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Dr. Rahangdale Harshal Jitendra
M. V. Sc. Student
Department of Animal Nutrition
Faculty of Veterinary & Animal Science
West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences
OUTLINE OF
PRESENTATION
 Introduction
 Importance of Protein in Poultry Nutrition
 Current Challenges in Poultry Feed and Alternative Needs
 What is Insect Meal?
 Nutritional Benefits of Insect Meal for Poultry
 Current Research and Studies on Insect Meal for Poultry
 Environmental Benefits of Using Insect Meal
 Challenges of insect meal in poultry feed
 Future Prospects of Insect meal
 Conclusions
 References
Introduction
 According to projections, the
global population will approach
9.8 billion by 2050 (Grafton et al.,
2015; Park and Yun, 2018).
 Demand for meat products is
projected to grow by more than
76% by 2050 when compared with
the current level of 2024. (FAO)
 At present, the Developed
countries have higher per capita
protein consumption than
developing countries. Fig: Global demand for meat in 2050 (adapted from
FAO, 2012; Gates Notes 2013)
Importance of Protein in Poultry Nutrition
IMPORTAN
CE OF
PROTEIN
MUSCLE
DEVELOP
MENT
AMINO
ACID
PRODUC
TION
EGG
PRODUC
TION
FEATHER
GROWTH
GROWTH
PERFOR
MANCE
HEALTH
STATUS
 Protein is the Second most important component in the diet of
poultry.
Current Challenges in Poultry Feed
 The main inclusion of proteins in the poultry diet are Soyabean and Fish
meal.
 Soybean accounts for two-thirds of the total global output of protein feedstuffs,
which includes all other major oil meals and fish meals. (Oil World, 2015).
 It is a general concern that a 100% organic diet is unable to meet the
requirements of EAAs of poultry, particularly sulfur-containing AAs (Sundrum et
al., 2005; Richter et al., 2005)
Soybean Meal Fish Meal Powder
The Prime Challenges are:
SOYABEAN
• DEFORESTATION
• SOIL EROSION
• EUTROPHICATION
• EXCESSIVE PESTICIDES USES
• FOOD-FEED-FUEL
COMPETETION
• CO2 FOOTPRINT
• INCREASING PRICES
FISH MEAL
• OVERFISHING
• ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
• LIMITED SOURCE
• RISING MARKET PRICE
• LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY
(Huis et al., 2015) (Bosch et al., 2015)
Alternative Source of Poultry Protein-Its Importance
 The International Feed Industry Federation (IFIF 2016) predicts that livestock
production will have doubled by 2050.
 To meet the future requirements for protein, new protein sources of comparable
values need to be explored for a sustainable future.
https://eatsens.com/blogs/news/infographics
Why insects?
 High reproductive ability (Liu et al., 2011).
 High feed conversion ratio(FCR).
 Easy rearing with low feed cost.
 Efficient feed converters as they are poikilothermic (Cullere et al., 2016).
 Does not require a complex infrastructure and their care is simple (Khusro et
al., 2012).
 Can transform waste into valuable biomass (Nguyen et al., 2015).
 Can convert low-quality plant waste into high-quality crude protein, fat, and
energy in a short time (Makkar et al., 2014).
 Insects emit less greenhouse gases(GHG) and ammonia than conventional
livestock.
CONT………
 Having a Large population and biomass.
 Insects spend much less food energy and nutrients.
 Important part of the circular economy.
 Insects can survive on different substrates, for example,
 Cereals!!
 Decomposing organic materials!!
 Fruit or vegetables!!
 Poultry, pigs, and cow manure !!
 Industry by-products or waste products, which would be environmental
problems!!
(Sánchez-Muros et al., 2014; Cullere et al., 2016)
CONT……..
Insect - an efficient feed converter.
It is believed that 30% of the food produced is wasted, with vegetables and
fruits being the most wasted at up to 50%. Insects can be grown on poor-
quality bio-waste and converted into protein of excellent quality, thus
maintaining a circular economy. https://eatsens.com/blogs/news/infographics
What is Insect Meal?
 Chickens given access to outdoor areas picked insects at all stages of life
and consumed them voluntarily, indicating that they have evolved to
consume insects as an integral component of their diet. (Bovera et al.,
2015).
