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MEDIA LITERACY INDEX OF UKRAINIANS
special deep-dive research 2023:
VETERANS OF RUSSIA-UKRAINE WAR
ANALYTICAL REPORT BASED ON THE RESULTS OF A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY
The report is based on the findings of a quantitative study conducted on behalf of the
NGO "Media Detector” by the New Image Marketing Group research agency,
compiled by Marta Naumova, a researcher at the Institute of Sociology
of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
© DETECTOR MEDIA NGO
April 2024
TABLE OF CONTENTS
2
1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2. MEDIA LITERACY INDEX OF UKRAINIANS
2.1. Conceptual model of the Ukrainian Media Literacy Index
2.2. Indicators of the Ukrainian Media Literacy Index — 2023 and subindices
3. DETAILED RESULTS OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY
3.1. The role of media in society and their impact on the audience
3.2. Perception of the media industry
• Perceptions of the Ukrainian media landscape
• Attitude to public broadcasting
3.3. Media consumption: sources and frequency of receiving information on social and political topics
3.4. Usage of the Internet and digital competence
3.5. Media literacy: trust in media and sensitivity to distorted content
3.6. Socio-demographic profile of respondents
4. KEY FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
3
1. METHODOLOGY AND
MAIN FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4
Purpose of the study — to determine the level of media literacy among veterans of the war with Russia.
Methodology: quantitative research using face-to-face interviews with a standardized questionnaire on a tablet (CAPI).
Geography: a national study.
Sample size: 200 respondents.
Target audience: veterans of the war with Russia.
Sample type: purposive.
Sample design:
Field stage: December 23, 2022 — January 12, 2023, conducted by New Image Marketing Group.
*The survey was not conducted on the temporarily occupied territories of Donetsk, Luhansk, Zaporizhzhia, Kherson regions and the
Autonomous Republic of Crimea.
REGION
NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS TOTAL:
Men Women
18–25 26–35 36–45 46–55 56–65 18–25 26–35 36–45 46–55 56–65
West 4 14 11 13 9 1 4 3 0 0 59
North 3 15 12 5 3 0 2 3 0 0 43
Kyiv 2 2 6 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 13
Center 3 13 7 11 2 0 1 1 1 0 39
South 5 12 5 3 0 0 1 3 2 0 31
East 0 4 3 6 1 0 0 1 0 0 15
TOTAL: 17 60 44 40 15 1 8 12 3 0 200
5
2. MEDIA LITERACY INDEX OF UKRAINIANS
conceptual model and index indicators — 2023
6
MEDIA LITERACY INDEX
CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE MEDIA LITERACY INDEX
■ The model of the media literacy index was based on the concept of Len Masterman and the results of the qualitative stage of the
Practices of Media Consumption of Ukrainians: Conceptual Development of the Index of Media Literacy of the Audience,
commissioned by Detector Media NGO (January 2020).
■ The revised media competence model includes four categories and 42 indicators*:
CATEGORIES SUBCATEGORIES EMPIRICAL INDICATORS (SURVEY QUESTIONS)
I. UNDERSTANDING
(13 indicators)
• Understanding the role of media in society 1. “What, in your opinion, are the main tasks of the media in society?"
• Understanding the depth of media influence on
awareness at the level of frames of perception of
value and behavioral patterns
2. "How does the media affect you personally? Choose only the
statements you agree with"
• Understanding the work of the media industry
and perception of the Ukrainian media
landscape
3. "In your opinion, how do the media select the events they report on in
the news? Please select three main criteria for selecting news by media
outlets“
4. “In whose interests does the majority of Ukrainian media work?"
5. "Most media outlets in Ukraine are owned by...“
6. "How important is it for you to know who owns the media? "*
7. "Do you know who owns this TV channel...? "*.
• Awareness of media regulation and attitude
towards public broadcasting
8. "How is media activity regulated in Ukraine? "*
9. "Do state authorities in Ukraine control what journalists write and say?
Do we have censorship or not? "*
10. "Do you know who owns this TV channel...?"*
11. "Are there any public service media in Ukraine?“
12. "Which national television channels in Ukraine are public broadcasters?
"*
13. "Which national radio stations in Ukraine are public broadcasters?"*
* The indicator is absent from the latest wave (2022)
7
MEDIA LITERACY INDEX
CATEGORIES SUBCATEGORIES EMPIRICAL INDICATORS (SURVEY QUESTIONS)
II. USE
(4 indicators)
• Number of sources of information on
socio-political news per week
14. "What sources did you get your news from last week?"
• Length of time spent reading news per
day
15. "Please tell me, how much time per day did you spend on average reading the news in
various media?"
• Motives for using the Internet
16. "What do you usually use the Internet for? Choose only what you have done in the last
month."
• Devices used to access the Internet 17. "What device do you use most often to access the Internet?"
III. DIGITAL
COMPETENCE
(16 indicators)
• Internet as a source of news on social
and political topics
18. "Where do you get information about the social and political life of the country?"
19. "How often do you use the Internet in general?"
20. "I have accounts in more than three social networks".
• Understanding of the functioning and
terminology of new media
21. "An Internet troll is a program that imitates human activity on the Internet."
22. "A bot is a person who behaves destructively in online communication: insults,
humiliates, provokes quarrels.“
23. "Cookies are viruses that can damage your computer.“
24. "I believe that a social media feed algorithm tailored to the interests of a particular
consumer is a manipulation."
• Digital security practices
25. "I consider the issue of personal data protection on the Internet to be very relevant
today.“
26. "I usually look at the 'About' section when I first visit this resource."
27. "I almost never change my passwords to websites and social networks.“
28. "As a rule, I don't check a person's social media account if I receive a friend request
from them.“
29. "I use two-factor (two-step) authentication wherever possible."
30. "I've never used a VPN (vee-pee-en), a program that hides your IP address and
encrypts all your activities on the Internet.“
31. "Sometimes I take funny tests on the Internet and social media, for example: ‘What
movie character am I?’ etc."
• Practices of producing own media
content
32. “I can shoot a video myself, edit it and post it on the Internet”.
33. "I treat my social media profile as a tool for building my professional and business
reputation.”
8
MEDIA LITERACY INDEX
CATEGORIES SUBCATEGORIES EMPIRICAL INDICATORS (SURVEY QUESTIONS)
IV. SENSITIVITY TO
DISTORTED MEDIA
CONTENT
(9 indicators)
• Sensitivity to disinformation/fake
news
34. “Today, there is much talk about false news and disinformation spread by the
media. How relevant is this problem for you personally?”
35. "What are the signs you use to identify accurate news?"
36. "Please answer, do you additionally check the information received in the
media for accuracy or not?"
37. "How do you check information for accuracy?“
38. "Which of these sources of information do you consider accurate? Please select
all the options that you think are correct."
• Sensitivity to manipulative media
content
39. "It is said that the media can influence public opinion not only through
disinformation, but also through manipulation and distortion of information. How
relevant is this problem for you personally?“
40. "What are the signs that you identify a manipulative message/news?"
• Sensitivity to various manipulation
techniques
41. "It is said that the media can sometimes post paid-for content - hidden
advertising under the guise of regular stories. How relevant is this problem for you
personally?“
42. "What are the features you use to identify hidden advertising?"
9
MEDIA LITERACY SUBINDICES
5 7 12 10 9 6 10 5 3 3
27 28
50
62
36
29 20
19 21 18
53 48
38
27
40
50
37 44
62
60
15 18
1 1
15 15
33 33
14 20
Low Below average Above average High
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans).
%
9
SUBINDEX IV: SENSITIVITY TO
DISTORTED CONTENT
MEDIA LITERACY
INDEX
SUBINDEX I:
UNDERSTANDING
SUBINDEX II: USE SUBINDEX III:
DIGITAL COMPETENCE
Ukrainians
18-65 y.o.
veterans
- Statistically significant difference
veterans veterans veterans veterans
Ukrainians
18-65 y.o.
Ukrainians
18-65 y.o.
Ukrainians
18-65 y.o.
Ukrainians
18-65 y.o.
■ The level of the overall media literacy index among veterans is higher than among the Ukrainian audience aged
18 to 65. The share of the audience with an above-average level of media literacy among veterans is 80%, while
among Ukrainians in general, it is 76%. At the same time, the share of people with a high level of media
competence among veterans is 6% higher compared to the total population: 20% and 14%, respectively.
■ Veterans are characterized by higher digital competence and sensitivity to distorted media content than the
general population of Ukraine.
,91
1,25
1,48
1,70
1,93
2,16
2,39
2,61
2,84
3,07
3,30
3,52
3,75
3,98
4,20
4,43
4,66
4,89
5,11
5,34
5,57
5,80
6,02
6,25
6,48
6,70
6,93
7,16
7,39
7,61
7,84
8,07
8,52
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
MEDIA LITERACY INDEX ー 2023
Number of
respondents
MEDIA LITERACY INDEX VALUES
■ The standardized media literacy
index ranges from 0 to 10 points,
where 0 is the lowest level of media
literacy and 10 is the highest.
■ For ease of interpretation, the index
was recoded into a 4-point scale.
■ According to the findings, 3% of
veterans have low media literacy,
18% have below average, 60% have
above average media literacy, and
one in five (20%) have high media
literacy.
Low level High level
Below average Above average
3 18
60
20
Low Below average Above average High
Sample size: veterans, N= 200.
%
10
11
3.1. The role of media in society and its impact on the
audience
3. DETAILED RESULTS
OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY
12
THE ROLE OF MEDIA IN SOCIETY
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: In your opinion, what are the main tasks of the
media in society? Please select no more than three options.
70
36
35
35
26
14
11
2
3
69
36
29
41
42
9
11
3
2
Inform about socially important
events
To educate, to teach. Provide useful
information on various topics
Broadcast certain values that are
important for society and the state
Be a platform for dialogue between
the state and society
Entertain the audience
Control the government
Be a platform for discussions
between ordinary people
Other
Hard to say
Ukrainians,
18-65 y.o.
