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INSTRUCTIONALSUPERVISION
(IS)
-GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1
1.THEMEANING&CHARACTERISTICSOF IS:
2
ACTIVITIES:
WhatisSupervision?
Whatisthedifferencebetween Supervision&
Inspection?
Discuss…
3
1.1BACKGROUND:
…teaching&learningcanonlytakeplace
effectively &efficientlyifadequatesystemof
supervisionoftheteaching/learningprocessis
firmlyestablished.
…thegoalofsupervisionistobringabout
improvements inthelearningsituation&the
learner. 4
CONT’D.
Primarily….thepurposeofsupervision(IS)is
neithertomakejudgmentsaboutthecompetence
ofteachersnortocontrolthemrathertowork
cooperativelywiththem.
5
CONT’D.
Domains of Supervision
Instructional
Development
Curriculum
Development
Staff
Development
6
1.2DEFINITIONS OF IS:
Veryoften,supervisionisusedinterchangeablywith
inspection.
InspectionbelongstotheBritishtradition,whilesupervision
originatedfrom &much workedintheAmericantradition.
Inspection-focuses onschool administration,&findingout
whatisnotdonerightbytheteachers/otherpersonnel.
Supervision-providesanassistancetoaprofessional
colleague/theteacherintheprocessof teaching(&learning).
7
CONT’D.
ISasaprocessthatfocusesoninstruction, &provides
teachers withinformationabouttheirteachingsoasto
develop instructionalskills &toimprove their
performances.
(Beach&Reinhartz,2000)
ISisamultifaceted &aninterpersonal processthat
deals with__teaching behavior, __curriculum, __learning
environments, __teachers’ professional development, etc.
(Pfeiffer &Dunlap,1982)
8
CONT’D.
ISisreferringtoasetofactivitiesdesigned(aserviceprovidedto
teachers)toimprovetheteaching-learningprocessorinstruction(to
makestudentstheultimatebeneficiaries).
Itisa__professional,__continuous,&__cooperativeexercisethat
coversallaspectsofthelifeofaschool.
ISdoesnotmeana faultfinding,butrather__guidance,__assistance,
&__sharingofideastoallthoseinvolvedintheprocessofteaching&
learning.
Itisabouthelpingtheteacher&thelearner torealizetheirfull
potentialsintheirrespectivecareers. 9
CONT’D.
 TheComprehensive MeaningofIS:
ISdealswithallefforts:
Toprovide leadershiptoteachers intheimprovement ofinstruction.
Involve thestimulationof professional growth &development ofteachers.
Like,theselection &revision of __educationalobjectives, __materialsof
instruction,__methods of teaching,&__strategies forevaluation of
instruction,etc. 10
1.3CHARACTERISTICS OF IS:
 Somekeycharacteristicsarethefollowing:
 ISisaimedattheimprovementofinstruction&professionaldevelopmentof
teachersi.e., GoalOriented!
 ISinvitesallpartiesintheschooltohaveanactive&coordinatedinvolvementsin
supervisionprocessi.e., Collaborative!
 ISisaprocessbywhichsupervisorsneedtoenterintotheprocess bytheirown,&
monitortheirtasks&activitiesaccordinglyi.e.,Self-Directed!
11
CONT’D.
ISanticipates incremental progressoftheteaching&
learningprocess i.e.,Developmental!
IShassomethingtodowith__curriculumdevelopment,
__communication,__leadership, &__helpingtheteacher
&thelearner torealize theirfullcapacities intheir
perspective careers i.e.,Multifaceted!
12
2.THEPRINCIPLES&FUNCTIONSOF
IS:
13
ACTIVITIES:
WhataSupervisorDoes?
WhyInstructionalSupervision (IS)?
Discuss…
14
2.1PRINCIPLESOF IS:
A.GENERALPRINCIPLESOFSUPERVISION:
IScouldbeshort-term, medium-term, &long-term
planning/endeavour(initsnature).
ISisasub-systemoftheschoolorganization.
ISisadynamic &cooperativeenterpriseintheschoolsystem.
Allteachershavetheright&theneedforsupervision. 15
CONT’D.
ISshouldbeconductedregularlytomeettheindividualneedsof
theteachers.
ISshouldhelptoclarifyeducationalobjectives&goalsforthe
principal&theteachers.
ISismainlytheresponsibilityoftheclassteachertoensurethat
his/herclassroomreceivesadequatesupervisionceaselessly.
ISisequallytheresponsibilityoftheprincipaltoensurethat
his/herschoolreceivesadequatesupervisioncontinually.
16
CONT’D.