 Insects may consume animal manure and food waste, reducing pollution but
giving protein (larvae) and fertilizer.
 Insects transform waste into proteins by lowering total nitrogen excretion,
odors, and methane emissions, saving up to 80% of waste mass.
 The FAO strongly recommends utilizing insects as human food and animal
feed as a measure of poverty alleviation (FAO 2010).
 The feeding of insect meal= Entomophagy
Commonly used insect species as feed
(Varelas et al., 2019)
Nutritional Benefits of Insect Meal for Poultry
 The nutritional composition of insects depends on their
Metamorphic stage, Habitat and Diet.
https://eatsens.com/blogs/news/infographics
Chemical Composition's
Fig: Type of economical insect their chemical composition and nutritive value
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2023.1200031/full
Feed
Ingredients
CP%
Soyabean meal 44-48%
Fish meal 60-62%
(Bovero et al.,2015)
Fig: CP & CF value of different insect at various life stages on DMB
(Makkar et al., 2014; Koutsos et al.,2019; Wanapat et al., 2022)
CONT……..
Functional properties of insects
 Insect-derived bioactive compounds fall into three categories:
1. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs): Insects produce AMPs to protect themselves from
microbial infections, which is also functional for poultry.
 Antimicrobial peptide P5 is an antibiotic alternative that acts as a growth promoter (Choi
et al., 2013).
 Additionally, antimicrobial peptides enhance growth performance, nutritional digestion, gut
health, and immunological function (Wang et al.,2016).
2. Fatty acids(Lauric acid):
 Lauric acid possesses antiviral and antibacterial properties (Lieberman et al., 2006)
 It enhances FCR and breast meat yield.
3. Polysaccharides(Chitin):
 In insects, It present as both chitin and chitosan in high amounts.
 Chitin, which constitutes the main component of their exoskeleton, is a polymer of β-1,4
N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (Ojha et al., 2021).
 The chitin content of BSF larvae and Yellow mealworm larvae was estimated to be 5.4 % &
2.8% of DM (Finke et al., 2013).
 The inclusion of chitin has a positive effect on the immune system.
Current Research and Studies on Insect Meal for Poultry
(Adli et al., 2021)
Previous Experimental Findings of Insect Meal-
Poultry
Better weight gain compared to other protein sources
Influenced the growth and performance of the birds
Improves Egg weight, yolk color, yolk weight, and shell thickness and strength
Improves nutrients digestibility
Enhances meat quality & Tenderness
Improves immunity of flocks
(Bovera et al., 2016; Biasato et al., 2016; Pieterse et al., 2019; Elahi et al.,
2020)
Insect Meal Production and Processing
Insect Farming
Harvesting
Dehydration
Grinding and
Milling
Quality Control
Packaging and
Storage
Marketing and
Distribution
https://www.alfalaval.com/link/aac31517d6fd4b3097d71d2f70394efe.aspx
Environmental Benefits of Using Insect Meal
 Production of greenhouse gasses (GHG) is considered an important cause of climate change.
 Inclusion of insects in the poultry diet reduces GHG emissions & insects have great potential as a
sustainable food resource.
Challenges of insect meal in poultry feed
 The present price of insect meals is on the higher side.
 Because, the production volumes of fish meal, high-quality soybean meal
extract, and soybean meal are hundreds or thousands of times greater than
those of insect protein sources (Kovitvadhi et al., 2021). This shows that insect
meal might not be as sustainable as other protein sources at this moment.
 However, according to Rabo bank, insect meal consumption will reach 500,000
tons by 2030, accounting for only 0.2% of the current soybean meal use.
 By scaling up their production, insect-producing companies can enhance the
affordability and stability of their products, surpassing other protein products in
the market. (Wilk et al., 2023; Płatek et al., 2023)
1. Economical challenges
 The current EU regulation (Regulation No. 1069/2009), defines
insect meals as “processed animal protein”, which is an obstacle to
the incorporation of insects in animal feed.
 Due to regulatory concerns, the chances for employing and feeding
insects in EU nations remain limited, but in India, there is no such
regulation yet. (Biasato et al., 2016)
 Feeding insect meals to poultry species may vary based on specific
regulations and approval processes of various countries.