Veterans
%
■ Veterans of the war with Russia are more likely than Ukrainians in general to emphasize the social significance of the
media in controlling the government (42% vs. 26%) and in broadcasting certain values important to society and the
country (41% vs. 35%).
13
MEDIA INFLUENCE ON THE AUDIENCE
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: How does the media affect you personally?
Please select only those statements with which you agree.
■ There is no significant difference in understanding the impact of media on the audience between veterans and Ukrainians
in general. Most often, veterans state the influence of the media on their emotional state (48%), on assessments of socio-
political events (31%), and on setting the agenda 一 topics/events I will think about (29%).
46
34
31
21
20
19
10
3
21
48
31
29
19
18
20
10
2
24
Emotional state (annoy, upset, happy, etc.)
On the assessment of the socio-political
situation
The media draws attention to events that I
will think about
On the attitude toward public figures
On interests, life values
On political choices
On the choice of goods and services
Hard to say
Do not influence me in any way
Ukrainians
, 18-65
y.o.
Veterans
%
14
3.2. Perceptions of the media industry and perception
of the Ukrainian media landscape
3. DETAILED RESULTS
OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY
15
IN WHOSE INTERESTS THE MEDIA OPERATE
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: In whose interests does the majority of Ukrainian media
work?; In your opinion, how do the media select the events they report on in the news? Please select no more than three options.
30
25
13
12
7
2
1
10
33
18
19
11
7
7
1
6
Owners and investors
The Ukrainian state
Advertisers
Societies as a whole
Their viewers, readers
International Western organizations
Russia
Hard to say
Ukrainians,
18-65 y.o.
Veterans
%
47
38
27
27
22
13
13
13
11
11
5
42
36
31
21
21
16
13
15
17
13
3
Events of the greatest social significance
Sensational events that will attract
attention and cause a stir
Events that media owners are interested
in covering
The freshest, most relevant events are
selected
Maintain a balance between events from
different areas: politics, economics,…
Maintain a balance between negative
and positive events
Events that can evoke strong emotions
Events that advertisers are interested in
covering
Events centered on famous people:
politicians, celebrities, etc.
Events that seem important or interesting
to journalists
Hard to say
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
39
27
31
32
20
28
10
13
Veterans
Ukrainians
, 18-65
Rather negative Both negative and positive
Rather positive Have not heard of the telethon
16
ATTITUDE TO THE UNITED TELETHON
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: What do you think of the United News telethon
that has been broadcast on all TV channels since the beginning of the full-scale war with Russia?
* The difference is significant at the level of 0,05.
40
61
74
82
41
54
68
74
The telethon is a justified format in times
of war.
The telethon broadcasts only one official
point of view on the events. This is
unacceptable even in times of war.
The telethon embellishes reality. It does
not tell all the facts that citizens need to
know to make informed decisions.
Because of the embellishment of reality
and the lack of different points of view
in the telethon, I look for information in…
Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans
%
49
49
34
30
16
17
2
5
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-
65
Yes, I support
It depends on who is criticizing and why
No, I do not support
Hard to say
■ The attitude to the telethon format among veterans is more
negative compared to the Ukrainian audience as a whole
(39% vs. 27%).
■ However, attitudes toward criticizing the government do not
seem to differ. Both among veterans and the general
population, 49% support criticism of the authorities.
17
CHANGE IN MEDIA PREFERENCES
Sample size: veterans, N = 200. Question: How have your media preferences changed over the past year? What programs have you started
watching/listening/reading less often or, on the contrary, more often?
7
5
3
3
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
53
25
49
14
51
39
26
2
1
3
1
19
39
35
38
34
39
45
7
10
9
8
12
19
5
31
10
14
19
4
16
7
10
9
8
6
15
3
5
9
86
72
79
79
1
6
3
2
2
3
2
1
1
3
2
Military experts
Social and political
Ukrainian-made
Entertainment (movies/series, comedy
shows, etc.)
Ukrainian popular music
Focused on Ukrainian history and culture
Popular science, educational
Official Russian media
Russian-made
Russian opposition media
Russian popular music
Started watching More often Nothing changed
Less often Completely stopped Hard to say
%
■ Among the changes in the media
preferences of veterans over the past
year, we should note a strong increase in
interest in Ukrainian-made products (52%)
and those dedicated to Ukrainian history
and culture and materials from military
experts (60%).
■ At the same time, 72% to 86% completely
abandoned Russian-made media
products (including music), official and
opposition socio-political content.
18
DOES UKRAINE HAVE PUBLIC SERVICE MEDIA?
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: Are there public broadcasters in Ukraine?
* The difference is significant at the level of 0,05.
54
22
23
49
28
23
Yes, there are
There aren't
Hard to say
Ukrainians,
18-65
Veterans
%
THE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC SERVICE MEDIA
6
5
19
10
16
45
8
4
12
9
15
52
Hard to say
It doesn't matter: public media lose out
to commercial media in terms of quality
and professionalism
It doesn't matter: I don't believe in
media independence
It is important because they have to
report on social issues, culture, science
It is important because they are not
interested in manipulation
It is important because they work in the
interests of the whole society, not the
owner
Ukrainians,
18-65
Veterans
■ Compared to the entire Ukrainian audience, veterans
are less informed about the existence of public service
media in Ukraine: 49% know about their existence
(among Ukrainians 一 54%).
■ Three out of four veterans (71%) believe that the existence of public
broadcasting in the country is important. The share of those who do not
believe in the independence of the media is higher among veterans
than among the Ukrainian audience as a whole (19% vs. 12%)
19
3.3. Media consumption: sources and frequency of
receiving information on socio-political topics
3. KEY FINDINGS
62
55
33
31
31
28
16
9
9
8
4
1
65
59
30
36
21
21
13
6
8
7
2
2
Social networks (Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, Twitter,
etc.)
Messengers (Telegram, WhatsApp, Viber, etc.)
Communication with friends, neighbors, and colleagues
Online information resources (online publications, news
aggregators, etc.)
United News national telethon
Communication with family members
Broadcasts on TV channels that do not broadcast the
marathon (5, Espreso, Pryamyi, 24, etc.)
Regional TV channels
Radio stations (Hit FM, Lux FM, Shanson, KiSS FM, etc.)
Public Broadcasting (Pershyi and Kultura TV channels;
Ukrainian Radio, Promin, Kultura radio stations; Suspilne
Novyny on the website or in messengers)
Print media (newspapers/magazines)
Dom state-run TV channel or its stories on the Internet
Українці
"18-65"
Ветерани
20
SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: Where do you get information about the social and political
life of the country?
%
■ The share of veterans who use
instant messengers and online
information resources to
obtain information about
social and political life is higher
than among Ukrainians in
general: 59% and 36%,
respectively.
■ At the same time, veterans are
less likely to watch the national
telethon (21%) and rely on
communication with family
members as a source of
information about social and
political life (21%).
21
SOURCE USAGE DURING
THE LAST WEEK
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: From which sources did you receive news over the past week? How
often did you turn to (name of media outlet) for news during the week? (Among those who use this media outlet.)
53
52
32
27
24
5
3
2
56
57
24
26
24
7
2
2
Messengers (Telegram, WhatsApp,
Viber, etc.)
Social networks (Facebook, YouTube,
Instagram, Twitter, etc.)
Television
Online information resources (online
publications, news aggregators, etc.)
Video blogs on YouTube or other
services
Radio
Podcasts (published in the media or
on Google podcasts, Apple
podcasts, Spotify, etc.)
Print media (newspapers/magazines)
Ukrainians,
18-65
Veterans
% Frequency of obtaining news, %
49
75
73
66
64
36
76
51
53
56
53
54
15
33
32
0
34
13
16
22
21
34
13
29
24
19
26
15
27
33
24
25
11
9
7
6
9
21
6
10
13
10
18
23
23
0
24
0
4
2
2
4
4
6
4
8
7
8
3
8
35
0
18
25
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
3
6
0
0
33
3
50
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Several
times a
day
Once a
day
Several
times a
week
Once a
week
Hard to
say
22
SOURCE USAGE DURING THE DAY
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: How much time per day did you spend on average reading
news in different media?
The duration of receiving news during the day, %
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Television
Print media
Radio
Online information
resources
Social networks
Video blogs on YouTube
or other services
Messengers
Podcasts
29
28
58
75
27
23
38
47
34
46
36
44
42
47
38
33
31
43
31
0
24
23
31
26
28
34
26
33
27
32
32
33
18
13
4
0
13
15
17
16
22
11
19
17
15
13
18
0
19
15
4
0
32
39
13
10
15
6
16
4
15
6
6
0
3
2
4
25
3
2
2
1
3
3
2
2
2
6
33
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Up to 30
minutes.
From 30
minutes to 1
hour
From 1 hour
to 2 hours
More than 2
hours
Hard to say
23
3.4. Internet use and digital competence
3. KEY FINDINGS
24
FREQUENCY OF INTERNET USE
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: How often do you use the Internet in general?
92
91
3
2
1
1
2
1
4
6
Veterans
Ukrainians,
18-65
Every day or almost every day 2-5 times a week
Once a week Less than once a week
I do not use the Internet at all
* The difference is significant at the level of 0,05.
%
96
24
12
10
8
98
19
7
8
4
Smartphone
Laptop
Tablet
Desktop PC
Smart TV
Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans
%
■ Among veterans, 92% access the Internet daily or
almost daily, and only 4% do not use the Internet
at all.
■ The absolute leader among Internet access devices is
the smartphone, with 98% of veterans using it most often.
Laptops (19%) and tablets (7%) are in second place with
a large margin. 8% most often use a desktop computer,
and 4% use a smart TV.
0
75
74
57
50
36
34
18
18
17
15
13
10
10
4
3
0
74
73
57
52
31
30
9
20
15
14
14
14
7
3
2
Getting to know the news
Looking for required information
Communicating in social networks, instant
messengers (instant messaging services)
Watching videos and movies
Shopping online
Making online payments
Studying: taking courses, workshops, etc.
