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Internal Assignment No :- 1
Paper Title :- Human Resurece Management
MBA :-- 204
1. I) Differentiate between HRM & HRD?
1. HRD is a sub section of HRM, i.e. HRD is a section with the department of
HRM.
2. HRM deals with all aspects of the human resources function while HRD
only deals with the development part.
3. HRM is concerned with recruitment, rewards among others while HRD is
concerned with employee skills development.
4. HRM functions are mostly formal while HRD functions can be informal like
mentorships.
ii) Define Job Specification ?
Job Specification is a statement of the essential components of a job class including a
summary of the work to be performed, primary duties and responsibilities, and the
minimum qualifications and requirements necessary to perform the essential functions
of the job. USM maintains Job Specifications for nonexempt positions. Because these
specifications are system-wide, they cannot be changed, deleted, or amended without
the approval of the Chancellor. USM Job Class Specifications may be System-wide or
Institution Specific. System-wide applies to those job classes that are commonly used
on more than one institution. Institution specific applies to those job classes that are
unique to a particular institution.
iii) State the cause of Grievance in an organization?
Ans :- Causes of Grievance
Grievances generally arise from the day-do-day working relations in the undertaking,
usually a employee or trade union protest against an act or omission or management
that is considered to violate worker’s rights. There are certainly some of the causes
that can lead to grievance. Some of them are listed below:-
Morality: there are some rights which must be provided by the company. Which
shows morality for the company:
 It gives an opportunity to the workers to express their feelings.
 The management comes to know that what the workers think.
 It highlights the morale of the people.
 There may be some complaints, which cannot be solved at supervisory level.
 They must have been resolved by a systematic grievance handling procedure.
 It improves the policies and practices of the company.
Working environment: an fulfill environment means so many thing for each staff,
they always wants a perfect and wonderful work place for them and to create a
manageable work place, company has to be persuade, and some effective steps are:
 Poor working conditions
 Faulty machines and equipments
 Attitude of supervisor
 Behavior of top management
 Favoritism and nepotism
 Strained relations
 Excessive discipline
 Defective promotion
 Lay off and retrenchment
 Inadequate health and safety devices
Economic manners: it’s an effective motivator for the staffs almost all staffs get
motivated for good amount of wages and other relative facilities and some factors are
given below:
 Wage fixation and revision
 Payment of overtime
 Inadequate bonus
 Demand for welfare and equipments
 Incentive
 Allowances
 Increments

iv) What is human resource inventory ?
Ans :- Human Resource Inventory consists of information about the characteristics of
organization members. This focuses on the past performance and future potential and
the objective is to keep management up to date about the possibilities for filling a
position from within.
This inventory should indicate which individuals in the organization would be
appropriate for filling a position if it becomes available.
Walter S. Wikstrom proposed that organizations keep 3 types of records that can be
combined to maintain a useful human resources inventory.
1) Management Inventory Card.
2) Position Replacement Form.
3) Management Manpower Replacement Chart.
v) List the benefits of training to an organization?
Ans :-- Benefits of Training
 As the business world is continuously changing, organisations will need to
provide their employees with training throughout their careers. If they choose not
to provide continuous training they will find it difficult to stay ahead of the
competition.
 The other benefit of training is that it will keep your employees motivated. New
skills and knowledge can help to reduce boredom. It also demonstrates to the
employee that they are valuable enough for the employer to invest in them and
their development.
 Training can be used to create positive attitudes through clarifying the behaviours
and attitudes that are expected from the employee.
 Training can be cost effective, as it is cheaper to train existing employees
compared to recruiting new employee with the skills you need.
 Training can save the organisation money if the training helps the employee to
become more efficient
Q. 3) Discuss the various sources of recruitment of employees with the merit and
demerit of each?
The sources of recruitment are broadly divided into internal sources and external
sources consisting of the following:
Internal sources of Recruitment:
1. Present Permanent Employees : Organizations consider the candidates from this
source for higher level of jobs due to availability of most suitable candidates for jobs
relatively or equally to external sources, to meet the trade union demands and due to
the policy of the organization to motivate the present employees.
2. Present temporary/casual Employees:Organizations find this source to fill the
vacancies relatively at the lower level owing to the availability of suitable candidates or
trade union pressures or in order to motivate them on present job.
3. Retrenched or Retired Employees: Employees retrenched due to lack of work are
given employment by the organization due to obligation, trade union pressure etc.