2. Regulation challenges
 Insects are recognized as disease carriers and there is a threat that
insect-borne diseases could transfer to poultry, and humans
(Makkar et al., 2014).
 Black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens) does not carry any
disease-causing agent.
 Housefly (HF; Musca domestica) is a carrier of Entomophthora spp.
Fungus.
 House cricket (Acheta domesticus) is a carrier of Metarhizium sp.
fungus and cricket paralysis virus.
 Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) is a carrier of Beauveria bassiana
fungus (Eilenberg J, et al., 2015).
3. Other Challenges - risk profile of Insects
Future Prospects of insect meal
 The future of insect meal needs potential developments.
 By enabling advancements in insect production technology and efficiency,
there is potential to increase the scale of production and decrease costs,
making insect meals more competitive with traditional protein sources (Moreki et
al., 2012; Khan et al., 2013).
 More research is required to determine :
 Insect nutritional value.
 Potentially harmful components.
 Develop decontamination techniques.
 Develop storage conditions (Priyadharsini et al., 2016).
 Insects can be used synergistically with other alternate sources of protein,
including plant-based proteins, to create nutritionally balanced poultry diets.
Conclusions
 Insect meal has tremendous potential as an alternative for protein in poultry
nutrition, with several benefits including nutritional value & cost-effectiveness.
 The demand for protein is increasing, and conventional protein sources are
experiencing some challenges. Alternative protein sources in feed, including
plant-based proteins and insect meal, represent a potentially sustainable
solution to these issues.
 However, there are drawbacks and restrictions to their use as well, such as the
requirement for large-scale insect production, legal frameworks, and
customer acceptance.
 Future research and development could help address these issues and boost
the use of insect meal as a protein source in chicken feed.
 Insect meal can be considered as an alternative to other protein sources-
Backyard poultry & small-scale poultry farms.
References
• Moreki, J.C.; Tiroesele, B.; Chiripasi, S.C. Prospects of utilizing insects as alternative sources of protein in
poultry diets in botswana: A review. J. Anim. Sci. Adv. 2012, 2, 649–658.
• Khan, m.; Javed, M.M.; Zahoor, S.; Haq, U.-I. Kinetics and thermodynamic study of urease extracted from
soybeans. Biologia 2013, 59, 7–14.
• Cheng, a.; Raai, M.N.; Zain, N.A.M.; Massawe, F.; Singh, A.;Wan-mohtar,w.A.A.Q.I. In search of
alternative proteins: unlocking the potential of underutilized tropical legumes. Food sec. 2019, 11, 1205–
1215. [Crossref]
• Areerat, S.; Chundang, P.; Lekcharoensuk, C.; Kovitvadhi, A. Possibility of using house cricket (acheta
domesticus) or mulberry silkworm (bombyx mori) pupae meal to replace poultry meal in canine diets based
on health and nutrient digestibility. Animals 2021, 11, 2680. [Crossref] [pubmed]
• Biasato, I.; De marco, M.; Rotolo, L.; Renna, M.; Lussiana, C.; Dabbou, S.; Capucchio, M.T.; Biasibetti, E.;
Costa, P.; Gai, F. Effects of dietary tenebrio molitor meal inclusion in free-range chickens. J. Anim. Physiol.
Anim. Nutr. 2016, 100, 1104–1112. [Crossref]
• Sogari, G.; Amato, M.; Biasato, I.; Chiesa, S.; Gasco, L. The potential role of insects as feed: A multi-
perspective review. Animals 2019, 9, 119. [Crossref] [pubmed]
• Van huis, A. (2015). Edible insects contributing to food security? Agriculture & food security, 4(1), article
number 20. Https://doi.Org/10.1186/s40066–015–0041–5
• Ratcliffe, N., P. Azambuja, and C.B. Mello. 2014. Recent advances in developing insect
natural products as potential modern day medicines. Evid. Based complement. Alternat.
Med. 2014:904958.
• Kim, t.-K., Yong, H.I., Kim, Y.-B., Kim, H.-W., Choi, Y.-S. (2019). Edible insects as a
protein source: A review of public perception, processing technology, and research trends.