Watching online TV/streams
Download photo/video/audio files
Playing online games
Commenting and participate in discussions
Listening to the radio, podcasts
Creating and posting my own content:
publications, photos, videos, audio files
Creating my own pages, channels, websites
for professional / reputational / commercial…
Other
Ряд1 Ряд3
25
MOTIVES FOR USING THE INTERNET
Sample size: those who use the Internet, N = 1132 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), and N = 192 (veterans). Question: What do you usually use the Internet for? Choose
only what you have done in the last month. Are you interested in astrological forecasts?
■ The main motivations for using the Internet
among veterans are to read the news
(74%) and search for necessary
information (73%).
■ Only 15% of veterans are interested in
astrological forecasts; 70% do not view
such content.
15
19
15
21
70
60
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Yes Sometimes No
39
33
26
84
52
51
41
37
24
33
49
36
37
16
11
13
8
6
21
10
17
16
14
15
3
14
11
8
21
39
32
6
17
37
38
43
57
41
46
45
48
73
29
15
35
4
11
3
5
4
6
11
2
5
4
2
An Internet troll is a program that imitates human activity on the Internet.
A bot is a person who behaves destructively in online communication: insults,
humiliates, provokes quarrels.
Cookies are viruses that can damage your computer.
I believe that the issue of personal data protection on the Internet is very relevant
today.
I believe that the social media newsfeed algorithm, tailored to the interests of a
particular consumer, is a manipulation.
I can shoot a video myself, edit it, and post it on the Internet.
I usually look at the "About" section when I first visit a website.
I almost never change my passwords to websites and social networks.
As a rule, I don't check a person's social media account if I receive a friend request
from them.
I use two-factor (two-step) authentication wherever possible.
I have accounts in more than three social networks.
I treat maintaining my own social media profile as a tool for building my
professional and business reputation.
I've never used a VPN, a program that hides your IP address and encrypts all your
internet activity.
Sometimes I take joke tests on the Internet and social networks, for example: "What
kind of movie character am I?" etc.
Yes It depends/partially No Hard to say
40
28
24
87
64
54
40
44
21
39
51
31
39
14
11
14
10
8
18
12
21
20
16
24
3
17
15
8
23
44
39
4
13
33
35
33
60
29
45
50
46
77
26
15
27
2
6
1
3
3
3
8
1
3
1
2
26
DIGITAL LITERACY
Sample size: those who use the Internet, N = 1132 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), and N = 192 (veterans) . Question: Now I'm going to read out a few statements, and
you will say whether you agree with them or not.
Ukrainians, 18-65
% Veterans
27
SELF-ASSESSMENT
OF DIGITAL LITERACY LEVEL
Sample size: those who use the Internet, N = 1132 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), and N = 192 (veterans). Question: How would you rate your level of digital literacy?
Please rate yourself on a 10-point scale, where 1 is extremely low and 10 is high.
3
6
6
11
30
33
38
28
19
12
5
8
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
1 - extremely low 2 3 4 5 - high level Hard to say
%
Average score of digital
literacy assessment on a
5-point scale
3,4
3,7
■ The average self-assessment of digital
literacy among veterans is 3.7 points. This is
higher than the self-assessment of Ukrainians
in general (3.4 points).
■ 57% of veterans who are Internet users rate
their digital competence as above average;
30% rate it as average, and 9% consider
their level to be below average or low.
28
3.5. Media literacy: trust in media and sensitivity
to distorted content
3. KEY FINDINGS
29
DISINFORMATION IN THE MEDIA:
RELEVANCY OF THE PROBLEM
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: Today, there is a lot of talk about false news and
disinformation spread by the media. How relevant is this problem for you personally?
41
23
18
5
9
5
44
22
19
6
6
4
It is relevant because fakes form false
perceptions among citizens
Relevant, I can't always distinguish
between manipulated fakes
Irrelevant, I can distinguish them and
don't pay attention
Irrelevant, I hardly see any disinformation
in the media
Irrelevant, this is the first time I've heard of
it
Hard to say
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
%
■ The significance of the problem of
disinformation is emphasized by 66% of
veterans. This figure is 64% among Ukrainians.
30
FEATURES OF RELIABLE NEWS
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: What are the features that you use to identify accurate news?
Please select three main features.
46
37
34
30
28
17
10
10
6
4
5
41
41
31
32
29
21
9
10
6
3
4
Published in a media outlet I trust
There is a link to the source
Different points of view on the event are
presented
There is a photo/video that confirms the
information
Good reputation of the author
I decide intuitively
Popularity, fame of the author
The news doesn't contradict my beliefs, it
looks like the truth
The headline is not sensational or shocking
I trust almost all messages until I find a
refutation
Hard to say
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
%
■ Among the main signs of reliable news,
veterans say that the material contains a link
to the source of information (41%) and is
published in a trusted media outlet (41%).
■ 21% of veterans make decisions intuitively.
31
CHECKING INFORMATION FOR ACCURACY
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: Do you additionally check the information received in the media
for accuracy or not?
33
10
5
6
19
26
2
30
11
9
9
14
26
3
I check more than 15% of the
information
I check 10 to 15% of the information
I check 5 to 10% of the information
I check up to 5%
I don't check for accuracy as much
as I look for more complete, detailed
information
I never check
Hard to say
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
%
66
29
25
21
18
13
12
9
3
5
72
30
28
21
19
15
12
9
1
3
Looking for confirmation of the news
in other media
Evaluating the credibility of the source
to which the link is made
Searching for the original source of
information to which there is a link
Reading user comments (if the
material is in online media)
Looking at the reputation of the
media
Considering the owner of the media
outlet
Looking for information on
experts/commentators of events
Looking for information about the
author
Other
Hard to say
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
■ The share of Ukrainians who check information for accuracy is 5% lower than
among veterans (54% and 59%, respectively).
■ 72% of veterans look for confirmation of the news in other media, 28% look for
the primary source of information to which there is a link; 30% assess the
reliability of the source to which there is a link.
32
TRUSTWORTHY INFORMATION SOURCES
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: Which of these sources of information do you consider
trustworthy? Select all that apply.
56
39
31
27
3
12
54
31
29
25
3
16
Interview with an eyewitness
Links to information from
official Ukrainian authorities
Opinion of a well-known
expert
Official press releases on
government websites
Webpage of an expert,
organization or authority
from Russia
Hard to say
Ukrainians,
18-65
Veterans
%
■ Veterans trust interviews with eyewitnesses (54%),
references to Ukrainian authorities (31%), and
opinions of well-known experts (29%) the most.
33
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: How would you rate your ability to distinguish between
disinformation and accurate information? Please rate on a 10-point scale, where 1 is extremely low and 10 is high.
2
4
5
7
28
35
39
36
20
16
8
3
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
1 - extremely low 2 3 4 5 - high level Hard to say
Average score of personal
sensitivity to disinformation
on a 5-point scale
3,5
3,8
DISINFORMATION IN THE MEDIA:
SENSITIVITY TO FAKES
%
■ Veterans rated their sensitivity to
disinformation at 3.8 points on a 5-point
scale. While the Ukrainian audience as a
whole scored 3.5 points.
43
41
37
26
19
18
17
14
2
5
39
50
36
29
20
20
19
16
1
3
Only one side of the story is covered
Information is incomplete or
inaccurate
No references to the source
Not enough arguments, too many
clichés, labels, stereotypical…
I decide intuitively
Unknown or biased experts comment
on the event
Excessive emotional intensity
Information contradicts my
understanding of the…
Other
Hard to say
Ukrainians,
18-65
Veterans
34
MANIPULATION IN THE MEDIA:
RELEVANCE OF THE PROBLEM
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: It is said that the media can influence public opinion not only
through disinformation but also through manipulation and distortion of information. How relevant is this problem for you personally?
39
20
15
14
6
5
42
25
16
9
7
2
Relevant because manipulations
form false perceptions among
citizens
Relevant, I can't always distinguish
the techniques used by the media
Irrelevant, I can distinguish them and
don't pay attention
Irrelevant, this is the first time I've
heard of it
Irrelevant, I hardly see any
manipulations in the media
Hard to say
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
%
37
%
35
WHO DISTORTS MEDIA CONTENT AND WHY
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: In your opinion, who manipulates information and spreads fakes
and why? Choose three main sources of distorted messages.
68
41
32
26
22
20
17
5
70
43
35
22
18
28
16
6
Politicians, political forces to discredit
opponents and/or promote their own positive
image
Influence groups, oligarchs to promote their
own interests
The government to promote a certain
ideology or interests
Owners of various media to increase the
number of visits to their sites and earn money
from advertising, etc.
Producers of goods and services to increase
their chances of successful competition in the
market
The government for the purpose of
propaganda during an information war with
another country
People who just want to do harm or draw
attention to themselves
Hard to say
Ukrainians,
18-65
Veterans
%
■ According to veterans, media content is most often
distorted in the interests of politicians and political
forces to promote their positive image (70%).
■ Notably, the share of veterans who believe that the
government is an institution interested in producing
distorted content is 28%. This is higher than among
the Ukrainian audience as a whole (20%).
36
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: How would you rate your sensitivity to manipulation in the media?
Please rate yourself on a 10-point scale, where 1 means that I usually do not feel that my opinion is being manipulated, and 10 means that I almost always
feel that manipulation is being attempted.
Average score of self-
assessment of sensitivity to
manipulation on a 5-point
scale
3,4
3,5
MANIPULATION IN THE MEDIA:
SENSITIVITY TO MANIPULATION
5
6
9
9
24
30
35
25
17
13
12
17
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
1 - extremely low 2 3 4 5 - high level Hard to say
%
■ The average self-assessment score of
sensitivity to manipulation among
veterans of the war with Russia is 3.5
points on a 5-point scale.
37
HIDDEN ADVERTISING IN THE MEDIA:
THE RELEVANCE AND FEATURES OF THE PROBLEM
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: It is said that the media can sometimes publish advertorials —
hidden advertising under the guise of regular stories. How relevant is this problem for you personally?