Sometimes they are re-employed by the organization as a token of their loyalty to the
organization or to postpone some interpersonal conflicts for promotion.
4. Dependents of Deceased, Disabled, retired and present employees: Some
organizations function with a view to developing the commitment and loyalty of not only
the employee but also his family members.
5. Employee Referrals: Present employees are well aware of the qualifications,
attitudes, experience and emotions of their friends and relatives. They are also aware of
the job requirements and organizational culture of their company. As such they can
make preliminary judgment regarding the match between the job and their friends and
relatives.
External Sources of Recruitment
6 Campus Recruitment: These candidates are directly recruited by the Co; from their
college/educational institution. They are inexperienced as far as work experience is
concerned.
1 Private Employment Agencies/Consultants: Public employment agencies or
consultants like ABC Consultants inIndia perform recruitment functions on behalf of a
client company by charging fees. Line managers are relieved from recruitment functions
and can concentrate on operational activities.
2 Public Employment Exchanges: The Government set up Public Employment
Exchanges in the country to provide information about vacancies to the candidates and
to help the organization in finding out suitable candidates. As per the Employment
Exchange act 1959, makes it obligatory for public sector and private sector enterprises
inIndia to fill certain types of vacancies through public employment exchanges.
3 Professional Organizations: Professional organizations or associations maintain
complete bio-data of their members and provide the same to various organizations on
requisition. They act as an exchange between their members and recruiting firm.
4 Data Banks: The management can collect the bio-data of the candidates from
different sources like Employment Exchange, Educational Training Institutes,
candidates etc and feed them in the computer. It will become another source and the co
can get the particulars as and when required.
5 Casual Applicants: Depending on the image of the organization its prompt response
participation of the organization in the local activities, level of unemployment,
candidates apply casually for jobs through mail or handover the application in the
Personnel dept. This would be a suitable source for temporary and lower level jobs.
6 Similar Organizations: Generally experienced candidates are available in
organizations producing similar products or are engaged in similar business. The
Management can get potential candidates from this source.
7 Trade Unions: Generally unemployed or underemployed persons or employees
seeking change in employment put a word to the trade union leaders with a view to
getting suitable employment due to latter rapport with the management.
8 Walk In: The busy organization and rapid changing companies do not find time to
perform various functions of recruitment. Therefore they advise the potential candidates
to attend for an interview directly and without a prior application on a specified date,
time and at a specified place.
9 Consult In: the busy and dynamic companies encourage the potential job seekers
to approach them personally and consult them regarding the jobs. The companies
select the suitable candidates and advise the company regarding the filling up of the
positions. Head hunters are also called search consultants.
Body Shopping: Professional organizations and the hi-tech training develop the pool of
human resource for the possible employment. The prospective employers contact these
organizations to recruit the candidates. Otherwise the organizations themselves
approach the prospective employers to place their human resources. These
professional and training institutions are called body shoppers and these activities are
known as body shopping. The body shopping is used mostly for computer
professionals. Body shopping is also known as employee leasing activity.
11 Mergers and Acquisitions: Business alliances like acquisitions, mergers and take
over help in getting human resources. In addition the companies do also alliances in
sharing their human resource on adhoc basis.
12 E-recruitment: The technological revolution in telecommunications helped the
organizations to use internet as a source of recruitment. Organizations advertise the job
vacancies through the world wide wed (www). The job seekers send their applications
through e-mail using the internet.
13 Outsourcing: Some organizations recently started developing human resource pool
by employing the candidates for them. These organizations do not utilize the human
resources; instead they supply HRs to various companies based on their needs on
temporary or ad-hoc basis.
Q. 4) Define manpower planning? Discuss the various steps involved in the
manpower planning processes?
Ans :-
Manpower planning means planning means deciding the number and type of the human
resources required for each job, unit and the total company for a particular future date in
order to carry out organizational activities. Manpower planning may be viewed as
foreseeing the human resources requirement of an organization and the future supply of
human resources and (i) making necessary adjustments between these two and
organizational plans and (ii) foreseeing the possibility of developing the supply of
manpower resources in order to match it with the requirements by introducing
necessary changes in the functions of human resources management.
The process of manpower planning in an organization.