Food science of animal resources, 39(4), 521–540. Https://doi.Org/10.5851/
kosfa.2019.E53
• Grafton, R.Q., Daugbjerg, C., Qureshi, M.E. (2015). Towards food security by 2050. Food
security, 7(2), 179–183. Https://doi.Org/10.1007/s12571–015–0445-x
• Jansson, A., Berggren, A. (2015). Insects as food — something for the future? A report
from future agriculture. Uppsala, swedish university of agricultural sciences (SLU). — 36
p. Isbn:978–91–576–9335–8
• Ramos-elorduy, J. (2008). Energy supplied by edible insects from mexico and their
nutritional and ecological importance. Ecology of food and nutrition, 47(3), 280–297.
Https://doi.Org/10.1080/03670240701805074
• Makkar, H.P.S., Tran, G., Heuze, V. And ankers, P., 2014. State-of-the-art on use of insects
as animal feed. Anim. Feed sci. And technol.197: 1-33.
• Veldkamp t, bosch g. Insects - a protein rich feed ingredient in pig and poultry diets. Anim
front 2015;5:45-50.
• Rumpold BA, oliver KS. Potential and challenges of insects as an innovative source for
food and feed production. Innov food sci emerg technol 2013;17:1-11. Https://doi.Org/10.
1016/j.Ifset.2012.11.005
• Cullere M, tasoniero G, giaccone V, miotti-scapin R, claeys E, desmet S, dalle zotte A.
2016. Black soldier fly as dietary protein source for broiler quails: apparent digestibility,
excreta microbial load, feed choice, performance, carcass and meat traits. Animal. 1–8.
Doi:10.1017/s1751731116001270.
• Moreki, j., & Tiroesele, B. (2012). Termites and earthworms as potential alternative sources
of protein for poultry. International journal for agro veterinary and medical sciences, 6(5),
368. DOI: https://doi.Org/10.5455/ijavms.174.
• Bovera, f.; Loponte, R.; Marono, S.; Piccolo, G.; Parisi, G.; Iaconisi, V.; Gasco, L.; Nizza,
A. Use of tenebrio molitor larvae meal as protein source in broiler diet: effect on growth
performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits. J. Anim. Sci. 2016, 94,
639–647. [Crossref]
• Bovera, F.; Piccolo, G.; Gasco, L.; Marono, S.; Loponte, R.; Vassalotti, G.; Mastellone, V.;
Lombardi, P.; Attia, Y.A.; Nizza, A. Yellow mealworm larvae (tenebrio molitor L.) As a
possible alternative to soybean meal in broiler diets. Br. Poult. Sci. 2015, 56, 569–
575.[Crossref]
• Khempaka, S., C. Chitsatchapong, and W. Molee. 2011. Effect of chitin and protein
constituents in shrimp head meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal
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Poult. Res. 20:1-11.
THANK YOU!!!!!!

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Insect Meal as an Alternative Protein Source for poultry

  • 1. Dr. Rahangdale Harshal Jitendra M. V. Sc. Student Department of Animal Nutrition Faculty of Veterinary & Animal Science West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences
  • 2. OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION  Introduction  Importance of Protein in Poultry Nutrition  Current Challenges in Poultry Feed and Alternative Needs  What is Insect Meal?  Nutritional Benefits of Insect Meal for Poultry  Current Research and Studies on Insect Meal for Poultry  Environmental Benefits of Using Insect Meal  Challenges of insect meal in poultry feed  Future Prospects of Insect meal  Conclusions  References
  • 3. Introduction  According to projections, the global population will approach 9.8 billion by 2050 (Grafton et al., 2015; Park and Yun, 2018).  Demand for meat products is projected to grow by more than 76% by 2050 when compared with the current level of 2024. (FAO)  At present, the Developed countries have higher per capita protein consumption than developing countries. Fig: Global demand for meat in 2050 (adapted from FAO, 2012; Gates Notes 2013)
  • 4. Importance of Protein in Poultry Nutrition IMPORTAN CE OF PROTEIN MUSCLE DEVELOP MENT AMINO ACID PRODUC TION EGG PRODUC TION FEATHER GROWTH GROWTH PERFOR MANCE HEALTH STATUS  Protein is the Second most important component in the diet of poultry.