38
19
17
16
5
6
42
19
18
15
5
3
Relevant, because hidden advertising
creates misconceptions among citizens
Relevant, I can't always identify hidden
advertising
Irrelevant, I can identify and ignore
them
Irrelevant, this is the first time I've heard
of it
Irrelevant, I don't see any hidden
advertising in the media
Hard to say
Ukrainians,
18-65
Veterans
%
50
28
22
15
28
9
43
32
28
16
28
8
One-sidedness: only positive or
negative aspects of a person, group,
or product are covered
The story contributes to the visibility of
a person, organization or product
Assessments are always present:
positive or negative
Informing about formal events of
officials and public figures who are
not of public importance
I decide intuitively
Hard to say
Ukrainians,
18-65
Veterans
■ More than half of veterans (61%) state that the problem of hidden advertising
in the media is relevant; 33% consider it irrelevant; 15% have heard of it for
the first time.
38
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: How would you rate your ability to identify hidden advertising in
the media? Please rate on a 10-point scale, where 1 means I usually cannot identify hidden advertising, and 10 means I can identify hidden advertising
immediately.
Average score of self-
assessment of sensitivity to
hidden advertising on a 5-
point scale
3,4
3,5
HIDDEN ADVERTISING IN THE MEDIA:
ABILITY TO DETECT DZHYNSA
2
6
7
9
33
27
28
25
14
13
17
20
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
1 - extremely low 2 3 4 5 - high level Hard to say
%
■ The average score for assessing their
own sensitivity to hidden advertising
among veterans is 3.5 points, and
among Ukrainians in general 一 3.4
points on a 5-point scale.
39
NEWS REQUIREMENTS
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: What are your personal requirements for news? Are the following
features important to you or not?
9
26
38
58
54
58
62
73
75
68
74
77
83
87
88
90
93
23
39
29
28
28
27
23
14
17
23
19
17
8
9
9
6
4
66
33
27
11
12
15
9
11
7
8
4
5
7
3
2
3
3
2
3
7
4
7
2
6
3
2
1
4
2
2
2
2
2
1
11
36
37
55
56
58
70
78
78
78
82
82
84
89
92
92
93
23
34
33
27
24
26
18
13
13
13
11
12
8
6
5
5
3
64
25
23
13
12
14
7
7
7
7
3
4
5
3
2
2
2
3
5
7
6
8
2
5
3
3
1
4
2
3
2
2
2
Scandalousness, hype
Ability to evoke strong emotions
Unpredictability of information, the news is surprising
Only facts, no opinions
Separating facts from opinions
Illustrations (photos, videos)
Conciseness
Balance of opinions, coverage of different points of view
Facts and assessments of the event
Interesting delivery
Social significance
Personal interest in the topic
Quality analytics
Accuracy (checked titles, names, figures)
Promptness (timeliness)
Completeness of information
Credibility (truthfulness)
Important Not very important Unimportant Hard to say
Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65
%
40
JOURNALISTIC ETHICS
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: Have you ever come across any media stories in which…
55
59
47
57
60
69
45
42
53
44
40
32
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Yes, I have No, I have not
Did you come across any stories in which..., %
The right to privacy was violated
Hate speech was used: direct insults,
threats
Gossip and slander were contained
%
■ Veterans are more likely than Ukrainians in general to have encountered violations of ethical standards in the media. 59% noted
violations of the right to respect for private life; more than two-thirds (69%) noted gossip and slander in the media; 57% recalled
hate speech: direct insults and threats.
41
JOURNALISTIC ETHICS
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: Please tell us, have you ever come across any media stories that
showed a biased or negative attitude towards people... (discrimination)?
68
71
44
43
50
52
48
52
50
52
51
54
41
43
34
36
32
29
56
57
50
48
52
49
50
49
49
47
59
57
66
64
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
Yes, I have No, I have not
Have you seen any stories that showed a biased attitude towards people…. %
For political or ideological
reasons
For sexual orientation
For gender or age
For religious beliefs
Toward people with disabilities
For any other social characteristics
For ethnicity or race
Toward internally displaced persons
%
42
SELF-ASSESSMENT OF MEDIA LITERACY LEVEL
Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: How would you assess your level of media literacy? Please rate
yourself on a 10-point scale, where 1 is an extremely low level and 10 is a high level.
Average score of media
literacy self-assessment on a
5-point scale
3,3
3,5
4
7
8
12
41
37
33
31
13
10
3
4
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
1 - extremely low 2 3 4 5 - high level Hard to say
%
■ The average self-assessment score for media
literacy is higher among veterans (3.5 points)
than among the Ukrainian audience as a
whole (3.3 points).
42
43
AWARENESS OF MEDIA EDUCATION
Sample size: all respondents, N= 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N= 200 (veterans). Question: Have you heard of any courses (workshops, seminars) or
academic subjects in media education where you can improve your media literacy? Have any acquaintances, friends, relatives, or their children attended
classes or special courses on media education/media literacy? Have you heard of any civic initiatives/organizations that check the accuracy and
truthfulness of media materials?
Attendance of media education courses/workshops by acquaintances, %
■ More than half of Ukrainians (57%) have
heard of or personally attended media
literacy courses/trainings. This is twice as
many as in 2020.
4
7
40
46
57
47
Veterans
Ukrainians,
18-65
Personally attended the such courses
Heard about such courses but did not attend them
Have not heard of them
5
10
18
22
9
10
70
64
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
Yes, students at universities
Adults attended special courses (workshops, seminars) on media education,
including online
Yes, children at school
I don't know
%
%
15 8 4 2 2 1 14
64
21
8 5 2 4 1 13
63
Stop Fake Detector
Media
Po Toi Bik
Novyn
Nota
Yenota
VoxCheck Texty.org I don't
know any
of them
No, I have
not heard
of them
Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans
■ Veterans are less aware of civil society
organizations that check the accuracy and
truthfulness of media stories compared to
Ukrainians aged 18-65. The most frequently
mentioned organizations were Stop Fake
(21%) and Detector Media (8%).
43
44
3.6. Socio-demographic profile of respondents
3. KEY FINDINGS
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC
CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS
Gender, % Education, %
88
12
Men Women
Sample size: representatives ー veterans, N = 200.
*http://www.ukrcensus.gov.ua/
9
34
28
22
8
18-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56-65 років
Age, %
Language of communication
in the family, %
11
41
48
Primary, secondary
general
Secondary specialized
Complete/incomplete
higher
62
7 25 7
Ukrainian Russian Surzhyk or a mixture of
Ukrainian and Russian
In Ukrainian or Russian,
depending on the
person talking to
■ The socio-demographic characteristics of the
respondents correspond to the actual
distributions among the adult population of
Ukraine according to the State Statistics
Service*.
100
0
Yes No
Participation in combat as a serviceperson, %
45
Sample size: representatives 一 veterans, N = 200.
62
6
5
5
5
4
3
2
2
1
1
5
Military / police officer / security
company employee
Temporarily unemployed, looking
for work
Laborer (any qualification)
Businessperson/self-employed
Unemployed and not looking for
work
Housewife
A qualified professional (doctor,
journalist, lawyer, teacher, etc.)
Pensioner
State employee
Student
Head of an enterprise/company,
deputy head
Hard to say
Employment, % Subjective assessment of family
income, %
10
24
40
27
Enough only for food
Enough to get by in
general
Enough for everything
but can't save money
Enough for everything,
we save money
Average monthly income per
family member, %
8
6
11
19
30
28
Up to UAH 3000
UAH 3001-5000
UAH 5001-7000
UAH 7001–10000
Over UAH 10,000.
REFUSAL
Region, % Settlement, %
7
22
30
20
16
8
Kyiv North West Center South East
8
20
72
Village
Other city or UTS
Regional center
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC
CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS
46
47
4. KEY FINDINGS
CONCLUSIONS
48
VETERANS' MEDIA LITERACY INDEX: 2023
THE ROLE OF MEDIA IN SOCIETY
■ The level of the general media literacy index among veterans is higher than among the Ukrainian
audience aged 18-65. The share of the audience with an above-average level of media literacy
among veterans is 80%, while among Ukrainians in general it is 76%. At the same time, the share of
people with a high level of media competence among veterans is 6% higher compared to the
general population: 20% and 14%, respectively.
■ Veterans are characterized by higher digital competence and sensitivity to distorted media content
than the general population of Ukraine.
■ According to the findings, 3% of veterans have low media literacy, 18% have below average, 60%
have above average media literacy, and one in five (20%) have high media literacy.
■ Veterans of the war with Russia are more likely than Ukrainians in general to point out the public
importance of the media in controlling the government (42% vs. 26%) and in broadcasting certain
values important to society and the state (41% vs. 35%).
■ There is no significant difference in understanding the impact of media on the audience
between veterans and Ukrainians in general. Most often, veterans state that the media
influence their emotional state (48%), their assessment of social and political events (31%), and
the formation of an agenda - topics/events that I will think about (29%).
49
PERCEPTION OF THE MEDIA INDUSTRY AND PERCEPTION OF THE UKRAINIAN MEDIA SPACE
CHANGES IN MEDIA PREFERENCES
■ Among the changes in the media preferences of veterans over the past year, we should note a
strong increase in interest in Ukrainian-made content (52%), and pieces on Ukrainian history and
culture; as well as content by military experts (60%).
■ At the same time, 72% to 86% completely abandoned Russian-made media products (including
music), as well as official and opposition socio-political content.
■ The attitude to the telethon format among veterans is more negative compared to the Ukrainian
audience as a whole (39% vs. 27%).
■ However, attitudes toward criticizing the government do not appear to differ. Both among veterans
and the general population, 49% support criticism of the government.
■ Compared to the general Ukrainian audience, veterans are less informed about the existence of
public service media in Ukraine: 49% are aware of their existence (54% among Ukrainians). Three out
of four veterans (70%) consider the existence of public service media in the country to be important.
The share of those who do not believe in the independence of the media is higher among veterans
than among the Ukrainian audience as a whole (19% vs. 12%).
CONCLUSIONS
50
MEDIA CONSUMPTION: SOURCES AND FREQUENCY OF RECEIVING INFORMATION ON SOCIAL AND POLITICAL TOPICS
INTERNET USE AND DIGITAL COMPETENCE
■ The share of veterans who use instant messengers and online information resources to obtain
information about social and political life is higher than among Ukrainians in general: 59% and 36%,
respectively.