ISshouldhelptoimprovetheattitudes&relationship ofallschool
personnelinordertofacilitatetherealizationofschoolgoals&
objectives.
ISshouldcontributeforthe successfulimplementationof
curricula/educationalprograms...
ISshouldhelptheschooldevelopgoodrelationswiththe
neighboringcommunities.
IS oughttohelptointerpret/clarifygovernmentpolicies…
17
CONT’D.
IScanbeimproved throughconductingrelevanteducational
researches.___IS shouldhelpteacherssupplythelatest
researchfindings oneducationpertinenttotheirteaching...
ISfromwithin &outsidetheschoolcomplementeachother,&
areboth indispensable/crucial..
Inthissense,theultimategoalofISistoachievean
improvementinthequalityofeducation/learning.
18
B.BASICPRINCIPLESOFSUPERVISION:
 i.ISShouldbeScientific:
 Itshouldemploy procedural,systematic,&objectivemethodsinstudying,improving,
&evaluatinginstructionalperformances.
 Tothisend,supervisorsoughttoengagein datagathering,analysis(interpretation),
&ultimatelydrawingconclusionsinlinewiththeday-to-day(instructional)tasksof
teachers.
 Inthisway,ISservesasareliable/dependablesource(for inspectors)tomake/take
anappropriatedecisions/actions.
19
CONT’D.
 ii.ISShould beDemocratic:
Supervisors oughtto respect individuals’personality &valueindividual
differences, &these inturn leadthemdevelop thebest democratic
culture.
Supervisors shouldalso provide full opportunities forall teachers to
realizetheirownpotentials.
i.e., ‘Ratherthancontrolling&forcefullycompellingindividualstowork,
letthemdotheirassignedtasksinacordial/friendlyapproach’. 20
CONT’D.
 iii.ISShouldbeCreative:
 ISseekstodevelop/cultivatelatenttalents(theexisting,butnotyetwell
developed…).
 ISprovideschancesforthedevelopmentofuniquecontributionsofindividuals.
 iv.ISisAttitudinal:
Supervisors/schoolpersonnel’sconstructiveattitude/outlook
towardslifeingeneral,&theschool(asasocialinstitution)in
particulardeterminesthesuccessofagivensupervisoryscheme.
21
CONT’D.
 v.ISShouldbeCooperative:
 Tomakethesupervisoryactivitieseffective,itismustthatthesupervisorsshouldbe
inaclosecontact/harmonywiththeotherpartiese.g., principals,teachers,students,
etc.
 Suchcooperationisneededin planning,implementation,&evaluationof every
instructionaldeeds.
 vi.ISShouldbeEffective:
 ISisnotatrial&errororahaphazardeffort.Butratheritissupposedtobe
exercisedtobringaboutknown&concreteimpacts(outputs&outcomes)...
22
2.2VARYING ROLES OFASUPERVISOR:
Coordinator - thesupervisor serves asa coordinatorof programs,
groups, materials, &reports.
Itisthe supervisor whoactsasalinkbetween programs&people.
Consultant - thesupervisor serves inaconsultingcapacityasa
specialist incurriculum,instructionalmethodology, &staff development.
Inthiscapacity,he/sherenders service toboth individualteachers&
groups.
23
CONT’D.
 GroupLeader- thesupervisorasgroupleaderworkscontinuouslytoboostthe
potentialofgroupsseekingtoimprovethecurriculum,instruction,orthemselves.
Toperformthisrole,thesupervisormustbeknowledgeableaboutgroupdynamics&
mustdemonstrateleadershipskills.
 Evaluator- asanevaluator,thesupervisorprovidesassistancetoteachersin
evaluatinginstruction&curriculum.
 Additionally,thesupervisorinitiatesteachersto:knowtheirclassroomperformance,
assesstheirownstrengths&weaknesses,&selectmeansofovercomingtheir
deficiencies.
 ResearchPromoter-thesupervisorhelpsteachers:___identifyresearchstudiesthat
mayhaveabearingontheirproblems;___conductplausible/conceivableresearch
projects;___findanswerstocurricular&instructionalpressingproblems,etc.24
2.3FUNCTIONSOFIS:
A.FUNDAMENTALFUNCTIONSOFSUPERVISION:
 i.Goal-Development:
Thisisreferring tothegoalsof schoolorganization developed bythe
collaborationof teachers&supervisors.
Tothisend, thesupervisors, teachers, etc.shouldbeinvolved inaregular
&continuousexamination, evaluation, & modification/changingofthe
goalsofinstitutions/teaching-learning process(after consideringthe
prevailingrealities).
