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Intelligent Content Management


Copyright © Joe Gollner 2010
Topics

   The Demise of
   Enterprise Content Management

   The Rise of
   Intelligent Content Management

   The Challenge of
   Managing Intelligent Content
     The Good, the Bad and the Ugly
The Demise of
Enterprise Content Management
Enterprise Content Management Elements
ECM: A Complex Landscape of Products
ECM: A Better Representation (& a little older)
Two ECM Markets: Niche and Amalgamated
A Realistic Roadmap of Effective ECM Products
Core Problems with Enterprise Content Management
  Fragmented Application Domain
    Niche products
    that address limited requirements
    Amalgamated offerings
    that combine niche components
  Unwieldy Deployments
    Extensive integration & customization
    needed to support enterprise processes
    Expensive, time-consuming, high user
    impact, high infrastructure impact,
    costly maintenance lifecycle
    Benefits difficult to quantify for investment
    justification & even harder to realize
  Not really about Enterprises or Content or Business Value
Enterprise Content Management
The Rise of
Intelligent Content Management
Intelligent Content Defined
   A Definition
   Intelligence refers to the ability to acquire and apply knowledge, or to a
   collection of information of value in a particular context (OED).
   Content can be considered intelligent when it expresses,
   in an open way, the full meaning underlying a communication
   such that the data, information and knowledge being expressed
   can be directly accessed and effectively leveraged by both people
   and the software applications that support them.

   The Significance
   Intelligent Content is a persistent expression of meaning that has been
   encoded using an open standard and that can be efficiently processed
   by automated systems to facilitate its management, validation,
   discovery, and publication given the full range of uses to which that
   content may potentially be put.
Intelligent Content in Practice
    A Practical Definition
    Intelligent Content is designed, created, managed and deployed
    using open standards so that the resulting information products
    are exactly tailored to the needs of the user
    and are efficient to maintain & leverage for the content owner.

    Key Concepts
       Open
       Reusable
       Effective
       Efficient
       Interchangeable
       Up-to-date
                                   Chef Ramsay assembling orders
Of What is Intelligent Content Composed?
   Composition
     Text Components
     Media Assets
                                       Relevant Standards
     Data Sources
                                          XML
     Relationship Links
                                          XPath / XQuery
     Metadata Properties
                                          XMP / RDF / Dublin Core
     Assembly Maps
                                          XML Schema / RELAX NG
     Governing Models
                                          XProc
     Processing Rules
                                          XSL
     Formatting Instructions

   Shared Attributes
     Discoverable, portable, interchangeable, reusable, processable...
     Synchronized with business needs (Just Enough Intelligence)
Tweetable

By itself, adding XML markup does not create
content intelligence. It can, however, create
content idiocy.
Where is Intelligent Content Important?
   Business Environments featuring
      High value information transactions:
         Mission critical
         Valuable to customers
         Managed / Monitored / Measured
         Regulated
         Retained as records
         Contextually dependent
         Multiple formats
         Multiple languages

      Dynamic supporting content processes for
         Complex engineered products
         Complex service offerings
How is Intelligent Content Realized?
The Seven Steps to Intelligent Content
  Strategy – why
  Analysis – what
  Design – how
  Exploration – learn
  Transformation – change
  Validation – confirm
  Deployment – use
Its about Content evolving in Context
Tweetable

Intelligent content co-evolves with the
business applications being enabled. This is not
something that can be faked or pretended away.
Intelligent Content Management
   Managing Intelligent Content
     Lifecycle management of components & their inter-relationships
     Lifecycle management of content processes
         Editorial
         Automated
     Lifecycle management of the design & deployment of balanced
     intelligence within content, components & processes
         Analysis / Modeling / Instantiating / Testing
         Deploying / Exploiting / Evolving
     Lifecycle assurance of content independence & portability
         Content & processes must be able to move between
         management systems & business applications
         Content management must transcend any one CMS if it is
         to be considered content management
Intelligent Content Management
   Content Management that is focused on the content
   Content Management that is adaptive
   – itself an application of intelligent content
     Rules, guidelines, policies, workflows, authorities – are all
     expressions best captured as intelligent content
     Facilitating environment adaptation & evolution that maintains
     optimal balance between intelligence investment & business returns
     Orientation towards monitoring & measurement
     Management regime that transcends the boundaries
     of any one CMS application
     Management regime that addresses not only what can be
     automated but, by facilitating communication, what cannot
     Management regime that remains in place even as the technical
     implementations change, are replaced or even fail altogether
Intelligent Content Management
   It is what ECM must become if it is to have anything to do
   with Enterprises or Content or Business Value