■ At the same time, veterans are less likely to watch the national telethon (21%) and political life
(21%). and are more likely to communicate with family members as a source of information
about social
■ Among veterans, 92% access the Internet daily or almost daily, and only 4% do not use the
Internet at all.
■ Among the devices for accessing the Internet, the absolute leader is the smartphone, with 98%
of veterans using it most often. Laptops (19%) and tablets (7%) are in second place with a
large margin. 8% use a desktop computer most often, and 4% use a smart TV.
CONCLUSIONS
51
MEDIA LITERACY: TRUST IN MEDIA AND SENSITIVITY TO DISTORTED CONTENT
■ The importance of the problem of disinformation is emphasized by 66% of veterans. This figure is
64% among Ukrainians.
■ Among the main signs of reliable news, veterans say that the piece contains a reference to
the source of information (41%), it is published in a trusted media outlet (41%); 21% of veterans
make their decision intuitively.
■ The share of Ukrainians who check information for reliability is 5% lower than among veterans
(54% and 59%, respectively). 72% of veterans look for confirmation of news in other media, 28%
look for the original source of information to which there is a link; 30% assess the reliability of the
source to which there is a link.
■ Veterans trust interviews with eyewitnesses (54%), references to Ukrainian authorities (31%),
and opinions of well-known experts (29%) the most.
■ According to veterans, media content is most often distorted in the interests of politicians and
political forces to promote their positive image (70%). Remarkably, the share of veterans who
believe that the government is an institution interested in producing distorted content is 28%. This
is higher than among the Ukrainian audience as a whole (20%).
CONCLUSIONS
52
AWARENESS OF MEDIA EDUCATION
■ Veterans are less aware of civil society organizations that check the accuracy and truthfulness of
media materials compared to Ukrainians aged 18-65.
■ Stop Fake (21%) and Detector Media (8%) were mentioned most often.
CONCLUSIONS
53
DAILY USAGE OF
TELEGRAM CHANNELS
Sample size: those who use the Internet, N = 1132 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), and N =192 (veterans). Question: How many Telegram channels do you read
every day?
* The difference is significant at the level of 0,05.
30
34
10
10
4
12
30
30
14
8
6
12
1-2
from 3 to 6
from 7 to 10
Over 10
Hard to say
I don't use Telegram
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
%
54
Sample size: those who use Telegram, N = 992 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 169 (veterans). Question: Who are the authors of the Telegram channels you
subscribe to?
56
%
40
24
14
10
4
10
34
30
9
10
6
11
I don't pay attention to who runs the
Telegram channel, interesting content is
most important
I am mostly subscribed to Telegram
channels of professional media, officials
and government agencies
Mostly subscribed to monitor Telegram
channels to keep track of the security
situation during air raid alerts
I mostly consume information from the
Telegram channels of famous bloggers
I mostly consume information from
anonymous Telegram channels
Hard to say
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
USAGE OF ANONIMOUS
TELEGRAM CHANNELS
55
EMOTIONAL CONTENT
ON THE INTERNET
Sample size: those who use the Internet, N = 1132 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), and N = 192 (veterans). When you come across content on the Internet that
evokes certain emotions, do you usually...?
%
36
31
25
22
20
2
37
27
26
17
18
5
Show no reaction
Send to friends/family
Discuss it with your friends and family
Repost (post on your page)
Look for more details
Hard to say
Ukrainians, 18-65
Veterans
56
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Sample size: those who use the Internet, N = 1132 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), and N = 192 (veterans). Do you use artificial intelligence systems? Do you
think artificial intelligence can spread disinformation and generate false content?
56
%
21
12
11
10
33
12
20
8
6
15
42
8
Never heard of artificial intelligence
Yes, I use it in my work
Yes, I use it in my studies
Yes, I use it for other personal needs
No, because I don't need it
No, because I don't know how to use
artificial intelligence
Ukrainians,
18-65
Veterans
17
15
30
27
15
12
39
46
Veterans
Ukrainians, 18-65
No, artificial intelligence is not a threat
Yes, I know of cases where AI-generated falsehoods have been
spread, but I would be hard pressed to identify them
Yes, but I have the skills to work with AI and regularly check the
information
Hard to say

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information-23-VETERANS_INDEX_EN.pdf in english

  • 1. MEDIA LITERACY INDEX OF UKRAINIANS special deep-dive research 2023: VETERANS OF RUSSIA-UKRAINE WAR ANALYTICAL REPORT BASED ON THE RESULTS OF A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY The report is based on the findings of a quantitative study conducted on behalf of the NGO "Media Detector” by the New Image Marketing Group research agency, compiled by Marta Naumova, a researcher at the Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine © DETECTOR MEDIA NGO April 2024
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS 2 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2. MEDIA LITERACY INDEX OF UKRAINIANS 2.1. Conceptual model of the Ukrainian Media Literacy Index 2.2. Indicators of the Ukrainian Media Literacy Index — 2023 and subindices 3. DETAILED RESULTS OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY 3.1. The role of media in society and their impact on the audience 3.2. Perception of the media industry • Perceptions of the Ukrainian media landscape • Attitude to public broadcasting 3.3. Media consumption: sources and frequency of receiving information on social and political topics 3.4. Usage of the Internet and digital competence 3.5. Media literacy: trust in media and sensitivity to distorted content 3.6. Socio-demographic profile of respondents 4. KEY FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
  • 3. 3 1. METHODOLOGY AND MAIN FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
  • 4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4 Purpose of the study — to determine the level of media literacy among veterans of the war with Russia. Methodology: quantitative research using face-to-face interviews with a standardized questionnaire on a tablet (CAPI). Geography: a national study. Sample size: 200 respondents. Target audience: veterans of the war with Russia. Sample type: purposive. Sample design: Field stage: December 23, 2022 — January 12, 2023, conducted by New Image Marketing Group. *The survey was not conducted on the temporarily occupied territories of Donetsk, Luhansk, Zaporizhzhia, Kherson regions and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. REGION NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS TOTAL: Men Women 18–25 26–35 36–45 46–55 56–65 18–25 26–35 36–45 46–55 56–65 West 4 14 11 13 9 1 4 3 0 0 59 North 3 15 12 5 3 0 2 3 0 0 43 Kyiv 2 2 6 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 13 Center 3 13 7 11 2 0 1 1 1 0 39 South 5 12 5 3 0 0 1 3 2 0 31 East 0 4 3 6 1 0 0 1 0 0 15 TOTAL: 17 60 44 40 15 1 8 12 3 0 200
  • 5. 5 2. MEDIA LITERACY INDEX OF UKRAINIANS conceptual model and index indicators — 2023
  • 6. 6 MEDIA LITERACY INDEX CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE MEDIA LITERACY INDEX ■ The model of the media literacy index was based on the concept of Len Masterman and the results of the qualitative stage of the Practices of Media Consumption of Ukrainians: Conceptual Development of the Index of Media Literacy of the Audience, commissioned by Detector Media NGO (January 2020). ■ The revised media competence model includes four categories and 42 indicators*: CATEGORIES SUBCATEGORIES EMPIRICAL INDICATORS (SURVEY QUESTIONS) I. UNDERSTANDING (13 indicators) • Understanding the role of media in society 1. “What, in your opinion, are the main tasks of the media in society?" • Understanding the depth of media influence on awareness at the level of frames of perception of value and behavioral patterns 2. "How does the media affect you personally? Choose only the statements you agree with" • Understanding the work of the media industry and perception of the Ukrainian media landscape 3. "In your opinion, how do the media select the events they report on in the news? Please select three main criteria for selecting news by media outlets“ 4. “In whose interests does the majority of Ukrainian media work?" 5. "Most media outlets in Ukraine are owned by...“ 6. "How important is it for you to know who owns the media? "* 7. "Do you know who owns this TV channel...? "*. • Awareness of media regulation and attitude towards public broadcasting 8. "How is media activity regulated in Ukraine? "* 9. "Do state authorities in Ukraine control what journalists write and say? Do we have censorship or not? "* 10. "Do you know who owns this TV channel...?"* 11. "Are there any public service media in Ukraine?“ 12. "Which national television channels in Ukraine are public broadcasters? "* 13. "Which national radio stations in Ukraine are public broadcasters?"* * The indicator is absent from the latest wave (2022)
  • 7. 7 MEDIA LITERACY INDEX CATEGORIES SUBCATEGORIES EMPIRICAL INDICATORS (SURVEY QUESTIONS) II. USE (4 indicators) • Number of sources of information on socio-political news per week 14. "What sources did you get your news from last week?" • Length of time spent reading news per day 15. "Please tell me, how much time per day did you spend on average reading the news in various media?" • Motives for using the Internet 16. "What do you usually use the Internet for? Choose only what you have done in the last month." • Devices used to access the Internet 17. "What device do you use most often to access the Internet?" III. DIGITAL COMPETENCE (16 indicators) • Internet as a source of news on social and political topics 18. "Where do you get information about the social and political life of the country?" 19. "How often do you use the Internet in general?" 20. "I have accounts in more than three social networks". • Understanding of the functioning and terminology of new media 21. "An Internet troll is a program that imitates human activity on the Internet." 22. "A bot is a person who behaves destructively in online communication: insults, humiliates, provokes quarrels.“ 23. "Cookies are viruses that can damage your computer.“ 24. "I believe that a social media feed algorithm tailored to the interests of a particular consumer is a manipulation." • Digital security practices 25. "I consider the issue of personal data protection on the Internet to be very relevant today.“ 26. "I usually look at the 'About' section when I first visit this resource." 27. "I almost never change my passwords to websites and social networks.“ 28. "As a rule, I don't check a person's social media account if I receive a friend request from them.“ 29. "I use two-factor (two-step) authentication wherever possible." 30. "I've never used a VPN (vee-pee-en), a program that hides your IP address and encrypts all your activities on the Internet.“ 31. "Sometimes I take funny tests on the Internet and social media, for example: ‘What movie character am I?’ etc." • Practices of producing own media content 32. “I can shoot a video myself, edit it and post it on the Internet”. 33. "I treat my social media profile as a tool for building my professional and business reputation.”