Analyzing the corporate and unit level strategies.
emand Forecasting: Forecasting the overall human resources requirements in
accordance with the organisational plans.
o Supply Forecasting: Obtaining the data and information about the present
inventory of manpower and forecast the future changes in the human
resources inventory.
o Estimating the net manpower requirement.
o In case of future surplus than plan for redeployment.
o In case of future deficit, forecast the future supply of manpower from all
sources with reference to plans of other companies.
o Plan for recruitment, development and internal mobility if future supply is
more than or equal to net manpower requirements.
o Plan to modify and adjust the organizational plan if future supply will be
inadequate with reference to future net requirements.
Deciding objectives of manpower Planning -The ultimate objective of manpower
planning is one of matching or fitting employee abilities to enterprise requirements with
an emphasis on future instead of present arrangements.
Estimating future manpower requirements — The management must estimate the
structure of the organisation at a given point in time. For this estimate, the number and
types of employees needed have to be determined.
Auditing Human Resources — Once the future human resources needs are estimated
the next step is to determine the present supply of manpower resources through "skills
inventory".
(E) Developing a Human Resource Plan — The last step is to develop and to implement
the human resource plan which consists in finding out the sources of labour supply with
a view to making an effective use of these sources.
Internal Assignment No :- 2
Paper Title :- Human Resurece Management
MBA :-- 204
1.
i.) Difference between training and development ?
Ans :-
BASIS FOR
COMPARISON
TRAINING DEVELOPMENT
Meaning Training is a learning process in
which employees get an
opportunity to develop skill,
competency and knowledge as
per the job requirement.
Development is an educational
process in which the personnel of
the organization get the chance
to learn the in depth application
of theoretical knowledge for their
overall growth.
Term Short Term Long Term
Focus on Present Future
Concentrated
towards
Job Career
Instructor Trainer Self
Objective To improve the work
performances of the employees.
To prepare employees for future
challenges.
Number of
Individuals
Many Only one
Aim Specific job related Conceptual and general
knowledge
ii) Define induction ?
Ans :- First step towards gaining an employees' commitment, it is aimed at introducing
the job and organization to the recruit and him or her to the organization. It
involves orientation and training of the employee in the organizational culture, and
showing how he or she is interconnected to (and interdependent on) everyone else in
the organization
Training provided to new employees by the employer in order to assist in adjustment to
their new job tasks and to help them become familiar with their new work
environment and the people working around them. This type of training will
also outline the basic overview of the business and its services as well as the
new employee's role in the environment.
iii) State the cause of industrial accident ?
An accident (industrial) is a sudden and unexpected occurrence in the industry which
interrupts the orderly progress of the work. According to the Factories Act, 1948: “It is
an occurrence in an industrial establishment causing bodily injury to a person who
makes him unfit to resume his duties in the next 48 hours”.
In other words, accident is an unexpected event in the course of employment which is
neither anticipated nor designed to occur. Thus, an accident is an unplanned and
uncontrolled event in which an action or reaction of an object, a substance, a person, or
a radiation results in personal injury. It is important to note that self-inflicted injuries
cannot be regarded as accidents.
An industrial injury is defined as “a personal injury to an employee which has been
caused by an accident or an occupational disease and which arises out of or in the
course of employment and which could entitle such employee to compensation under
Workers’ Compensation Act, 1923
iv) define 360 appraisal with an example ?
A 360 degree appraisal is a type of employee performance review in which
subordinates, co-workers, and managers all anonymously rate the employee. This
information is then incorporated into that person's performance review.
In a 360 degree appraisal, a staff member's work for a specific period of time, often a
year, is discussed and critiqued by other employees. The 360 degree process is
different in that it obtains feedback from co-workers and subordinates instead of just
from the direct supervisor.
The goal of the process is to better understand how the employee is functioning as part
of the team and to improve the ways team members work together.
v) What is red hot stove rule?
HOT-STOVE RULE
Disciplinary action against an employee is painful and generates resentment. Hot-stove
rule is all about how to impose discipline to employees without generating resentment.
Hot stove rule draws an analogy between touching a hot stove and undergoing
discipline.
According to the Red Hot Stove rule, disciplinary action should have the following
consequences:
(a) Burns immediately: If disciplinary action is to be taken, it must occur immediately so
the individual will understand the reason for it. With the passage of time, people have
the tendency to convince themselves that they are not at fault. As with the hot stove
when we touch it, our hand burns immediately.
(b) Provides warning: It is very important to provide advance warning that punishment
will follow unacceptable behavior. As you move closer to hot stove, you are warned by
its heat that you will be burned if you touch it.