25
CONT’D.
 ii.ProgramDevelopment:
Whentheteachersengageindifferentcurricular&co-
curricularactivities,supervisorsneedtorender/provide
appropriatetechnical&professionalservices&supports...
 iii.Facilitation &Coordination:
Itisthebasicfunctionsof IStofacilitatetheproper
coordination&functionofvariousunits intheschool system,
ultimatelytoensuretheprovisionofqualityeducationtothe
learners. 26
CONT’D.
 iv.Motivation/Problem-Solving:
Thesupervisorysystemputinplaceinschoolsoughttoreadily
facilitatetheresolutionofcurrent&emerging
problems/bottlenecks...
Thiscanbedonethrough providing support&servicesaswell
asreinforcement&motivationsfortheteacherstohelpthem
improvetheirperformanceintheirteachingcareer.
27
CONT’D.
 v.ProfessionalDevelopment:
 Teachersareprofessionals…
 Theyareatoncetrained,buttheneeds, problems,&aspirationsofthesociety…&the
society’sexpectationsfromtheteacherskeepchanging...
 Hence, teachersmustbeexposedtoacontinuous, comprehensive,&systematic
programsofon-jobtrainingtoenablethemcopewiththesechanges.
 Therefore,itisthefunctionof supervisiontoinitiate,support,coordinate,&facilitate
therealizationof theprogramofcontinuousprofessionaldevelopment(CPD) for
teachers&supervisorsthemselves.
28
CONT’D.
 vi.Development ofReliable Knowledge:
Supervisorsthroughtheir daily&continuousobservationof
situations(intheschoolcompound)candevelopaclearpictureof
variousphenomenonintheschool.
Thus,itisthefunctionofsupervisiontoprovidedifferent empirical
knowledgeaboutthecontent,pedagogy,etc.forotherconcerned
partieslikeeducators,pressuregroups,policymakers,&others.
29
CONT’D.
 vii.EvaluationofPerformances:
Thisisreferringtoa periodic&continuousevaluationofthe
performances exhibitedintheteaching-learningprocess.
Thishastobedonetogetinputsbywhichthestaffmembers
wouldbecompetent&motivatedtoperformtheiressential
tasksfruitfully.
30
B.OTHERFUNCTIONSOFSUPERVISION:
Instructionimprovement;
Effective professional development of teachers;
Helpingteachers becomeawareof their teaching&its consequences (for
learners);
Enablingteachers employnew &versatile instructionaltechniques ina
safe &supportive environments;
31
CONT’D.
 Fosteringcurriculumdesign/development;
 Encouragingcordialhumanrelations;
 Enhancingteachers’motivation;
 Monitoringtheteaching-learningprocesstoobtainthebestresultsoutof it;
 Providingamechanismforteacherstoincreasetheirunderstandingoftheteaching-
learningprocessthroughcollectiveinquirywithotherprofessionals…
32
3.THEORIES&
APPROACHES/TECHNIQUES OF/INIS:
33
ACTIVITIES:
Howcan (Instructional)supervisionbetakenplacein
schools/classrooms?
Mentionthetechniques(youknow)thatusedtorunsupervisory
activitiesinschools/classrooms…
Discuss…
34
3.1THEORIES OFIS:
Theories-aregeneralizations/seriesofgeneralizationsbywhichan
attemptismadetoexplainsomephenomenoninsystematic
manner.
Theoriesaregenerallyvitalforsupervisorstoconsidervarious
optionstorunthesupervisorypractices.
Supervisiontheoriesareusefultoconvince&influenceteachers
towardstheneededperformancewherebystudentlearningis
eventuallyensured.
35
CONT’D.
Theoriesofsupervisioncanbroadlybeclassified into
twocategories:
TraditionalSupervisionTheories&
Emerging SupervisionTheories
36
3.1.1THETRADITIONALSUPERVISIONTHEORIES:
Hereundertherearethreewellknowntheories:
TraditionalScientific ManagementSupervision Theory
(TSMST),
HumanRelationsSupervision Theory(HRnST),&
Neo-Scientific ManagementSupervision Theory
(NSMST)
37
A.TRADITIONALSCIENTIFICMANAGEMENT
SUPERVISIONTHEORY(TSMST):
 F.Tyler&hisassociatesconsideredasthefounders ofthistheory(intheearlyyears
of1900s).
 ForTSMST,therearefiveprinciples/procedures(toconductIS):
 Identificationofpossiblebestways;
 Developmentofaworkingsystem/asetofprocedures;
 Communicationsofexpectations/schemes;
 Provisionof continuous&exhaustivetraining;&
 Monitoring&evaluationoftheresults. 38
CONT’D.