  • 8. 8 MEDIA LITERACY INDEX CATEGORIES SUBCATEGORIES EMPIRICAL INDICATORS (SURVEY QUESTIONS) IV. SENSITIVITY TO DISTORTED MEDIA CONTENT (9 indicators) • Sensitivity to disinformation/fake news 34. “Today, there is much talk about false news and disinformation spread by the media. How relevant is this problem for you personally?” 35. "What are the signs you use to identify accurate news?" 36. "Please answer, do you additionally check the information received in the media for accuracy or not?" 37. "How do you check information for accuracy?“ 38. "Which of these sources of information do you consider accurate? Please select all the options that you think are correct." • Sensitivity to manipulative media content 39. "It is said that the media can influence public opinion not only through disinformation, but also through manipulation and distortion of information. How relevant is this problem for you personally?“ 40. "What are the signs that you identify a manipulative message/news?" • Sensitivity to various manipulation techniques 41. "It is said that the media can sometimes post paid-for content - hidden advertising under the guise of regular stories. How relevant is this problem for you personally?“ 42. "What are the features you use to identify hidden advertising?"
  • 9. 9 MEDIA LITERACY SUBINDICES 5 7 12 10 9 6 10 5 3 3 27 28 50 62 36 29 20 19 21 18 53 48 38 27 40 50 37 44 62 60 15 18 1 1 15 15 33 33 14 20 Low Below average Above average High Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). % 9 SUBINDEX IV: SENSITIVITY TO DISTORTED CONTENT MEDIA LITERACY INDEX SUBINDEX I: UNDERSTANDING SUBINDEX II: USE SUBINDEX III: DIGITAL COMPETENCE Ukrainians 18-65 y.o. veterans - Statistically significant difference veterans veterans veterans veterans Ukrainians 18-65 y.o. Ukrainians 18-65 y.o. Ukrainians 18-65 y.o. Ukrainians 18-65 y.o. ■ The level of the overall media literacy index among veterans is higher than among the Ukrainian audience aged 18 to 65. The share of the audience with an above-average level of media literacy among veterans is 80%, while among Ukrainians in general, it is 76%. At the same time, the share of people with a high level of media competence among veterans is 6% higher compared to the total population: 20% and 14%, respectively. ■ Veterans are characterized by higher digital competence and sensitivity to distorted media content than the general population of Ukraine.
  • 10. ,91 1,25 1,48 1,70 1,93 2,16 2,39 2,61 2,84 3,07 3,30 3,52 3,75 3,98 4,20 4,43 4,66 4,89 5,11 5,34 5,57 5,80 6,02 6,25 6,48 6,70 6,93 7,16 7,39 7,61 7,84 8,07 8,52 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 MEDIA LITERACY INDEX ー 2023 Number of respondents MEDIA LITERACY INDEX VALUES ■ The standardized media literacy index ranges from 0 to 10 points, where 0 is the lowest level of media literacy and 10 is the highest. ■ For ease of interpretation, the index was recoded into a 4-point scale. ■ According to the findings, 3% of veterans have low media literacy, 18% have below average, 60% have above average media literacy, and one in five (20%) have high media literacy. Low level High level Below average Above average 3 18 60 20 Low Below average Above average High Sample size: veterans, N= 200. % 10
  • 11. 11 3.1. The role of media in society and its impact on the audience 3. DETAILED RESULTS OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY
  • 12. 12 THE ROLE OF MEDIA IN SOCIETY Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: In your opinion, what are the main tasks of the media in society? Please select no more than three options. 70 36 35 35 26 14 11 2 3 69 36 29 41 42 9 11 3 2 Inform about socially important events To educate, to teach. Provide useful information on various topics Broadcast certain values that are important for society and the state Be a platform for dialogue between the state and society Entertain the audience Control the government Be a platform for discussions between ordinary people Other Hard to say Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o. Veterans % ■ Veterans of the war with Russia are more likely than Ukrainians in general to emphasize the social significance of the media in controlling the government (42% vs. 26%) and in broadcasting certain values important to society and the country (41% vs. 35%).
  • 13. 13 MEDIA INFLUENCE ON THE AUDIENCE Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: How does the media affect you personally? Please select only those statements with which you agree. ■ There is no significant difference in understanding the impact of media on the audience between veterans and Ukrainians in general. Most often, veterans state the influence of the media on their emotional state (48%), on assessments of socio- political events (31%), and on setting the agenda 一 topics/events I will think about (29%). 46 34 31 21 20 19 10 3 21 48 31 29 19 18 20 10 2 24 Emotional state (annoy, upset, happy, etc.) On the assessment of the socio-political situation The media draws attention to events that I will think about On the attitude toward public figures On interests, life values On political choices On the choice of goods and services Hard to say Do not influence me in any way Ukrainians , 18-65 y.o. Veterans %
  • 14. 14 3.2. Perceptions of the media industry and perception of the Ukrainian media landscape 3. DETAILED RESULTS OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY
  • 15. 15 IN WHOSE INTERESTS THE MEDIA OPERATE Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: In whose interests does the majority of Ukrainian media work?; In your opinion, how do the media select the events they report on in the news? Please select no more than three options. 30 25 13 12 7 2 1 10 33 18 19 11 7 7 1 6 Owners and investors The Ukrainian state Advertisers Societies as a whole Their viewers, readers International Western organizations Russia Hard to say Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o. Veterans % 47 38 27 27 22 13 13 13 11 11 5 42 36 31 21 21 16 13 15 17 13 3 Events of the greatest social significance Sensational events that will attract attention and cause a stir Events that media owners are interested in covering The freshest, most relevant events are selected Maintain a balance between events from different areas: politics, economics,… Maintain a balance between negative and positive events Events that can evoke strong emotions Events that advertisers are interested in covering Events centered on famous people: politicians, celebrities, etc. Events that seem important or interesting to journalists Hard to say Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans
  • 16. 39 27 31 32 20 28 10 13 Veterans Ukrainians , 18-65 Rather negative Both negative and positive Rather positive Have not heard of the telethon 16 ATTITUDE TO THE UNITED TELETHON Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: What do you think of the United News telethon that has been broadcast on all TV channels since the beginning of the full-scale war with Russia? * The difference is significant at the level of 0,05. 40 61 74 82 41 54 68 74 The telethon is a justified format in times of war. The telethon broadcasts only one official point of view on the events. This is unacceptable even in times of war. The telethon embellishes reality. It does not tell all the facts that citizens need to know to make informed decisions. Because of the embellishment of reality and the lack of different points of view in the telethon, I look for information in… Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans % 49 49 34 30 16 17 2 5 Veterans Ukrainians, 18- 65 Yes, I support It depends on who is criticizing and why No, I do not support Hard to say ■ The attitude to the telethon format among veterans is more negative compared to the Ukrainian audience as a whole (39% vs. 27%). ■ However, attitudes toward criticizing the government do not seem to differ. Both among veterans and the general population, 49% support criticism of the authorities.
  • 17. 17 CHANGE IN MEDIA PREFERENCES Sample size: veterans, N = 200. Question: How have your media preferences changed over the past year? What programs have you started watching/listening/reading less often or, on the contrary, more often? 7 5 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 53 25 49 14 51 39 26 2 1 3 1 19 39 35 38 34 39 45 7 10 9 8 12 19 5 31 10 14 19 4 16 7 10 9 8 6 15 3 5 9 86 72 79 79 1 6 3 2 2 3 2 1 1 3 2 Military experts Social and political Ukrainian-made Entertainment (movies/series, comedy shows, etc.) Ukrainian popular music Focused on Ukrainian history and culture Popular science, educational Official Russian media Russian-made Russian opposition media Russian popular music Started watching More often Nothing changed Less often Completely stopped Hard to say % ■ Among the changes in the media preferences of veterans over the past year, we should note a strong increase in interest in Ukrainian-made products (52%) and those dedicated to Ukrainian history and culture and materials from military experts (60%). ■ At the same time, 72% to 86% completely abandoned Russian-made media products (including music), official and opposition socio-political content.
  • 18. 18 DOES UKRAINE HAVE PUBLIC SERVICE MEDIA? Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: Are there public broadcasters in Ukraine? * The difference is significant at the level of 0,05. 54 22 23 49 28 23 Yes, there are There aren't Hard to say Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans % THE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC SERVICE MEDIA 6 5 19 10 16 45 8 4 12 9 15 52 Hard to say It doesn't matter: public media lose out to commercial media in terms of quality and professionalism It doesn't matter: I don't believe in media independence It is important because they have to report on social issues, culture, science It is important because they are not interested in manipulation It is important because they work in the interests of the whole society, not the owner Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans ■ Compared to the entire Ukrainian audience, veterans are less informed about the existence of public service media in Ukraine: 49% know about their existence (among Ukrainians 一 54%). ■ Three out of four veterans (71%) believe that the existence of public broadcasting in the country is important. The share of those who do not believe in the independence of the media is higher among veterans than among the Ukrainian audience as a whole (19% vs. 12%)
  • 19. 19 3.3. Media consumption: sources and frequency of receiving information on socio-political topics 3. KEY FINDINGS
  • 20. 62 55 33 31 31 28 16 9 9 8 4 1 65 59 30 36 21 21 13 6 8 7 2 2 Social networks (Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, Twitter, etc.) Messengers (Telegram, WhatsApp, Viber, etc.) Communication with friends, neighbors, and colleagues Online information resources (online publications, news aggregators, etc.) United News national telethon Communication with family members Broadcasts on TV channels that do not broadcast the marathon (5, Espreso, Pryamyi, 24, etc.) Regional TV channels Radio stations (Hit FM, Lux FM, Shanson, KiSS FM, etc.) Public Broadcasting (Pershyi and Kultura TV channels; Ukrainian Radio, Promin, Kultura radio stations; Suspilne Novyny on the website or in messengers) Print media (newspapers/magazines) Dom state-run TV channel or its stories on the Internet Українці "18-65" Ветерани 20 SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT SOCIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: Where do you get information about the social and political life of the country? % ■ The share of veterans who use instant messengers and online information resources to obtain information about social and political life is higher than among Ukrainians in general: 59% and 36%, respectively. ■ At the same time, veterans are less likely to watch the national telethon (21%) and rely on communication with family members as a source of information about social and political life (21%).