(c) Gives consistent punishment: Disciplinary action should also be consistent in that
everyone who performs the same act will be punished accordingly. As with a hot stove,
each person who touches it is burned the same.
(d) Burns impersonally: Disciplinary action should be impersonal. There are no favorites
when this approach is followed. As with hot stove when we touch it, it burns .
Q.2) Explain the various methods of training employees with the merits and
demerits of each?
Ans. The different methods of training evaluation can be classified in following four
categories on the basis of what is being evaluated.
a. Evaluation of the training program content and delivery quality.
b. Evaluation of the extent of learning and acquisition of skills.
c. Evaluation of the extent of desirable change in behavior of the persons
trained.
d. Evaluation of the impact of training on organizational performance.
Evaluation of training program and content is the most simple method. However it is
also the least significant in terms of measuring effectiveness of training. This aspect of
training can be measured in terms of both quantity and quality of training programs.
Quantity of training involves measurement in terms of quantitative measurements such
as number of people trained and number training programs conducted and number of
participant-training days. The quality measurement generally consist of handing over a
questionnaire to the participants of training programs at the end of each program and
obtaining their assessment of various aspects to training program quality. This methods
suffers from the defect that participants are really no in a position to judge quality of
training program in subjects they do not know fully. Also, it has been observed that
generally participants are in good mood when the training programs are drawing to
close and tend to rate them higher.
Evaluation of learning and skill development can be measured conveniently if the
training program involves some kind of qualifying test or examination at the end.
However cost and efforts of conducting exams just for the purpose of evaluation of the
program is not justified. Other method involves asking the participants on extent of their
learning. This can be done as a part of response to questionnaire at the end of
programs. But usually the participants are not in a position to assess this at that time. It
is best to survey the participants after some time has elapsed. This method gives some
additional useful information on the value of training, but more time and efforts is
required to collect such data.
Evaluation of changes is a much more meaningful. however it is most difficult. It poses
the problem of ways of ascertaining the extent of change in behavior. In addition, it is
not always easy to establish the extent to which change in behavior is consequence of
training. This kind of evaluation is best achieved by survey of employee work practices
and behavior. Frequently it is worthwhile to undertake this survey before and after
training.
Evaluation of training effectiveness in terms of change in improvement of company is
most meaningful. Such improvement can frequently be measured as a part of normal
performance monitoring of company performance. However, it is very difficult to link the
improvement performance to the training.
Q. 3) Explain the methods of performance appraisal? What are the weakness of
performance appraisal methods?
It is a systematic evaluation of an individual with respect to performance on the job and
individual’s potential for development.”
Definition 2: Formal System, Reasons and Measures of future performance
“It is formal, structured system of measuring, evaluating job related behaviors and
outcomes to discover reasons of performance and how to perform effectively in future
so that employee, organization and society all benefits.”
Meaning of Performance Appraisals
Performance Appraisals is the assessment of individual’s performance in a systematic
way. It is a developmental tool used for all round development of the employee and the
organization. The performance is measured against such factors as job knowledge,
quality and quantity of output, initiative, leadership abilities, supervision, dependability,
co-operation, judgment, versatility and health. Assessment should be confined to past
as well as potential performance also. The second definition is more focused on
behaviors as a part of assessment because behaviors do affect job results.
The weakness of Performance Appraisal Method as under :-
On the downside, appraisals have been criticized on a lot of grounds. One of the
arguments against them, is that they get affected by office politics. The superior or the
manager may not assess his subordinates fairly. Instead of basing his evaluation on the
employee's actual behavior, the manager might give his feedback on the basis of his
personal liking and disliking.
Performance appraisals are unable to fulfill the aim they are conducted for in the first
place. Since, in an appraisal, an employee is being evaluated and judged, and his pay
rise and promotion is dependent on it, there is no way he will bring out the problem
areas in his work when doing a self-assessment.
In some cases, a superior too might find it uncomfortable to judge his subordinates,
since they are working together on a daily basis in the organization. Sometimes, it can
cause souring of relationships in the office, leading to an unproductive work
environment.
Many management experts who are against employee performance appraisals argue
that, appraisals and incentives should be kept separate. Appraisals should be only
about the training needs, performance, and career development of an employee, and
there should be separate salary reviews done periodically to decide the incentives for
the employees. However, research in this field has shown that, if the reward review is a
separate process from the appraisal system, it may create dissatisfaction among the
employees. Thus, looking at the strengths and weaknesses of annual performance
evaluations, and research findings, it can be concluded that, though there are
advantages and disadvantages of conducting an appraisal, it is a necessary employee
motivation tool, without which, organizations cannot function properly.