   Investments are focused on
     Establishing the right level of intelligence for the business needs
     Delivering tangible business results
     Evolving the intelligence of the content as the business evolves
     Managing this process of adaptation

   Classical Emphasis in ECM on Control is Subordinated
     Made secondary to the process of evolution & exploitation
     Efficiencies continually sought through enhanced automation
         Rules driven automation facilitates accelerated adaptation
Tweetable

Iterative discovery, design, development &
deployment is key. Requirements are never static.
Technologies are never neutral.
Intelligent Content Management in Action
                                Initial Conditions           Regulatory Process   Operational
                   DITA
                                                                 eLearning        Deployment
                                 Subject Matter Experts                           AJAX Editing
                                 Emergent Requirements          Environment


                                 Diverse Sources


                                 Evolving Technical
                                 Requirements
Case Study:
•   Regulatory agency                eLearning
                                                      Transition Mechanism
                                       types           Evolving Requirements
•   eLearning application                              User Feedback
                                                                                   XML Store
•   Bilingual content                                  Content Transformation
•   Nebulous requirements                              (Sources to DITA)

•   Iterative co-evolution of                          Initial Implementation
                                                       Iterative Evolution
    content & application
•   Leveraged extensibility
                                                                                  Online Access
The Challenges of Managing Intelligent Content
  Managing Intelligent Content
     Easier said than done
     Not commonly attempted
     Less frequently achieved

  A Matter of Infrastructure
     Tools were not mature
     Standards were not mature

  Also a Business Matter
     User expectations were low
     Consumer market was nascent

  All this is Changing
The Bigger Challenge: Taming the Three Amigos



Knowledge                   Knowledge



                            Information




  Information
                               Data


                             Content




Data
Data: The Hard Edge of Experience
   The Meaningful Representation of Experience
     Embodies selection criteria
     Reflects processing constraints

   Data Perspective
     Focused on control & predictability
     Governed by application needs
     Resists variability & change
Information: The Chaotic World of Communication
    The Meaningful Organization of Data
      Communication transactions

    Information & Mis-information
      Not necessarily truthful or honest
      Voluminous & Dynamic
      Sometimes an Asset & sometimes not

    Information Perspective
      Transactional accountability
Knowledge: The Cool Hand of Understanding
   The Meaningful Organization of Information
   expressing an Evolving Understanding
     Aligned with objectives
     Associated with improving effectiveness

   Knowledge Perspective
     Accumulation over time
     Accrual of relationships among expressions
     Continuous verification against experience
Interesting Interactions
    Data & Information
      Data perspective always seeks to bring
      order to the chaos of information


    Information & Knowledge
      Information perspective does not always
      want to be constrained by knowledge
          Continuous verification is expensive


    Knowledge & Data
      Knowledge perspective ultimately provides
      the frameworks within which Data exists
The Intelligent Content Management Project
   Intelligent Content
      Exposes all three perspectives
         Data
         Information
         Knowledge

   Intelligent Content Management
      Must attend to the needs of
      each of the three perspectives

   The ICM Project
      Must bring together people from each of the three domains
      Must reconcile the different perspectives & priorities
The Drama of Intelligent Content Management
 The Three Perspectives
   Do not usually get along
       Personality clashes occur
       Power struggles ensue
 Data Perspective is Strong
   Closely aligned with application
   infrastructure investments
   Resistant to change
   Suspicious of anything new
   Inadequate for content requirements
 But Change is Essential
   Resistance must be overcome
   Someone must accept change
The Ideal Scenario – Perspective Synchronization
    Intelligent Content Management Succeeds When
      The three perspectives are aligned
         All three are accommodated effectively