  • 21. 21 SOURCE USAGE DURING THE LAST WEEK Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: From which sources did you receive news over the past week? How often did you turn to (name of media outlet) for news during the week? (Among those who use this media outlet.) 53 52 32 27 24 5 3 2 56 57 24 26 24 7 2 2 Messengers (Telegram, WhatsApp, Viber, etc.) Social networks (Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, Twitter, etc.) Television Online information resources (online publications, news aggregators, etc.) Video blogs on YouTube or other services Radio Podcasts (published in the media or on Google podcasts, Apple podcasts, Spotify, etc.) Print media (newspapers/magazines) Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans % Frequency of obtaining news, % 49 75 73 66 64 36 76 51 53 56 53 54 15 33 32 0 34 13 16 22 21 34 13 29 24 19 26 15 27 33 24 25 11 9 7 6 9 21 6 10 13 10 18 23 23 0 24 0 4 2 2 4 4 6 4 8 7 8 3 8 35 0 18 25 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 6 0 0 33 3 50 Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Several times a day Once a day Several times a week Once a week Hard to say
  • 22. 22 SOURCE USAGE DURING THE DAY Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: How much time per day did you spend on average reading news in different media? The duration of receiving news during the day, % 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Television Print media Radio Online information resources Social networks Video blogs on YouTube or other services Messengers Podcasts 29 28 58 75 27 23 38 47 34 46 36 44 42 47 38 33 31 43 31 0 24 23 31 26 28 34 26 33 27 32 32 33 18 13 4 0 13 15 17 16 22 11 19 17 15 13 18 0 19 15 4 0 32 39 13 10 15 6 16 4 15 6 6 0 3 2 4 25 3 2 2 1 3 3 2 2 2 6 33 Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Up to 30 minutes. From 30 minutes to 1 hour From 1 hour to 2 hours More than 2 hours Hard to say
  • 23. 23 3.4. Internet use and digital competence 3. KEY FINDINGS
  • 24. 24 FREQUENCY OF INTERNET USE Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: How often do you use the Internet in general? 92 91 3 2 1 1 2 1 4 6 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Every day or almost every day 2-5 times a week Once a week Less than once a week I do not use the Internet at all * The difference is significant at the level of 0,05. % 96 24 12 10 8 98 19 7 8 4 Smartphone Laptop Tablet Desktop PC Smart TV Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans % ■ Among veterans, 92% access the Internet daily or almost daily, and only 4% do not use the Internet at all. ■ The absolute leader among Internet access devices is the smartphone, with 98% of veterans using it most often. Laptops (19%) and tablets (7%) are in second place with a large margin. 8% most often use a desktop computer, and 4% use a smart TV.
  • 25. 0 75 74 57 50 36 34 18 18 17 15 13 10 10 4 3 0 74 73 57 52 31 30 9 20 15 14 14 14 7 3 2 Getting to know the news Looking for required information Communicating in social networks, instant messengers (instant messaging services) Watching videos and movies Shopping online Making online payments Studying: taking courses, workshops, etc. Watching online TV/streams Download photo/video/audio files Playing online games Commenting and participate in discussions Listening to the radio, podcasts Creating and posting my own content: publications, photos, videos, audio files Creating my own pages, channels, websites for professional / reputational / commercial… Other Ряд1 Ряд3 25 MOTIVES FOR USING THE INTERNET Sample size: those who use the Internet, N = 1132 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), and N = 192 (veterans). Question: What do you usually use the Internet for? Choose only what you have done in the last month. Are you interested in astrological forecasts? ■ The main motivations for using the Internet among veterans are to read the news (74%) and search for necessary information (73%). ■ Only 15% of veterans are interested in astrological forecasts; 70% do not view such content. 15 19 15 21 70 60 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Yes Sometimes No
  • 26. 39 33 26 84 52 51 41 37 24 33 49 36 37 16 11 13 8 6 21 10 17 16 14 15 3 14 11 8 21 39 32 6 17 37 38 43 57 41 46 45 48 73 29 15 35 4 11 3 5 4 6 11 2 5 4 2 An Internet troll is a program that imitates human activity on the Internet. A bot is a person who behaves destructively in online communication: insults, humiliates, provokes quarrels. Cookies are viruses that can damage your computer. I believe that the issue of personal data protection on the Internet is very relevant today. I believe that the social media newsfeed algorithm, tailored to the interests of a particular consumer, is a manipulation. I can shoot a video myself, edit it, and post it on the Internet. I usually look at the "About" section when I first visit a website. I almost never change my passwords to websites and social networks. As a rule, I don't check a person's social media account if I receive a friend request from them. I use two-factor (two-step) authentication wherever possible. I have accounts in more than three social networks. I treat maintaining my own social media profile as a tool for building my professional and business reputation. I've never used a VPN, a program that hides your IP address and encrypts all your internet activity. Sometimes I take joke tests on the Internet and social networks, for example: "What kind of movie character am I?" etc. Yes It depends/partially No Hard to say 40 28 24 87 64 54 40 44 21 39 51 31 39 14 11 14 10 8 18 12 21 20 16 24 3 17 15 8 23 44 39 4 13 33 35 33 60 29 45 50 46 77 26 15 27 2 6 1 3 3 3 8 1 3 1 2 26 DIGITAL LITERACY Sample size: those who use the Internet, N = 1132 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), and N = 192 (veterans) . Question: Now I'm going to read out a few statements, and you will say whether you agree with them or not. Ukrainians, 18-65 % Veterans
  • 27. 27 SELF-ASSESSMENT OF DIGITAL LITERACY LEVEL Sample size: those who use the Internet, N = 1132 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), and N = 192 (veterans). Question: How would you rate your level of digital literacy? Please rate yourself on a 10-point scale, where 1 is extremely low and 10 is high. 3 6 6 11 30 33 38 28 19 12 5 8 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 1 - extremely low 2 3 4 5 - high level Hard to say % Average score of digital literacy assessment on a 5-point scale 3,4 3,7 ■ The average self-assessment of digital literacy among veterans is 3.7 points. This is higher than the self-assessment of Ukrainians in general (3.4 points). ■ 57% of veterans who are Internet users rate their digital competence as above average; 30% rate it as average, and 9% consider their level to be below average or low.
  • 28. 28 3.5. Media literacy: trust in media and sensitivity to distorted content 3. KEY FINDINGS
  • 29. 29 DISINFORMATION IN THE MEDIA: RELEVANCY OF THE PROBLEM Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: Today, there is a lot of talk about false news and disinformation spread by the media. How relevant is this problem for you personally? 41 23 18 5 9 5 44 22 19 6 6 4 It is relevant because fakes form false perceptions among citizens Relevant, I can't always distinguish between manipulated fakes Irrelevant, I can distinguish them and don't pay attention Irrelevant, I hardly see any disinformation in the media Irrelevant, this is the first time I've heard of it Hard to say Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans % ■ The significance of the problem of disinformation is emphasized by 66% of veterans. This figure is 64% among Ukrainians.
  • 30. 30 FEATURES OF RELIABLE NEWS Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: What are the features that you use to identify accurate news? Please select three main features. 46 37 34 30 28 17 10 10 6 4 5 41 41 31 32 29 21 9 10 6 3 4 Published in a media outlet I trust There is a link to the source Different points of view on the event are presented There is a photo/video that confirms the information Good reputation of the author I decide intuitively Popularity, fame of the author The news doesn't contradict my beliefs, it looks like the truth The headline is not sensational or shocking I trust almost all messages until I find a refutation Hard to say Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans % ■ Among the main signs of reliable news, veterans say that the material contains a link to the source of information (41%) and is published in a trusted media outlet (41%). ■ 21% of veterans make decisions intuitively.
  • 31. 31 CHECKING INFORMATION FOR ACCURACY Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: Do you additionally check the information received in the media for accuracy or not? 33 10 5 6 19 26 2 30 11 9 9 14 26 3 I check more than 15% of the information I check 10 to 15% of the information I check 5 to 10% of the information I check up to 5% I don't check for accuracy as much as I look for more complete, detailed information I never check Hard to say Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans % 66 29 25 21 18 13 12 9 3 5 72 30 28 21 19 15 12 9 1 3 Looking for confirmation of the news in other media Evaluating the credibility of the source to which the link is made Searching for the original source of information to which there is a link Reading user comments (if the material is in online media) Looking at the reputation of the media Considering the owner of the media outlet Looking for information on experts/commentators of events Looking for information about the author Other Hard to say Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans ■ The share of Ukrainians who check information for accuracy is 5% lower than among veterans (54% and 59%, respectively). ■ 72% of veterans look for confirmation of the news in other media, 28% look for the primary source of information to which there is a link; 30% assess the reliability of the source to which there is a link.
  • 32. 32 TRUSTWORTHY INFORMATION SOURCES Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: Which of these sources of information do you consider trustworthy? Select all that apply. 56 39 31 27 3 12 54 31 29 25 3 16 Interview with an eyewitness Links to information from official Ukrainian authorities Opinion of a well-known expert Official press releases on government websites Webpage of an expert, organization or authority from Russia Hard to say Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans % ■ Veterans trust interviews with eyewitnesses (54%), references to Ukrainian authorities (31%), and opinions of well-known experts (29%) the most.
  • 33. 33 Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: How would you rate your ability to distinguish between disinformation and accurate information? Please rate on a 10-point scale, where 1 is extremely low and 10 is high. 2 4 5 7 28 35 39 36 20 16 8 3 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 1 - extremely low 2 3 4 5 - high level Hard to say Average score of personal sensitivity to disinformation on a 5-point scale 3,5 3,8 DISINFORMATION IN THE MEDIA: SENSITIVITY TO FAKES % ■ Veterans rated their sensitivity to disinformation at 3.8 points on a 5-point scale. While the Ukrainian audience as a whole scored 3.5 points.