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INTERNAL Assign no 4 ( JAIPUR INTERNAL UNI)

  • 1. Internal Assignment No :- 1 Paper Title :- Human Resurece Management MBA :-- 204 1. I) Differentiate between HRM & HRD? 1. HRD is a sub section of HRM, i.e. HRD is a section with the department of HRM. 2. HRM deals with all aspects of the human resources function while HRD only deals with the development part. 3. HRM is concerned with recruitment, rewards among others while HRD is concerned with employee skills development. 4. HRM functions are mostly formal while HRD functions can be informal like mentorships. ii) Define Job Specification ? Job Specification is a statement of the essential components of a job class including a summary of the work to be performed, primary duties and responsibilities, and the minimum qualifications and requirements necessary to perform the essential functions of the job. USM maintains Job Specifications for nonexempt positions. Because these specifications are system-wide, they cannot be changed, deleted, or amended without the approval of the Chancellor. USM Job Class Specifications may be System-wide or Institution Specific. System-wide applies to those job classes that are commonly used
  • 2. on more than one institution. Institution specific applies to those job classes that are unique to a particular institution. iii) State the cause of Grievance in an organization? Ans :- Causes of Grievance Grievances generally arise from the day-do-day working relations in the undertaking, usually a employee or trade union protest against an act or omission or management that is considered to violate worker’s rights. There are certainly some of the causes that can lead to grievance. Some of them are listed below:- Morality: there are some rights which must be provided by the company. Which shows morality for the company:  It gives an opportunity to the workers to express their feelings.  The management comes to know that what the workers think.  It highlights the morale of the people.  There may be some complaints, which cannot be solved at supervisory level.  They must have been resolved by a systematic grievance handling procedure.  It improves the policies and practices of the company. Working environment: an fulfill environment means so many thing for each staff, they always wants a perfect and wonderful work place for them and to create a manageable work place, company has to be persuade, and some effective steps are:  Poor working conditions  Faulty machines and equipments  Attitude of supervisor  Behavior of top management  Favoritism and nepotism  Strained relations  Excessive discipline  Defective promotion  Lay off and retrenchment  Inadequate health and safety devices
  • 3. Economic manners: it’s an effective motivator for the staffs almost all staffs get motivated for good amount of wages and other relative facilities and some factors are given below:  Wage fixation and revision  Payment of overtime  Inadequate bonus  Demand for welfare and equipments  Incentive  Allowances  Increments  iv) What is human resource inventory ? Ans :- Human Resource Inventory consists of information about the characteristics of organization members. This focuses on the past performance and future potential and the objective is to keep management up to date about the possibilities for filling a position from within. This inventory should indicate which individuals in the organization would be appropriate for filling a position if it becomes available. Walter S. Wikstrom proposed that organizations keep 3 types of records that can be combined to maintain a useful human resources inventory. 1) Management Inventory Card. 2) Position Replacement Form. 3) Management Manpower Replacement Chart. v) List the benefits of training to an organization? Ans :-- Benefits of Training  As the business world is continuously changing, organisations will need to provide their employees with training throughout their careers. If they choose not to provide continuous training they will find it difficult to stay ahead of the competition.  The other benefit of training is that it will keep your employees motivated. New skills and knowledge can help to reduce boredom. It also demonstrates to the
  • 4. employee that they are valuable enough for the employer to invest in them and their development.  Training can be used to create positive attitudes through clarifying the behaviours and attitudes that are expected from the employee.  Training can be cost effective, as it is cheaper to train existing employees compared to recruiting new employee with the skills you need.  Training can save the organisation money if the training helps the employee to become more efficient Q. 3) Discuss the various sources of recruitment of employees with the merit and demerit of each? The sources of recruitment are broadly divided into internal sources and external sources consisting of the following: Internal sources of Recruitment: 1. Present Permanent Employees : Organizations consider the candidates from this source for higher level of jobs due to availability of most suitable candidates for jobs relatively or equally to external sources, to meet the trade union demands and due to the policy of the organization to motivate the present employees. 2. Present temporary/casual Employees:Organizations find this source to fill the vacancies relatively at the lower level owing to the availability of suitable candidates or trade union pressures or in order to motivate them on present job. 3. Retrenched or Retired Employees: Employees retrenched due to lack of work are given employment by the organization due to obligation, trade union pressure etc. Sometimes they are re-employed by the organization as a token of their loyalty to the organization or to postpone some interpersonal conflicts for promotion. 4. Dependents of Deceased, Disabled, retired and present employees: Some organizations function with a view to developing the commitment and loyalty of not only the employee but also his family members.