 InTSMSTteachersareviewedas(mere)implementers.
 Thereisamanager-subordinaterelationsbetweentheprincipals/supervisors&the
teachers.
 Efficiencyisensuredifonlytheteacherswouldbecontrolled&beingaccountablefor
whatalltheydid.
 TheTSMSTisjudgedaspartof thetraditional-autocraticphilosophy.
 Presently,theTSMSTtheoryisnotfavoredassuch... 39
B.HUMANRELATIONSSUPERVISIONTHEORY
(HRNST):
 HRnSTistheoutcomeof the democraticadministrationmovementsinthe1930’s.
 Elton Mayoconsidered as thefounder of thistheory.
 HRnSTtriedto overcomethechallenges encounteredby TSMST.
 Astothe HRnST,efficiencycouldbe increasedby:
 meetingthedesired social& otherneeds atthework place;
 providing teachersthe opportunities tointeractwitheachother;
 treatingteachersdecently/friendly; &
 involvingteachersindecisionmakingprocess, etc.
40
CONT’D.
 InHRnSTteachersareviewedaswholepersons/fullsocialbeings.
 Supervisionrequiredtoworktocreateafeelingofsatisfactionamongteachers…by
showinginterestinthem…
 ’Asatisfiedstaffwouldworkharder&wouldbeeasiertoworkwithothers’.
 HRnSTisstillwidelypracticed(thoughitssupporthasbeendiminishedsince
1950’s).
 TheHRnSTencourageslaissez-faireformofsupervision.
Adoptedshareddecisionmaking >>>increasedteachers'
satisfaction>>> schooleffectiveness. 41
C.NEO-SCIENTIFICMANAGEMENTSUPERVISION
THEORY (NSMST):
 NSMSTisemerged to confront withHRnST.
 NSMSTshares withTSMSTaninterestincontrol, accountability,&efficiency.
 InNSMSTthereis impersonal/objective waytocontrol whatteachersshould do.
 Tothisend,the NSMST introduces standardized/criterion-referencedways of monitoring&
evaluatingtheoverall performance ofteachers.
 Ingeneral, NSMST relies heavilyon extremelyimposed impersonalauthority,&as aresult
often lacks acceptancefrom teachers.
42
3.1.2EMERGING SUPERVISION
THEORIES:
Therearetwosub-theorieshereunder:
HumanResourcesSupervisionTheory(HRsST)&
NormativeSupervisionTheory(NST)
43
A.HUMANRESOURCESSUPERVISIONTHEORY
(HRSST):
 HRsSTattempted to combinetheemphasisonboth tasks/duties &human’sconcerns(i.e.,humanneeds,
potentials, &satisfactions).
 Here,supervision isbelievedtobe neitherdirective norpatronizing/belittling, but insteadsupportive.
 Therearesomeassumptions in HRsST:
 provide opportunities forteachersto fulfilltheirindividual needsforautonomy;
 teachersarematureadults, undertherightmotivating conditions,theywillwant to bringchange&effectiveness;
 teacherswantto enjoytheirwork&arecapableofsupervisingthemselves (with littleguidance&facilitation of
thesupervisors).
 givepeople(teachers)responsibility &authority (power) to makedecisionsabout howtheyhaveto work&they
respondwithincreasedmotivation.
 Adopts shareddecisionmaking practices>>>incrementofschooleffectiveness>>>augmentation ofteacher’s
satisfaction 44
B.NORMATIVESUPERVISIONTHEORY(NST):
 NSTistrying toanswerthefollowing questions:
 How schools are actually working?
 Howteachersarethinking?
 How teachers&others are behaving?…
 The leading assumptionsin NSTare:
 School environments are dynamic;theyarenot stable&theyare not always predictable;
 School environments aretypically characterizedby multiple &competinggoals &solutions;
 Teachers&administrators do not makedecisions simplyasisolated individuals.
45
CONT’D.
NSTenunciates/articulatesthatschoolsshouldbe‘manageriallyloose &
culturallytight’.
Asupervisor inthe NSTperspective wouldpropose that faculty&the
administrationneed tobegindealingwith:-
whatvalues they share aboutteaching&learning?
whatschoolsare?
for howbest toevaluate…? &
how theymightwork together? …
Generally, NSTseek to identifynorms&values thatarenow inplacein
theschoolfromwhatisnowgoingon& deal withwhatneeds changing...
46
CONT’D.