      Business benefits are made
      the primary focus of specific
      project investments

      The degree of synchronization
      increases over successive
      investment iterations

      Investments in controls are
      introduced once business
      benefits have begun to accrue
References & Further Reading
   Whitepapers
      The Emergence of Intelligent Content (2009)
      The Anatomy of Knowledge (2006)
      XML Business Templates (2000)
         www.gollner.ca/papers.html

   xContent Blog Entries
      www.gollner.ca/xml/

   Stilo International
      www.stilo.com

   Gnostyx Research
      www.gnostyx.com

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Intelligent Content Management

  • 2. Topics The Demise of Enterprise Content Management The Rise of Intelligent Content Management The Challenge of Managing Intelligent Content The Good, the Bad and the Ugly
  • 3. The Demise of Enterprise Content Management
  • 5. ECM: A Complex Landscape of Products
  • 6. ECM: A Better Representation (& a little older)
  • 7. Two ECM Markets: Niche and Amalgamated
  • 8. A Realistic Roadmap of Effective ECM Products
  • 9. Core Problems with Enterprise Content Management Fragmented Application Domain Niche products that address limited requirements Amalgamated offerings that combine niche components Unwieldy Deployments Extensive integration & customization needed to support enterprise processes Expensive, time-consuming, high user impact, high infrastructure impact, costly maintenance lifecycle Benefits difficult to quantify for investment justification & even harder to realize Not really about Enterprises or Content or Business Value
  • 11. The Rise of Intelligent Content Management
  • 12. Intelligent Content Defined A Definition Intelligence refers to the ability to acquire and apply knowledge, or to a collection of information of value in a particular context (OED). Content can be considered intelligent when it expresses, in an open way, the full meaning underlying a communication such that the data, information and knowledge being expressed can be directly accessed and effectively leveraged by both people and the software applications that support them. The Significance Intelligent Content is a persistent expression of meaning that has been encoded using an open standard and that can be efficiently processed by automated systems to facilitate its management, validation, discovery, and publication given the full range of uses to which that content may potentially be put.
  • 13. Intelligent Content in Practice A Practical Definition Intelligent Content is designed, created, managed and deployed using open standards so that the resulting information products are exactly tailored to the needs of the user and are efficient to maintain & leverage for the content owner. Key Concepts Open Reusable Effective Efficient Interchangeable Up-to-date Chef Ramsay assembling orders
  • 14. Of What is Intelligent Content Composed? Composition Text Components Media Assets Relevant Standards Data Sources XML Relationship Links XPath / XQuery Metadata Properties XMP / RDF / Dublin Core Assembly Maps XML Schema / RELAX NG Governing Models XProc Processing Rules XSL Formatting Instructions Shared Attributes Discoverable, portable, interchangeable, reusable, processable... Synchronized with business needs (Just Enough Intelligence)
  • 15. Tweetable By itself, adding XML markup does not create content intelligence. It can, however, create content idiocy.
  • 16. Where is Intelligent Content Important? Business Environments featuring High value information transactions: Mission critical Valuable to customers Managed / Monitored / Measured Regulated Retained as records Contextually dependent Multiple formats Multiple languages Dynamic supporting content processes for Complex engineered products Complex service offerings
  • 17. How is Intelligent Content Realized? The Seven Steps to Intelligent Content Strategy – why Analysis – what Design – how Exploration – learn Transformation – change Validation – confirm Deployment – use Its about Content evolving in Context
  • 18. Tweetable Intelligent content co-evolves with the business applications being enabled. This is not something that can be faked or pretended away.
  • 19. Intelligent Content Management Managing Intelligent Content Lifecycle management of components & their inter-relationships Lifecycle management of content processes Editorial Automated Lifecycle management of the design & deployment of balanced intelligence within content, components & processes Analysis / Modeling / Instantiating / Testing Deploying / Exploiting / Evolving Lifecycle assurance of content independence & portability Content & processes must be able to move between management systems & business applications Content management must transcend any one CMS if it is to be considered content management
