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I nspiration
A rchitecture
1
Peter Morville, Academic Library Directors Symposium 2014
2
3
4
5
“I say we fight for and maintain our very long-term and hardwon connection to books and what they represent.”Joseph Janes
6
The structural design of shared
information environments.
The organization, labeling,
search, and navigation systems in
websites and intranets.

7
#dtdt

8
“Where architects use forms and spaces to design
environments for inhabitation, information architects use
nodes and links to create environments for understanding.”
Jorge Arango, Architectures (2011)
Fragmentation
Fragmentation into multiple
sites, domains, and identities is
clearly a major problem. Users
don’t know which site to visit
for which purpose.

Findability
Users can’t find what they need
from the home page, but most
users don’t come through the
front door. They enter via a web
search or a deep link, and are
confused by what they find.
Even worse, most never use the
Library, because its resources
aren’t easily findable.
Web Strategy
1. One Library

2. Core Areas

3. Network Intelligence
12
14
Search is a Complex, Adaptive System

Source: Search Patterns (2010)

15
16
Web Governance Board

17
18
20
21
22
“When I was playing baseball, most of
the time I wasn‟t playing full-scale,
four bases, nine innings. I was playing
a perfectly suitable junior version of
the game...But when I was studying
those shards of math and history, I
wasn‟t playing a junior version of
anything. It was like batting practice
without knowing the whole game.
Why would anyone want to do that?”

23
24
The MOOCs must first compete
with nonconsumption by
meeting demand outside the
schools (e.g., developing
countries, home-schooling) and

then within (e.g., letting students
take courses not offered by their
district).

Later, this self-paced, studentcentered model may gain
sufficient momentum to become
the dominant paradigm.
25
The Architecture of a Class

26
27
Regardless of all the time and effort libraries put into
providing a variety of research tools and resources
on their websites, the literature suggests that
students still prefer to start their research using
Google or some other form of search engine.
It is clear that there is an overwhelming preference
for easy to use, familiar search tools that
transcend education level, discipline of study, and
student demographics.

Discovery Layers and the Distance Student
Jessica Mussell (2012)
28
Strengths
• Fast, easy, familiar
• Cross-disciplinary searching
• Links to citing and related articles
29
Weaknesses
• No “advanced search” functionality
• Limited, inaccurate metadata
• Inconsistent coverage across disciplines
• No transparency (coverage, algorithms, usage, monetization)
• Not customizable or interoperable
30
Information Literacy
Employers claimed that college hires rarely conducted the
thorough research required of them in the workplace.
At worst, some college hires solved problems with a
lightning quick Google search, a scan of the first couple of
pages of results, and a linear answer finding approach.
“I had a new graduate hire who only searched for papers
on Google. I said, you‟re missing things, you need to use
PubMed, and he responded, „Well, I did this quick search,
and that‟s what I got.‟ But that‟s not good enough.”
Project Information Literacy: Learning Curve by Alison J. Head (2012)

31
“The academic library is increasingly being disintermediated from the
discovery process, risking irrelevance in one of its core functional areas.”

Faculty rate importance of library roles

Key Strategic Insights for Libraries, Publishers, and Societies by Roger C. Schonfeld (2010)
32
33
34

Federated
“Bento Box”
NCSU
Stanford
Dartmouth
Virginia
Columbia
35

Aggregated
“Faceted”
Cornell
Duke
McGill
Northwestern
U. Washington
Faceted Navigation

36
Adaptive Facets

37
Gross and Sheridan conducted a usability study
that examined how Summon (“web-scale discovery”)
was used for common library search tasks.
Summon was positioned as the primary search
box on the library‟s home page for the study.
They found that the single search box was
employed for 80% of the assigned tasks.
How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box
Lown, Sierra, Boyer (2013)

38
Use of full-text online content dramatically
increased in the year following implementation.
Librarians found they could focus instruction
less on choosing a database or catalog and more
on refining a search, research as an iterative
process, and other high level search skills.
The Impact of Serial Solutions’ Summon on Information
Literacy Instruction
Stephanie Buck and Margaret Mellinger (2011)

39
40
63% didn‟t use any Internet
resources, other than the
Guide, to complete their
assignment.
Embedding LibGuides into Course
Management Systems
Stephanie Brown (2012)

Embeddable
Search Widget

41
42
43
Information Literacy
The ability the find,

evaluate, create, organize,
and use information from
myriad sources and media.

44
45
46
“70 percent of humans experience
severe back pain…and in the U.S.
this results in tens of thousands of
surgeries each year.”
“There‟s a secret about MRIs and
back pain: the most common
problems physicians see on MRI

and attribute to back pain –
herniated, ruptured, and bulging
discs – are seen almost as
commonly on MRIs of healthy

people without back pain.”
47
Why is Medicine a Mess?
•

Our minds/bodies are complex.