Summary:
Noneoftheabove mentioned theories areexclusively adequate;but
rather successfulsupervision isshapedbythecircumstances&
situations whichthesupervisor faces.
Therefore, different models maybeappropriate&applicableatatime.
47
3.2APPROACHES/TECHNIQUES OF/INIS:
Therearedifferent supervisoryapproaches/techniques:
a. ClinicalSupervision,
b. CollegialSupervision,
c. Self-DirectedSupervision,
d. InformalSupervision,
e. Inquiry-BasedSupervision,&
f. AdvisorySupervision
48
A.CLINICALSUPERVISION(CS):
Itissupposedtobecarriedout inclassroom(itisalsoknownasin-
classsupervision).
CSisreferringto face-to-facecontactwithteacherswiththe
intentionofimprovinginstruction&increasingprofessionalgrowth.
CSisspecificallyaimedto:
 Provide teacherswith objective feedbacks;
 Diagnose&solve instructionalproblems;
 Helpteachers develop thenecessary instructionalskills;
 Gaugeteachers’ performances/achievements;
 Help teachers realizevarious on-the-job trainingpackages;etc.
49
CONT’D.
 CSisinvolving5seriesstagesthatformanongoingcycle.
Stage1: Pre-ObservationConference(POC):
 Itinvolvesthediscussionbetweenthesupervisor&theteacherbeforetheactual
classroomobservation.
 Itsobjectiveistodecidethefocusareasforthe up-coming observation.
 Itprovidessupervisorsanopportunitytostarttoestablishpositiveworkingr/n/s/ps
withteachers.
50
CONT’D.
Ingeneral, POC offers opportunities to:
Discuss concernsof bothsides;
Review thepurposes &procedures ofthe forthcominglesson observation;
Makeplansforobservation &toreachonagreement over theplans; &
Establish timeforboththe actualobservation &forthe post-observation
conference.
51
CONT’D.
Stage 2: Classroom Observation (CO):
Thesupervisor observes theteacher atwork duringtheformal lesson.
Thesupervisor tries to linkup/juxtapose theplanmadesofarwiththe
actualclassroomactivity/practice.
Theobservation principallyfocuses onthosepoints identifiedearlier by
theconsensus ofthe teacher&thesupervisor (atstage 1).
Itisimportantforthe supervisor tobe on-time, stayfortheentirelesson,
&jotdownthe importantepisodes/incidents…
52
CONT’D.
Stage3:Analysis&SettingaMeetingStrategy(ASMS):
 Itistimetoanalyze abouttheobservationmade, &thinkabouttheconferencethatis
tofollow.
 Observedeventsareanalyzedbasedonthe‘focusareas’setduringthePOC,&
___thesupervisorbasedontheresultobtainedduringobservation,initiates/plans
furtherstrategiestobediscussedduringPostOC.
 Therearequestionsusedformakinganalysisatthisstage.Someofthemare:
Weretheobjectivesattained?
Howdidtheteaching/learningstrategieswork?
Whatunusualcircumstanceswereobserved?(Whatseemeduseful&whatdidnot?)
53
CONT’D.
Whatweretheverbal&thenon-verbalbehaviors ofthe
teacher?
Howaboutstudents’verbal&non-verbalresponses during
instruction?
Whatarethethingsthattheteacher didwell?
Whatspecific aspectsofthelessonmightbeimproved?
Whatshouldtheteacher willdoforthenextobservation?...
54
CONT’D.
Stage4:PostObservation Conference (Post OC):
Itisatimewhenasharedexplorationcometobediscussedbythesupervisor
&theteacher.
Moreover,itisatimefor/to:
Thesupervisortoprovidefeedback(ontherewardingorsatisfyingoranyother
aspects)totheteacherstatusbasedonhis/herobservation;
Thesupervisor&theteachertoformulatestrategiesjointlytodealwith/tackle
theproblemsobserved;
Offerspecifichelpifappropriate;
Planforthenextobservation…
55
CONT’D.
Stage 5:Post Conference Analysis(PCA):
Itisthe timewhenthesupervisor assesses:
Thenatureofcommunicationduringthe Post OC;
Therole oftheteacher duringthePost OC;
(Anticipate)Theextent to whichprogress wasmade ontheissues thatwere
discussed;
Thestatus ofthestrategies initiatedduring‘Stage 3’&
discussed/developed during‘Stage 4’.
Here someguidingquestions (for thesupervisor) are:
Didtheconferencegowell?
HaveIactedappropriately?Why?Whynot?... 56
CONT’D.
Summary:
CSis notforeveryone.