  • 5. 5. Employee Referrals: Present employees are well aware of the qualifications, attitudes, experience and emotions of their friends and relatives. They are also aware of the job requirements and organizational culture of their company. As such they can make preliminary judgment regarding the match between the job and their friends and relatives. External Sources of Recruitment 6 Campus Recruitment: These candidates are directly recruited by the Co; from their college/educational institution. They are inexperienced as far as work experience is concerned. 1 Private Employment Agencies/Consultants: Public employment agencies or consultants like ABC Consultants inIndia perform recruitment functions on behalf of a client company by charging fees. Line managers are relieved from recruitment functions and can concentrate on operational activities. 2 Public Employment Exchanges: The Government set up Public Employment Exchanges in the country to provide information about vacancies to the candidates and to help the organization in finding out suitable candidates. As per the Employment Exchange act 1959, makes it obligatory for public sector and private sector enterprises inIndia to fill certain types of vacancies through public employment exchanges. 3 Professional Organizations: Professional organizations or associations maintain complete bio-data of their members and provide the same to various organizations on requisition. They act as an exchange between their members and recruiting firm. 4 Data Banks: The management can collect the bio-data of the candidates from different sources like Employment Exchange, Educational Training Institutes, candidates etc and feed them in the computer. It will become another source and the co can get the particulars as and when required.
  • 6. 5 Casual Applicants: Depending on the image of the organization its prompt response participation of the organization in the local activities, level of unemployment, candidates apply casually for jobs through mail or handover the application in the Personnel dept. This would be a suitable source for temporary and lower level jobs. 6 Similar Organizations: Generally experienced candidates are available in organizations producing similar products or are engaged in similar business. The Management can get potential candidates from this source. 7 Trade Unions: Generally unemployed or underemployed persons or employees seeking change in employment put a word to the trade union leaders with a view to getting suitable employment due to latter rapport with the management. 8 Walk In: The busy organization and rapid changing companies do not find time to perform various functions of recruitment. Therefore they advise the potential candidates to attend for an interview directly and without a prior application on a specified date, time and at a specified place. 9 Consult In: the busy and dynamic companies encourage the potential job seekers to approach them personally and consult them regarding the jobs. The companies select the suitable candidates and advise the company regarding the filling up of the positions. Head hunters are also called search consultants. Body Shopping: Professional organizations and the hi-tech training develop the pool of human resource for the possible employment. The prospective employers contact these organizations to recruit the candidates. Otherwise the organizations themselves approach the prospective employers to place their human resources. These professional and training institutions are called body shoppers and these activities are known as body shopping. The body shopping is used mostly for computer professionals. Body shopping is also known as employee leasing activity. 11 Mergers and Acquisitions: Business alliances like acquisitions, mergers and take over help in getting human resources. In addition the companies do also alliances in sharing their human resource on adhoc basis.
  • 7. 12 E-recruitment: The technological revolution in telecommunications helped the organizations to use internet as a source of recruitment. Organizations advertise the job vacancies through the world wide wed (www). The job seekers send their applications through e-mail using the internet. 13 Outsourcing: Some organizations recently started developing human resource pool by employing the candidates for them. These organizations do not utilize the human resources; instead they supply HRs to various companies based on their needs on temporary or ad-hoc basis. Q. 4) Define manpower planning? Discuss the various steps involved in the manpower planning processes? Ans :- Manpower planning means planning means deciding the number and type of the human resources required for each job, unit and the total company for a particular future date in order to carry out organizational activities. Manpower planning may be viewed as foreseeing the human resources requirement of an organization and the future supply of human resources and (i) making necessary adjustments between these two and organizational plans and (ii) foreseeing the possibility of developing the supply of manpower resources in order to match it with the requirements by introducing necessary changes in the functions of human resources management. The process of manpower planning in an organization. Analyzing the corporate and unit level strategies. emand Forecasting: Forecasting the overall human resources requirements in accordance with the organisational plans. o Supply Forecasting: Obtaining the data and information about the present inventory of manpower and forecast the future changes in the human resources inventory. o Estimating the net manpower requirement. o In case of future surplus than plan for redeployment. o In case of future deficit, forecast the future supply of manpower from all sources with reference to plans of other companies. o Plan for recruitment, development and internal mobility if future supply is more than or equal to net manpower requirements.