•

Patients want a quick fix.

•

Doctors hate saying: “I don‟t know.”

•

The AMA is an advocacy group.

•

Relentless and insidious advertising.

•

Industry-funded research.

•

$2.7 trillion per year.

48
“Our government is corrupt. Not
corrupt in any criminal sense.
But corrupt in a perfectly legal
sense: special interests bend the
levers of power to benefit them at
the expense of the rest of us.”

“There are a thousand hacking at the branches of evil to
one who is striking at the root.” Henry David Thoreau
49
The relationship between information and 50
culture
“It is now my suggestion that many
people may not want information,
and that they will avoid using a
system precisely because it gives
them information…If you have
information, you must first read
it…You must then try to understand
it…Understanding the information
may show that your work was

wrong, or may show that your work
was needless…Thus not having and
Calvin Mooers (1959)

not using information can often
lead to less trouble and pain than

having and using it.”
The limits of information

51
“We shape our buildings. Thereafter, they shape us.”

52
The order of food influences choice by as much as 25 percent.
53
54
Some habits have
the power to start
a chain reaction.
“Success doesn‟t depend on
getting every single thing
right, but instead relies on
identifying a few key

priorities and fashioning
them into powerful levers.”

55
“Willpower is the single most
important keystone habit for
individual success.”

56
Paul O’Neil as CEO of Alcoa
“I want to talk to you about worker
safety…I intend to make Alcoa the

safest company in America.
I intend to go for zero injuries.”
“We killed this man. It‟s my failure of
leadership. I caused his death.
And it‟s the failure of all of you in the
chain of command.”

57
“A culture of generosity.”
Josie Parker, Ann Arbor District Library
58
59
“A library, like a national park, teaches us that we all benefit
when our most valuable treasures are held in common.”
Peter Morville, Inspiration Architecture

60
Keystone
A central stone at the summit
of an arch locking the whole together.
61
Polar bears are a keystone species in the Arctic ecosystem.
62
The library is a keystone of culture.
“A library outranks
any other one thing a

community can do to
benefit its people. It is
a never failing spring

in the desert.”
Andrew Carnegie
(1889)
64
“Too many people think that we don’t need libraries
when we have the Internet.” John Palfrey, DPLA (2012)
65
“Libraries have a mandate to intervene in community
life.”
66
Lee Rainie
67
IA Therefore I Am

68

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Inspiration Architecture: The Future of Libraries (Academic Library Directors Symposium)