Clinicalsupervision canbeusedwith inexperienced beginningteachers,
teachers whoareexperiencing difficulties, &experienced teachers
lookingtoimprove theirperformance.
Thus,supervisors needtocarefully think&identify those teachers who
canbenefitfromthisintensive process & determine howoften touse it.
57
B.COLLEGIALSUPERVISION(COS):
CoSisalsocalledpeer-supervision.
Itisanapproachinwhichteachersgetinvolvedin planning, executing,&
evaluating theirworktogetherwiththeircolleagues/peers;&rendering
psychological&technicalsupporttothecolleagues.
CoScanbetakenplaceindifferentformslike:
Professionaldialogue,
(joint)Curriculumdevelopment,
Peerobservation &peerteaching,
Mentoring(counseling),etc. 58
CONT’D.
CoS goesbeyondclassroomobservation.
CoSprovidesasettinginwhichteacherscaninformally discuss
problemstheyface,shareideas,preparesessions tohelponeanother,
exchangetips/bestexperiences,etc.
Promotingcollegialityis(ingeneral)importanttoaugmentschool’s
changeforthebetterstatus.
Collegialityusedtobridgebothconcepts&instructionalclimateor
instructionalculture. 59
C.SELF-DIRECTEDSUPERVISION (SDS):
Itisaaimedforprofessionalgrowth,&characterizedbythe
followingbasicfeatures:
Theindividualteacher:
Develops/worksonaprogram ofprofessionalgrowth;
Practicesprofessionaldevelopment;&
Assesseshis/herstrivethatismadetowardsthosegoals.
60
CONT’D.
InSdS,mostly teachers workalone byassumingresponsibilities for
theirownprofessional development.
InSdS,teachers wouldbeexpected to prepare documentation&
portfolios (intheform ofreflective practicediaries,schedules, photo
essays, etc.).
Attheendofacertaininstructionalprogram,there hasto bea meeting
between theteacher&the supervisor todiscuss aboutwhathasbeen
donesofar,& tosettargets forfutureself-directed supervisory cycles…
61
CONT’D.
 SdSrecognizesteachersas‘adultlearners’&responsiblefortheirownlearning&
development.
 Therearesomefrequentlyused (cyclical)stepsin‘SdS’:
Targetsetting,
Targetsettingreview,
Targetconfirmationconference,
Takingactions(implementation…),
Actionappraisal,&
Summaryofactionappraisal
62
CONT’D.
Generally, SdSisefficientinuseoftime, &less costly
tobematerialized.
Itisparticularly suitedtocompetent teachers who
managetheiractivities &timesvery well.
63
D.INFORMALSUPERVISION (INS):
InSiscomprisedofthecasual/informalencountersthat occurbetween
supervisors&teachers.
InSischaracterizedbyfrequentinformalvisittoteacher'sclassrooms,&
conversations withteachersabouttheirwork.
Noappointments mightbemadeinadvance(classroomvisitsarenot
preannounced).
InSishelpingtounderstand/overseetheexistinginstructionalprocessina
normalcircumstance/situation.
InShastobesupplementedbyanyotherapproach ofsupervision. 64
E.INQUIRY-BASEDSUPERVISION(IBS):
 IBSisreferringtotheinitiativesofindividualsorcollaborativeeffortsintheformof
actionresearch(AR)tosolveproblems(i.e., __sortoutproblems,__developpossible
actionstrategies,&__sharethefindings).
 ARcanbedoneonclassroom-basedpractices,schoolbasedcurriculum
developmentendeavors,schoolimprovementprograms,professionaldevelopment
exercises,co-curricularactivities,etc.
 ARischaracterizedas‘atypeoforganizedinquirycarriedout byteachers&
supervisorstostudytheirproblemsrationally,& therebytoimprovetheirown
practices’…
65
CONT’D.
SomespecificstepsinvolvedinARare:
Identifying &describingastartingpoint/generalidea (including
problemidentification,datagathering,&descriptions/analysis);
Developingactionstrategies/devisingpossiblesolutions;
Intervention/takingaction;
Evaluation/observation(i.e.,gathering&analysisofevidencesonthe
actionstaken);
Reflection(drawingconclusions&communicatingthedatatoothers).
Generally,IBSisbeingfocusedonimmediate,critical,&practical
problemsthatencountered(byindividualteacher). 66
F.ADVISORYSUPERVISION
(AS):
 Thisisakindofsupervisionconductedbasedontherequestofindividualteachers.
