business Enterprise we can see that an organization makes use of resources (input factors) to produce goods and service (output). All this takes place within the general economic environment, which affects each of these factors. Few of those factors are: a. Economy Aspects of the economy which must be considered by the management as it makes decisions are The existing stage of economy and the stage of the Business Cycle  The Rates of Growth of GNP and Per Capita Income  Rates of Saving and Investment  Volume of Exports and Imports  Inflation Rate
  • 10.  Interest Rate  Government Budgetary Allocations Internal Environmental Factors 1. Land Generally land means soil but in business land includes everything inside the factory like boundary of land, size of building, machinery installments etc. 2. Labor Workforce is another vital element of productions and other business operations. Skilled manpower is not available everywhere but manpower can be skilled up through a marathon coaching of related tasks. At the same time we will have to think about the wages, working environment, job security, job satisfactions of the workers. Job satisfactions can provide best performance as well as creative outputs. Labors can be satisfied through offering different motives. It may be financial rewards and mental supports. 3. Capital Capital means financial liquidity of the organization.Fund may be collected from different sources.Such as Fully owned capital or Through partnership agreement, Taking loan from the financial institutions, Collecting capital from capital market, Joint venture fund collection from foreign market Collecting fund is not the final tasks for proper business operations. Because proper utilization of the fund i.e. capital management functions have to be operated efficiently. 4.Business Location Business location is a major factor for successful operation of any business. Location should be selected based on the following criterions a) Transportation facilities b) Availability of raw materials c) Availability of labors d) Security Better transporting facilities resultin quick communication which is an essential factor for every business. Business location should be selected after thinking availability raw materials, skilled labor force and high security. 5.OwnersEquity Owner’s equity is that portion of capital where liabilities are not included. Only self owned and other business offered facilities are included here