  • 8. o Plan to modify and adjust the organizational plan if future supply will be inadequate with reference to future net requirements. Deciding objectives of manpower Planning -The ultimate objective of manpower planning is one of matching or fitting employee abilities to enterprise requirements with an emphasis on future instead of present arrangements. Estimating future manpower requirements — The management must estimate the structure of the organisation at a given point in time. For this estimate, the number and types of employees needed have to be determined. Auditing Human Resources — Once the future human resources needs are estimated the next step is to determine the present supply of manpower resources through "skills inventory". (E) Developing a Human Resource Plan — The last step is to develop and to implement the human resource plan which consists in finding out the sources of labour supply with a view to making an effective use of these sources.
  • 9. Internal Assignment No :- 2 Paper Title :- Human Resurece Management MBA :-- 204 1. i.) Difference between training and development ? Ans :- BASIS FOR COMPARISON TRAINING DEVELOPMENT Meaning Training is a learning process in which employees get an opportunity to develop skill, competency and knowledge as per the job requirement. Development is an educational process in which the personnel of the organization get the chance to learn the in depth application of theoretical knowledge for their overall growth. Term Short Term Long Term Focus on Present Future Concentrated towards Job Career Instructor Trainer Self
  • 10. Objective To improve the work performances of the employees. To prepare employees for future challenges. Number of Individuals Many Only one Aim Specific job related Conceptual and general knowledge ii) Define induction ? Ans :- First step towards gaining an employees' commitment, it is aimed at introducing the job and organization to the recruit and him or her to the organization. It involves orientation and training of the employee in the organizational culture, and showing how he or she is interconnected to (and interdependent on) everyone else in the organization Training provided to new employees by the employer in order to assist in adjustment to their new job tasks and to help them become familiar with their new work environment and the people working around them. This type of training will also outline the basic overview of the business and its services as well as the new employee's role in the environment. iii) State the cause of industrial accident ? An accident (industrial) is a sudden and unexpected occurrence in the industry which interrupts the orderly progress of the work. According to the Factories Act, 1948: “It is
  • 11. an occurrence in an industrial establishment causing bodily injury to a person who makes him unfit to resume his duties in the next 48 hours”. In other words, accident is an unexpected event in the course of employment which is neither anticipated nor designed to occur. Thus, an accident is an unplanned and uncontrolled event in which an action or reaction of an object, a substance, a person, or a radiation results in personal injury. It is important to note that self-inflicted injuries cannot be regarded as accidents. An industrial injury is defined as “a personal injury to an employee which has been caused by an accident or an occupational disease and which arises out of or in the course of employment and which could entitle such employee to compensation under Workers’ Compensation Act, 1923 iv) define 360 appraisal with an example ? A 360 degree appraisal is a type of employee performance review in which subordinates, co-workers, and managers all anonymously rate the employee. This information is then incorporated into that person's performance review. In a 360 degree appraisal, a staff member's work for a specific period of time, often a year, is discussed and critiqued by other employees. The 360 degree process is different in that it obtains feedback from co-workers and subordinates instead of just from the direct supervisor. The goal of the process is to better understand how the employee is functioning as part of the team and to improve the ways team members work together. v) What is red hot stove rule? HOT-STOVE RULE Disciplinary action against an employee is painful and generates resentment. Hot-stove rule is all about how to impose discipline to employees without generating resentment. Hot stove rule draws an analogy between touching a hot stove and undergoing discipline. According to the Red Hot Stove rule, disciplinary action should have the following consequences:
  • 12. (a) Burns immediately: If disciplinary action is to be taken, it must occur immediately so the individual will understand the reason for it. With the passage of time, people have the tendency to convince themselves that they are not at fault. As with the hot stove when we touch it, our hand burns immediately. (b) Provides warning: It is very important to provide advance warning that punishment will follow unacceptable behavior. As you move closer to hot stove, you are warned by its heat that you will be burned if you touch it. (c) Gives consistent punishment: Disciplinary action should also be consistent in that everyone who performs the same act will be punished accordingly. As with a hot stove, each person who touches it is burned the same. (d) Burns impersonally: Disciplinary action should be impersonal. There are no favorites when this approach is followed. As with hot stove when we touch it, it burns . Q.2) Explain the various methods of training employees with the merits and demerits of each? Ans. The different methods of training evaluation can be classified in following