  • 1. I nspiration A rchitecture 1 Peter Morville, Academic Library Directors Symposium 2014
  • 2. 2
  • 3. 3
  • 4. 4
  • 5. 5
  • 6. “I say we fight for and maintain our very long-term and hardwon connection to books and what they represent.”Joseph Janes 6
  • 7. The structural design of shared information environments. The organization, labeling, search, and navigation systems in websites and intranets. 7
  • 9. “Where architects use forms and spaces to design environments for inhabitation, information architects use nodes and links to create environments for understanding.” Jorge Arango, Architectures (2011)
  • 10.
  • 11. Fragmentation Fragmentation into multiple sites, domains, and identities is clearly a major problem. Users don’t know which site to visit for which purpose. Findability Users can’t find what they need from the home page, but most users don’t come through the front door. They enter via a web search or a deep link, and are confused by what they find. Even worse, most never use the Library, because its resources aren’t easily findable.
  • 12. Web Strategy 1. One Library 2. Core Areas 3. Network Intelligence 12
  • 13.
  • 14. 14
  • 15. Search is a Complex, Adaptive System Source: Search Patterns (2010) 15
  • 16. 16
  • 18. 18
  • 19.
  • 20. 20
  • 21. 21
  • 22. 22
  • 23. “When I was playing baseball, most of the time I wasn‟t playing full-scale, four bases, nine innings. I was playing a perfectly suitable junior version of the game...But when I was studying those shards of math and history, I wasn‟t playing a junior version of anything. It was like batting practice without knowing the whole game. Why would anyone want to do that?” 23
  • 24. 24
  • 25. The MOOCs must first compete with nonconsumption by meeting demand outside the schools (e.g., developing countries, home-schooling) and then within (e.g., letting students take courses not offered by their district). Later, this self-paced, studentcentered model may gain sufficient momentum to become the dominant paradigm. 25
  • 26. The Architecture of a Class 26
  • 27. 27
  • 28. Regardless of all the time and effort libraries put into providing a variety of research tools and resources on their websites, the literature suggests that students still prefer to start their research using Google or some other form of search engine. It is clear that there is an overwhelming preference for easy to use, familiar search tools that transcend education level, discipline of study, and student demographics. Discovery Layers and the Distance Student Jessica Mussell (2012) 28
  • 29. Strengths • Fast, easy, familiar • Cross-disciplinary searching • Links to citing and related articles 29
  • 30. Weaknesses • No “advanced search” functionality • Limited, inaccurate metadata • Inconsistent coverage across disciplines • No transparency (coverage, algorithms, usage, monetization) • Not customizable or interoperable 30
  • 31. Information Literacy Employers claimed that college hires rarely conducted the thorough research required of them in the workplace. At worst, some college hires solved problems with a lightning quick Google search, a scan of the first couple of pages of results, and a linear answer finding approach. “I had a new graduate hire who only searched for papers on Google. I said, you‟re missing things, you need to use PubMed, and he responded, „Well, I did this quick search, and that‟s what I got.‟ But that‟s not good enough.” Project Information Literacy: Learning Curve by Alison J. Head (2012) 31
  • 32. “The academic library is increasingly being disintermediated from the discovery process, risking irrelevance in one of its core functional areas.” Faculty rate importance of library roles Key Strategic Insights for Libraries, Publishers, and Societies by Roger C. Schonfeld (2010) 32
  • 33. 33
  • 38. Gross and Sheridan conducted a usability study that examined how Summon (“web-scale discovery”) was used for common library search tasks. Summon was positioned as the primary search box on the library‟s home page for the study. They found that the single search box was employed for 80% of the assigned tasks. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box Lown, Sierra, Boyer (2013) 38
  • 39. Use of full-text online content dramatically increased in the year following implementation. Librarians found they could focus instruction less on choosing a database or catalog and more on refining a search, research as an iterative process, and other high level search skills. The Impact of Serial Solutions’ Summon on Information Literacy Instruction Stephanie Buck and Margaret Mellinger (2011) 39
  • 40. 40
  • 41. 63% didn‟t use any Internet resources, other than the Guide, to complete their assignment. Embedding LibGuides into Course Management Systems Stephanie Brown (2012) Embeddable Search Widget 41
  • 42. 42
  • 43. 43
  • 44. Information Literacy The ability the find, evaluate, create, organize, and use information from myriad sources and media. 44
  • 45. 45
  • 46. 46
  • 47. “70 percent of humans experience severe back pain…and in the U.S. this results in tens of thousands of surgeries each year.” “There‟s a secret about MRIs and back pain: the most common problems physicians see on MRI and attribute to back pain – herniated, ruptured, and bulging discs – are seen almost as commonly on MRIs of healthy people without back pain.” 47
  • 48. Why is Medicine a Mess? • Our minds/bodies are complex. • Patients want a quick fix. • Doctors hate saying: “I don‟t know.” • The AMA is an advocacy group. • Relentless and insidious advertising. • Industry-funded research. • $2.7 trillion per year. 48
  • 49. “Our government is corrupt. Not corrupt in any criminal sense. But corrupt in a perfectly legal sense: special interests bend the levers of power to benefit them at the expense of the rest of us.” “There are a thousand hacking at the branches of evil to one who is striking at the root.” Henry David Thoreau 49
  • 50. The relationship between information and 50 culture
  • 51. “It is now my suggestion that many people may not want information, and that they will avoid using a system precisely because it gives them information…If you have information, you must first read it…You must then try to understand it…Understanding the information may show that your work was wrong, or may show that your work was needless…Thus not having and Calvin Mooers (1959) not using information can often lead to less trouble and pain than having and using it.” The limits of information 51
  • 52. “We shape our buildings. Thereafter, they shape us.” 52
  • 53. The order of food influences choice by as much as 25 percent. 53
  • 54. 54
  • 55. Some habits have the power to start a chain reaction. “Success doesn‟t depend on getting every single thing right, but instead relies on identifying a few key priorities and fashioning them into powerful levers.” 55
  • 56. “Willpower is the single most important keystone habit for individual success.” 56
  • 57. Paul O’Neil as CEO of Alcoa “I want to talk to you about worker safety…I intend to make Alcoa the safest company in America. I intend to go for zero injuries.” “We killed this man. It‟s my failure of leadership. I caused his death. And it‟s the failure of all of you in the chain of command.” 57
  • 58. “A culture of generosity.” Josie Parker, Ann Arbor District Library 58
  • 59. 59
  • 60. “A library, like a national park, teaches us that we all benefit when our most valuable treasures are held in common.” Peter Morville, Inspiration Architecture 60
  • 61. Keystone A central stone at the summit of an arch locking the whole together. 61
  • 62. Polar bears are a keystone species in the Arctic ecosystem. 62
  • 63. The library is a keystone of culture.
  • 64. “A library outranks any other one thing a community can do to benefit its people. It is a never failing spring in the desert.” Andrew Carnegie (1889) 64
  • 65. “Too many people think that we don’t need libraries when we have the Internet.” John Palfrey, DPLA (2012) 65
  • 66. “Libraries have a mandate to intervene in community life.” 66 Lee Rainie
  • 67. 67
  • 68. IA Therefore I Am 68