  • 5. Current Challenges in Poultry Feed  The main inclusion of proteins in the poultry diet are Soyabean and Fish meal.  Soybean accounts for two-thirds of the total global output of protein feedstuffs, which includes all other major oil meals and fish meals. (Oil World, 2015).  It is a general concern that a 100% organic diet is unable to meet the requirements of EAAs of poultry, particularly sulfur-containing AAs (Sundrum et al., 2005; Richter et al., 2005) Soybean Meal Fish Meal Powder
  • 6. The Prime Challenges are: SOYABEAN • DEFORESTATION • SOIL EROSION • EUTROPHICATION • EXCESSIVE PESTICIDES USES • FOOD-FEED-FUEL COMPETETION • CO2 FOOTPRINT • INCREASING PRICES FISH MEAL • OVERFISHING • ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION • LIMITED SOURCE • RISING MARKET PRICE • LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY (Huis et al., 2015) (Bosch et al., 2015)
  • 7. Alternative Source of Poultry Protein-Its Importance  The International Feed Industry Federation (IFIF 2016) predicts that livestock production will have doubled by 2050.  To meet the future requirements for protein, new protein sources of comparable values need to be explored for a sustainable future. https://eatsens.com/blogs/news/infographics
  • 8. Why insects?  High reproductive ability (Liu et al., 2011).  High feed conversion ratio(FCR).  Easy rearing with low feed cost.  Efficient feed converters as they are poikilothermic (Cullere et al., 2016).  Does not require a complex infrastructure and their care is simple (Khusro et al., 2012).  Can transform waste into valuable biomass (Nguyen et al., 2015).  Can convert low-quality plant waste into high-quality crude protein, fat, and energy in a short time (Makkar et al., 2014).  Insects emit less greenhouse gases(GHG) and ammonia than conventional livestock.
  • 9. CONT………  Having a Large population and biomass.  Insects spend much less food energy and nutrients.  Important part of the circular economy.  Insects can survive on different substrates, for example,  Cereals!!  Decomposing organic materials!!  Fruit or vegetables!!  Poultry, pigs, and cow manure !!  Industry by-products or waste products, which would be environmental problems!! (Sánchez-Muros et al., 2014; Cullere et al., 2016)
  • 10. CONT…….. Insect - an efficient feed converter.
  • 11. It is believed that 30% of the food produced is wasted, with vegetables and fruits being the most wasted at up to 50%. Insects can be grown on poor- quality bio-waste and converted into protein of excellent quality, thus maintaining a circular economy. https://eatsens.com/blogs/news/infographics
  • 12. What is Insect Meal?  Chickens given access to outdoor areas picked insects at all stages of life and consumed them voluntarily, indicating that they have evolved to consume insects as an integral component of their diet. (Bovera et al., 2015).  Insects may consume animal manure and food waste, reducing pollution but giving protein (larvae) and fertilizer.  Insects transform waste into proteins by lowering total nitrogen excretion, odors, and methane emissions, saving up to 80% of waste mass.  The FAO strongly recommends utilizing insects as human food and animal feed as a measure of poverty alleviation (FAO 2010).  The feeding of insect meal= Entomophagy
  • 13. Commonly used insect species as feed (Varelas et al., 2019)
  • 14. Nutritional Benefits of Insect Meal for Poultry  The nutritional composition of insects depends on their Metamorphic stage, Habitat and Diet. https://eatsens.com/blogs/news/infographics
  • 15. Chemical Composition's Fig: Type of economical insect their chemical composition and nutritive value https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2023.1200031/full Feed Ingredients CP% Soyabean meal 44-48% Fish meal 60-62% (Bovero et al.,2015)
  • 16. Fig: CP & CF value of different insect at various life stages on DMB (Makkar et al., 2014; Koutsos et al.,2019; Wanapat et al., 2022) CONT……..
  • 17. Functional properties of insects  Insect-derived bioactive compounds fall into three categories: 1. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs): Insects produce AMPs to protect themselves from microbial infections, which is also functional for poultry.  Antimicrobial peptide P5 is an antibiotic alternative that acts as a growth promoter (Choi et al., 2013).  Additionally, antimicrobial peptides enhance growth performance, nutritional digestion, gut health, and immunological function (Wang et al.,2016). 2. Fatty acids(Lauric acid):  Lauric acid possesses antiviral and antibacterial properties (Lieberman et al., 2006)  It enhances FCR and breast meat yield. 3. Polysaccharides(Chitin):  In insects, It present as both chitin and chitosan in high amounts.  Chitin, which constitutes the main component of their exoskeleton, is a polymer of β-1,4 N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (Ojha et al., 2021).  The chitin content of BSF larvae and Yellow mealworm larvae was estimated to be 5.4 % & 2.8% of DM (Finke et al., 2013).  The inclusion of chitin has a positive effect on the immune system.