 ASischaracterizedby thefollowingfeatures:
Confidentialinnature;
Havenoevaluativefunction;
Thesupervisorconsidered‘asapartner’&aresourcefulperson;
Developslong-termcollegialr/n/s/psbetweenteachers&supervisors;
Respectsteachers’autonomy&workstowardsstrengtheningteachers’competence…
67
G.GROUP-BASED
APPROACHES/TECHNIQUES:
These aredifferent discussiontechniques thatthesupervisors canuse
whileworkingwithgroup ofteachers incurricular, instructional,& staff
development endeavors & classroomactivities.
Some of thecommon&usefuldiscussiontechniquesarethefollowing:
Workshop,
Conference,
PanelDiscussion,
Seminar, etc. 68
ACTIVITIES:
 Whatisa…????
 Workshop,
 Conference,
 PanelDiscussion,&
 Seminar
69
I.WORKSHOP:
Refers toagroupof persons/teachers working cooperatively withexpert
assistanceoncommonneeds &problems (collegial inits nature).
Workshop canbeorganizedatalllevels.
Workshop:
Gives intensive consideration forpracticalproblems.
Allows flexibility initsarrangement&organization.
Demandsmultifaceted assistance &consultationfromexperts.
Isuseful toimpartnew information/knowledge tothe teachers… 70
II. CONFERENCE:
Hereinconference,thereisonlyoneleader,makesatalklimitedtoa
presentationoftheessentialfactstogetthediscussiongoing(not collegialas
suchasthecaseof/inworkshop).
However,thebulkofthetimeistakenupbytheactualconferencei.e.,thefree
exchangeofviewsbymembersofthegroup.
Conference:
Demandsasmartleader(he/shehas tofacilitateintelligentconversation,define
thescopeofthediscussion,&guidetheflowofthediscussion.
Isusefultodiscussaboutsomecommonagendaofteachers&supervisors(e.g.,
discussionontheprogressreport,activity/performanceevaluation, etc.).
71
III.PANELDISCUSSION:
Apanelconsists of few persons/knowledgeable, experienced, &
successfulpeople (rarelymorethanfive, includingtheleader)whocarry
onaconversation while seated before/infront ofanaudience.
Paneldiscussion:
Needs thechairperson(moderator) , panelists (mainactors/actresses-
experts), & audience(spectators).
Isused to maketheaudiencetobefamiliarizedwithnewconcepts&
innovations.
There isvery limited audienceliveparticipation(also, itisnotcollegial as
such)….. 72
IV.SEMINAR:
Itismadeupofagroupof peopleengagedinspecializedstudy/
fieldsurvey…
Seminar:
Demandsadetaileddiscussionontheinquirybasedreport
presented.
Isusefultohelppresenters(teachers)tohavesome
specializationsattheschoollevel…
73
4.SUPERVISIONINETHIOPIA:
74
ACTIVITIES:
Discusstheactualfeaturesofthesupervision practices
sofaryouhavebeenexperiencing (with)…
75
4.1HISTORICALBACKGROUND:
 Therearesome(4)distinctperiodsinthedevelopmentof supervision/inspectionin
Ethiopia:-
i. TheEarliestPeriod:
(1934-1954 E.C./1942-1962G.C.)
 Supervision/inspectionwas1st introducedintotheeducationalsystemofEthiopiaabout
34/35yearsafter theintroductionofmodern(western-oriented) typeofeducationi.e.,in
1908.___Itwasnamedas‘primary school inspection’inOctober1942.
 Itwasunderthe centrallyestablishedofficeoftheinspectorate,whichwasheadedbya
BritishnationalnamedJohnMiller.
 Atthistime,manyinspectorialactivitiesatthegrassrootslevelswerecarriedoutby
laymen.
76
CONT’D.
Themainreasons thatbroughtabouttheneed forsupervision/inspection
atthattimewere:-
Thefastgrowth ofschools inthecountrythatcalled forstatistics &reports
tothe government;
Thecurriculaoffered bythethen existing government schools, &schools
runbydifferent foreignnationals/communities were so muchdifferent.
___Hence, theneed forcoordination arose whichcould bringallthesame
standard;
Inorderto helpteachers becomecompetent intheclassroomactivities; …
77
CONT’D.
 Majortasks/dutiesofinspectors/supervisorsatthistimewere:
a)Directinspectionthroughvisit:
 Inspectors/supervisorsusedtocollect&compilestatisticaldataonnumberof
students&teachers;numberofclassroomsavailable&classsize;&finallyproduce
reportstotheMOEaswellastheEmperor.
b)Curriculum&examinationrelatedtasks:
 Inthisregard,inspectors/supervisorswereassignedto prepare&developcurricula
forallgradesoftheprimary&secondaryschools,& settingnationalexaminationsat
thecompletionofgrade6&8.