four categories on the basis of what is being evaluated. a. Evaluation of the training program content and delivery quality. b. Evaluation of the extent of learning and acquisition of skills. c. Evaluation of the extent of desirable change in behavior of the persons trained. d. Evaluation of the impact of training on organizational performance. Evaluation of training program and content is the most simple method. However it is also the least significant in terms of measuring effectiveness of training. This aspect of training can be measured in terms of both quantity and quality of training programs. Quantity of training involves measurement in terms of quantitative measurements such as number of people trained and number training programs conducted and number of participant-training days. The quality measurement generally consist of handing over a questionnaire to the participants of training programs at the end of each program and obtaining their assessment of various aspects to training program quality. This methods
  • 13. suffers from the defect that participants are really no in a position to judge quality of training program in subjects they do not know fully. Also, it has been observed that generally participants are in good mood when the training programs are drawing to close and tend to rate them higher. Evaluation of learning and skill development can be measured conveniently if the training program involves some kind of qualifying test or examination at the end. However cost and efforts of conducting exams just for the purpose of evaluation of the program is not justified. Other method involves asking the participants on extent of their learning. This can be done as a part of response to questionnaire at the end of programs. But usually the participants are not in a position to assess this at that time. It is best to survey the participants after some time has elapsed. This method gives some additional useful information on the value of training, but more time and efforts is required to collect such data. Evaluation of changes is a much more meaningful. however it is most difficult. It poses the problem of ways of ascertaining the extent of change in behavior. In addition, it is not always easy to establish the extent to which change in behavior is consequence of training. This kind of evaluation is best achieved by survey of employee work practices and behavior. Frequently it is worthwhile to undertake this survey before and after training. Evaluation of training effectiveness in terms of change in improvement of company is most meaningful. Such improvement can frequently be measured as a part of normal performance monitoring of company performance. However, it is very difficult to link the improvement performance to the training. Q. 3) Explain the methods of performance appraisal? What are the weakness of performance appraisal methods? It is a systematic evaluation of an individual with respect to performance on the job and individual’s potential for development.” Definition 2: Formal System, Reasons and Measures of future performance
  • 14. “It is formal, structured system of measuring, evaluating job related behaviors and outcomes to discover reasons of performance and how to perform effectively in future so that employee, organization and society all benefits.” Meaning of Performance Appraisals Performance Appraisals is the assessment of individual’s performance in a systematic way. It is a developmental tool used for all round development of the employee and the organization. The performance is measured against such factors as job knowledge, quality and quantity of output, initiative, leadership abilities, supervision, dependability, co-operation, judgment, versatility and health. Assessment should be confined to past as well as potential performance also. The second definition is more focused on behaviors as a part of assessment because behaviors do affect job results. The weakness of Performance Appraisal Method as under :- On the downside, appraisals have been criticized on a lot of grounds. One of the arguments against them, is that they get affected by office politics. The superior or the manager may not assess his subordinates fairly. Instead of basing his evaluation on the employee's actual behavior, the manager might give his feedback on the basis of his personal liking and disliking. Performance appraisals are unable to fulfill the aim they are conducted for in the first place. Since, in an appraisal, an employee is being evaluated and judged, and his pay rise and promotion is dependent on it, there is no way he will bring out the problem areas in his work when doing a self-assessment. In some cases, a superior too might find it uncomfortable to judge his subordinates, since they are working together on a daily basis in the organization. Sometimes, it can cause souring of relationships in the office, leading to an unproductive work environment. Many management experts who are against employee performance appraisals argue that, appraisals and incentives should be kept separate. Appraisals should be only about the training needs, performance, and career development of an employee, and there should be separate salary reviews done periodically to decide the incentives for the employees. However, research in this field has shown that, if the reward review is a separate process from the appraisal system, it may create dissatisfaction among the employees. Thus, looking at the strengths and weaknesses of annual performance evaluations, and research findings, it can be concluded that, though there are advantages and disadvantages of conducting an appraisal, it is a necessary employee motivation tool, without which, organizations cannot function properly.