  • 20. Intelligent Content Management Content Management that is focused on the content Content Management that is adaptive – itself an application of intelligent content Rules, guidelines, policies, workflows, authorities – are all expressions best captured as intelligent content Facilitating environment adaptation & evolution that maintains optimal balance between intelligence investment & business returns Orientation towards monitoring & measurement Management regime that transcends the boundaries of any one CMS application Management regime that addresses not only what can be automated but, by facilitating communication, what cannot Management regime that remains in place even as the technical implementations change, are replaced or even fail altogether
  • 21. Intelligent Content Management It is what ECM must become if it is to have anything to do with Enterprises or Content or Business Value Investments are focused on Establishing the right level of intelligence for the business needs Delivering tangible business results Evolving the intelligence of the content as the business evolves Managing this process of adaptation Classical Emphasis in ECM on Control is Subordinated Made secondary to the process of evolution & exploitation Efficiencies continually sought through enhanced automation Rules driven automation facilitates accelerated adaptation
  • 22. Tweetable Iterative discovery, design, development & deployment is key. Requirements are never static. Technologies are never neutral.
  • 23. Intelligent Content Management in Action Initial Conditions Regulatory Process Operational DITA eLearning Deployment Subject Matter Experts AJAX Editing Emergent Requirements Environment Diverse Sources Evolving Technical Requirements Case Study: • Regulatory agency eLearning Transition Mechanism types Evolving Requirements • eLearning application User Feedback XML Store • Bilingual content Content Transformation • Nebulous requirements (Sources to DITA) • Iterative co-evolution of Initial Implementation Iterative Evolution content & application • Leveraged extensibility Online Access
  • 24.
  • 25. The Challenges of Managing Intelligent Content Managing Intelligent Content Easier said than done Not commonly attempted Less frequently achieved A Matter of Infrastructure Tools were not mature Standards were not mature Also a Business Matter User expectations were low Consumer market was nascent All this is Changing
  • 26. The Bigger Challenge: Taming the Three Amigos Knowledge Knowledge Information Information Data Content Data
  • 27. Data: The Hard Edge of Experience The Meaningful Representation of Experience Embodies selection criteria Reflects processing constraints Data Perspective Focused on control & predictability Governed by application needs Resists variability & change
  • 28. Information: The Chaotic World of Communication The Meaningful Organization of Data Communication transactions Information & Mis-information Not necessarily truthful or honest Voluminous & Dynamic Sometimes an Asset & sometimes not Information Perspective Transactional accountability
  • 29. Knowledge: The Cool Hand of Understanding The Meaningful Organization of Information expressing an Evolving Understanding Aligned with objectives Associated with improving effectiveness Knowledge Perspective Accumulation over time Accrual of relationships among expressions Continuous verification against experience
  • 30. Interesting Interactions Data & Information Data perspective always seeks to bring order to the chaos of information Information & Knowledge Information perspective does not always want to be constrained by knowledge Continuous verification is expensive Knowledge & Data Knowledge perspective ultimately provides the frameworks within which Data exists
  • 31. The Intelligent Content Management Project Intelligent Content Exposes all three perspectives Data Information Knowledge Intelligent Content Management Must attend to the needs of each of the three perspectives The ICM Project Must bring together people from each of the three domains Must reconcile the different perspectives & priorities
  • 32. The Drama of Intelligent Content Management The Three Perspectives Do not usually get along Personality clashes occur Power struggles ensue Data Perspective is Strong Closely aligned with application infrastructure investments Resistant to change Suspicious of anything new Inadequate for content requirements But Change is Essential Resistance must be overcome Someone must accept change
  • 33. The Ideal Scenario – Perspective Synchronization Intelligent Content Management Succeeds When The three perspectives are aligned All three are accommodated effectively Business benefits are made the primary focus of specific project investments The degree of synchronization increases over successive investment iterations Investments in controls are introduced once business benefits have begun to accrue
  • 34. References & Further Reading Whitepapers The Emergence of Intelligent Content (2009) The Anatomy of Knowledge (2006) XML Business Templates (2000) www.gollner.ca/papers.html xContent Blog Entries www.gollner.ca/xml/ Stilo International www.stilo.com Gnostyx Research www.gnostyx.com