78
CONT’D.
c)StaffRecruitment:
Inspectors/supervisorswereengagedin conductingrigorous
examinations&interviewsforallnewlyrecruitedEthiopian
teacherspertainingtothesubjecttheyareaffiliatedwith,
acrossdifferentgradelevels.
79
CONT’D.
ii.TheSecondPeriod:
(1955-1973E.C./1963-1981G.C.)
 Beginning 1955E.C., the term‘inspection’ wasofficially replaced by ‘supervision’.
 Atthistime,supervision wasintended toimprove theeducational activitiesbymakingthe
teaching-learning processmore efficient &effective, &by strengtheningthesupervisory
humanpower.
 The supervisorshandbook waspreparedatthistime(byEthiopian &USAscholars).
 Supervisors wereintensively trained before theywould beengagedinsupervisory activities.
 Butinpractice,still during thistime, thetasksofsupervisorsweremore orlessthesameas
thatwasinthe1st period.
80
CONT’D.
iii.TheThirdPeriod:
(1974-1983E.C./1982-1991G.C.)
 The ‘Derg’gov’t/theMilitaryjuntawasinpowerstickingto‘socialistideology’thenamewasagain
changedto‘inspection’.___Becausetherewasabelievethat‘socialismdemandsstrictcontrol
ofthefulfillmentoftheeducationalpolicy&programactivities’.
 Newhandbook wasagainpreparedforsupervisors/inspectors.
 Someofthetasksgiventothoseinspectors/supervisors atthistimewere:-
Themanagementofschoolfinancialaccounting,property,&utilitycontrols(whichwere80%oftheir
duties).
Theprofessional &pedagogicalassistancesuchasstaffdevelopmentthroughin-servicetraining,&
establishment&strengtheningofthemodelschools&planningofinstruction…(accountedthe
remaining20%)
81
CONT’D.
Ingeneral,thetheninspectionwasaninstrument
ofthepolitical&administrativeauthoritiesto
ensurethatthesystemisworking satisfactorily&
efficientlyinamanneritservesastheguardianof
thetheneducationalstandards.
82
4.2THEPRESENT TIME:
(FROM1984E.C./1992G.C.ONWARDS)
Following thechangeof thepoliticalsystem inthecountry, the
name/system of inspectionwaschangedinto supervision.
AccordingtotheEETPof 1994, supervisionbecamean
importantaspectthatwould bringanoverall change&development on
theeducationsector i.e., a__decentralized, __democratic,__professional,
&__coordinatedone.
83
CONT’D.
 Inthisregard,supervisorsareresponsibleto:-
Assistprofessionallytheoverallteachingprocesshavingastafffunctionrole(distinctly
differentfromapurelyauthorative&administrativecontrol,i.e.,linefunction).
Promotecooperation&participationinthecurriculumdevelopment&in-service
educationactivities.
Muchofwhatisbeing centrallydonebytheMOE,anddevolvedtotheimmediate&
lowerlevelsofeducationaladministrativei.e.,theRegional,Zonal,&Woreda
educationoffices/bureausaswellasschoolsatdifferentlevels.
84
REFERENCES:
 Acheson, K. A., & Gall, M. D. (1992). Techniques in the clinical supervision of teachers: Preservice and
in-services applications (3rd ed.). NY: Longman.
 Fred, C. (1954). Fundamentals of instructional supervision. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers.
 Glickman, C. D., Gordon, S. P., & Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2007). Supervision and instructional leadership: A
developmental approach (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
 Haileselassie Woldegerima (No date). Educational supervision. Faculty of Education, Addis Ababa
University.
 Kutsyuruba, B. (2003). Instructional supervision: Perceptions of Canadian and Ukrainian beginning high-
school teachers. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan.
 Luico, L. W. (1979). Supervision in thought and action. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
 Protheroe, N. (2002). Improving instruction through teacher observation. Principal, 82(1), 48-51.
 Schmidt, L. (2003). Getting smarter about supervising instruction. Principal, 82(4), 24-25.
 Sergiovanni, T., & Starrett, R. (1998). Supervision: A redefinition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
 Sullivan, S., & Glanz, J. (2004). Supervision that improves teaching: Strategies and techniques (2nd ed.).
Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
 Wiles, J., & Bondi, J. (2000). Supervision: A guide to practice. NJ: Prentice Hall.
 Zepeda, S. (2007). Instructional supervision: Applying tools and concepts (2nd ed.). Larchmont, NY: Eye
on Education.
85

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