  • 18. Current Research and Studies on Insect Meal for Poultry (Adli et al., 2021)
  • 19. Previous Experimental Findings of Insect Meal- Poultry Better weight gain compared to other protein sources Influenced the growth and performance of the birds Improves Egg weight, yolk color, yolk weight, and shell thickness and strength Improves nutrients digestibility Enhances meat quality & Tenderness Improves immunity of flocks (Bovera et al., 2016; Biasato et al., 2016; Pieterse et al., 2019; Elahi et al., 2020)
  • 20. Insect Meal Production and Processing Insect Farming Harvesting Dehydration Grinding and Milling Quality Control Packaging and Storage Marketing and Distribution https://www.alfalaval.com/link/aac31517d6fd4b3097d71d2f70394efe.aspx
  • 21. Environmental Benefits of Using Insect Meal  Production of greenhouse gasses (GHG) is considered an important cause of climate change.  Inclusion of insects in the poultry diet reduces GHG emissions & insects have great potential as a sustainable food resource.
  • 22. Challenges of insect meal in poultry feed  The present price of insect meals is on the higher side.  Because, the production volumes of fish meal, high-quality soybean meal extract, and soybean meal are hundreds or thousands of times greater than those of insect protein sources (Kovitvadhi et al., 2021). This shows that insect meal might not be as sustainable as other protein sources at this moment.  However, according to Rabo bank, insect meal consumption will reach 500,000 tons by 2030, accounting for only 0.2% of the current soybean meal use.  By scaling up their production, insect-producing companies can enhance the affordability and stability of their products, surpassing other protein products in the market. (Wilk et al., 2023; Płatek et al., 2023) 1. Economical challenges
  • 23.  The current EU regulation (Regulation No. 1069/2009), defines insect meals as “processed animal protein”, which is an obstacle to the incorporation of insects in animal feed.  Due to regulatory concerns, the chances for employing and feeding insects in EU nations remain limited, but in India, there is no such regulation yet. (Biasato et al., 2016)  Feeding insect meals to poultry species may vary based on specific regulations and approval processes of various countries. 2. Regulation challenges
  • 24.  Insects are recognized as disease carriers and there is a threat that insect-borne diseases could transfer to poultry, and humans (Makkar et al., 2014).  Black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens) does not carry any disease-causing agent.  Housefly (HF; Musca domestica) is a carrier of Entomophthora spp. Fungus.  House cricket (Acheta domesticus) is a carrier of Metarhizium sp. fungus and cricket paralysis virus.  Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) is a carrier of Beauveria bassiana fungus (Eilenberg J, et al., 2015). 3. Other Challenges - risk profile of Insects
  • 25. Future Prospects of insect meal  The future of insect meal needs potential developments.  By enabling advancements in insect production technology and efficiency, there is potential to increase the scale of production and decrease costs, making insect meals more competitive with traditional protein sources (Moreki et al., 2012; Khan et al., 2013).  More research is required to determine :  Insect nutritional value.  Potentially harmful components.  Develop decontamination techniques.  Develop storage conditions (Priyadharsini et al., 2016).  Insects can be used synergistically with other alternate sources of protein, including plant-based proteins, to create nutritionally balanced poultry diets.
  • 26. Conclusions  Insect meal has tremendous potential as an alternative for protein in poultry nutrition, with several benefits including nutritional value & cost-effectiveness.  The demand for protein is increasing, and conventional protein sources are experiencing some challenges. Alternative protein sources in feed, including plant-based proteins and insect meal, represent a potentially sustainable solution to these issues.  However, there are drawbacks and restrictions to their use as well, such as the requirement for large-scale insect production, legal frameworks, and customer acceptance.  Future research and development could help address these issues and boost the use of insect meal as a protein source in chicken feed.  Insect meal can be considered as an alternative to other protein sources- Backyard poultry & small-scale poultry farms.
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