  • 34. 43 41 37 26 19 18 17 14 2 5 39 50 36 29 20 20 19 16 1 3 Only one side of the story is covered Information is incomplete or inaccurate No references to the source Not enough arguments, too many clichés, labels, stereotypical… I decide intuitively Unknown or biased experts comment on the event Excessive emotional intensity Information contradicts my understanding of the… Other Hard to say Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans 34 MANIPULATION IN THE MEDIA: RELEVANCE OF THE PROBLEM Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: It is said that the media can influence public opinion not only through disinformation but also through manipulation and distortion of information. How relevant is this problem for you personally? 39 20 15 14 6 5 42 25 16 9 7 2 Relevant because manipulations form false perceptions among citizens Relevant, I can't always distinguish the techniques used by the media Irrelevant, I can distinguish them and don't pay attention Irrelevant, this is the first time I've heard of it Irrelevant, I hardly see any manipulations in the media Hard to say Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans % 37 %
  • 35. 35 WHO DISTORTS MEDIA CONTENT AND WHY Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: In your opinion, who manipulates information and spreads fakes and why? Choose three main sources of distorted messages. 68 41 32 26 22 20 17 5 70 43 35 22 18 28 16 6 Politicians, political forces to discredit opponents and/or promote their own positive image Influence groups, oligarchs to promote their own interests The government to promote a certain ideology or interests Owners of various media to increase the number of visits to their sites and earn money from advertising, etc. Producers of goods and services to increase their chances of successful competition in the market The government for the purpose of propaganda during an information war with another country People who just want to do harm or draw attention to themselves Hard to say Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans % ■ According to veterans, media content is most often distorted in the interests of politicians and political forces to promote their positive image (70%). ■ Notably, the share of veterans who believe that the government is an institution interested in producing distorted content is 28%. This is higher than among the Ukrainian audience as a whole (20%).
  • 36. 36 Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: How would you rate your sensitivity to manipulation in the media? Please rate yourself on a 10-point scale, where 1 means that I usually do not feel that my opinion is being manipulated, and 10 means that I almost always feel that manipulation is being attempted. Average score of self- assessment of sensitivity to manipulation on a 5-point scale 3,4 3,5 MANIPULATION IN THE MEDIA: SENSITIVITY TO MANIPULATION 5 6 9 9 24 30 35 25 17 13 12 17 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 1 - extremely low 2 3 4 5 - high level Hard to say % ■ The average self-assessment score of sensitivity to manipulation among veterans of the war with Russia is 3.5 points on a 5-point scale.
  • 37. 37 HIDDEN ADVERTISING IN THE MEDIA: THE RELEVANCE AND FEATURES OF THE PROBLEM Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: It is said that the media can sometimes publish advertorials — hidden advertising under the guise of regular stories. How relevant is this problem for you personally? 38 19 17 16 5 6 42 19 18 15 5 3 Relevant, because hidden advertising creates misconceptions among citizens Relevant, I can't always identify hidden advertising Irrelevant, I can identify and ignore them Irrelevant, this is the first time I've heard of it Irrelevant, I don't see any hidden advertising in the media Hard to say Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans % 50 28 22 15 28 9 43 32 28 16 28 8 One-sidedness: only positive or negative aspects of a person, group, or product are covered The story contributes to the visibility of a person, organization or product Assessments are always present: positive or negative Informing about formal events of officials and public figures who are not of public importance I decide intuitively Hard to say Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans ■ More than half of veterans (61%) state that the problem of hidden advertising in the media is relevant; 33% consider it irrelevant; 15% have heard of it for the first time.
  • 38. 38 Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: How would you rate your ability to identify hidden advertising in the media? Please rate on a 10-point scale, where 1 means I usually cannot identify hidden advertising, and 10 means I can identify hidden advertising immediately. Average score of self- assessment of sensitivity to hidden advertising on a 5- point scale 3,4 3,5 HIDDEN ADVERTISING IN THE MEDIA: ABILITY TO DETECT DZHYNSA 2 6 7 9 33 27 28 25 14 13 17 20 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 1 - extremely low 2 3 4 5 - high level Hard to say % ■ The average score for assessing their own sensitivity to hidden advertising among veterans is 3.5 points, and among Ukrainians in general 一 3.4 points on a 5-point scale.
  • 39. 39 NEWS REQUIREMENTS Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: What are your personal requirements for news? Are the following features important to you or not? 9 26 38 58 54 58 62 73 75 68 74 77 83 87 88 90 93 23 39 29 28 28 27 23 14 17 23 19 17 8 9 9 6 4 66 33 27 11 12 15 9 11 7 8 4 5 7 3 2 3 3 2 3 7 4 7 2 6 3 2 1 4 2 2 2 2 2 1 11 36 37 55 56 58 70 78 78 78 82 82 84 89 92 92 93 23 34 33 27 24 26 18 13 13 13 11 12 8 6 5 5 3 64 25 23 13 12 14 7 7 7 7 3 4 5 3 2 2 2 3 5 7 6 8 2 5 3 3 1 4 2 3 2 2 2 Scandalousness, hype Ability to evoke strong emotions Unpredictability of information, the news is surprising Only facts, no opinions Separating facts from opinions Illustrations (photos, videos) Conciseness Balance of opinions, coverage of different points of view Facts and assessments of the event Interesting delivery Social significance Personal interest in the topic Quality analytics Accuracy (checked titles, names, figures) Promptness (timeliness) Completeness of information Credibility (truthfulness) Important Not very important Unimportant Hard to say Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 %
  • 40. 40 JOURNALISTIC ETHICS Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: Have you ever come across any media stories in which… 55 59 47 57 60 69 45 42 53 44 40 32 Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Yes, I have No, I have not Did you come across any stories in which..., % The right to privacy was violated Hate speech was used: direct insults, threats Gossip and slander were contained % ■ Veterans are more likely than Ukrainians in general to have encountered violations of ethical standards in the media. 59% noted violations of the right to respect for private life; more than two-thirds (69%) noted gossip and slander in the media; 57% recalled hate speech: direct insults and threats.
  • 41. 41 JOURNALISTIC ETHICS Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: Please tell us, have you ever come across any media stories that showed a biased or negative attitude towards people... (discrimination)? 68 71 44 43 50 52 48 52 50 52 51 54 41 43 34 36 32 29 56 57 50 48 52 49 50 49 49 47 59 57 66 64 Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans Yes, I have No, I have not Have you seen any stories that showed a biased attitude towards people…. % For political or ideological reasons For sexual orientation For gender or age For religious beliefs Toward people with disabilities For any other social characteristics For ethnicity or race Toward internally displaced persons %
  • 42. 42 SELF-ASSESSMENT OF MEDIA LITERACY LEVEL Sample size: all respondents, N = 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 200 (veterans). Question: How would you assess your level of media literacy? Please rate yourself on a 10-point scale, where 1 is an extremely low level and 10 is a high level. Average score of media literacy self-assessment on a 5-point scale 3,3 3,5 4 7 8 12 41 37 33 31 13 10 3 4 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 1 - extremely low 2 3 4 5 - high level Hard to say % ■ The average self-assessment score for media literacy is higher among veterans (3.5 points) than among the Ukrainian audience as a whole (3.3 points). 42
  • 43. 43 AWARENESS OF MEDIA EDUCATION Sample size: all respondents, N= 1200 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N= 200 (veterans). Question: Have you heard of any courses (workshops, seminars) or academic subjects in media education where you can improve your media literacy? Have any acquaintances, friends, relatives, or their children attended classes or special courses on media education/media literacy? Have you heard of any civic initiatives/organizations that check the accuracy and truthfulness of media materials? Attendance of media education courses/workshops by acquaintances, % ■ More than half of Ukrainians (57%) have heard of or personally attended media literacy courses/trainings. This is twice as many as in 2020. 4 7 40 46 57 47 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Personally attended the such courses Heard about such courses but did not attend them Have not heard of them 5 10 18 22 9 10 70 64 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 Yes, students at universities Adults attended special courses (workshops, seminars) on media education, including online Yes, children at school I don't know % % 15 8 4 2 2 1 14 64 21 8 5 2 4 1 13 63 Stop Fake Detector Media Po Toi Bik Novyn Nota Yenota VoxCheck Texty.org I don't know any of them No, I have not heard of them Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans ■ Veterans are less aware of civil society organizations that check the accuracy and truthfulness of media stories compared to Ukrainians aged 18-65. The most frequently mentioned organizations were Stop Fake (21%) and Detector Media (8%). 43
  • 44. 44 3.6. Socio-demographic profile of respondents 3. KEY FINDINGS
  • 45. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS Gender, % Education, % 88 12 Men Women Sample size: representatives ー veterans, N = 200. *http://www.ukrcensus.gov.ua/ 9 34 28 22 8 18-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56-65 років Age, % Language of communication in the family, % 11 41 48 Primary, secondary general Secondary specialized Complete/incomplete higher 62 7 25 7 Ukrainian Russian Surzhyk or a mixture of Ukrainian and Russian In Ukrainian or Russian, depending on the person talking to ■ The socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents correspond to the actual distributions among the adult population of Ukraine according to the State Statistics Service*. 100 0 Yes No Participation in combat as a serviceperson, % 45
  • 46. Sample size: representatives 一 veterans, N = 200. 62 6 5 5 5 4 3 2 2 1 1 5 Military / police officer / security company employee Temporarily unemployed, looking for work Laborer (any qualification) Businessperson/self-employed Unemployed and not looking for work Housewife A qualified professional (doctor, journalist, lawyer, teacher, etc.) Pensioner State employee Student Head of an enterprise/company, deputy head Hard to say Employment, % Subjective assessment of family income, % 10 24 40 27 Enough only for food Enough to get by in general Enough for everything but can't save money Enough for everything, we save money Average monthly income per family member, % 8 6 11 19 30 28 Up to UAH 3000 UAH 3001-5000 UAH 5001-7000 UAH 7001–10000 Over UAH 10,000. REFUSAL Region, % Settlement, % 7 22 30 20 16 8 Kyiv North West Center South East 8 20 72 Village Other city or UTS Regional center SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS 46
  • 48. CONCLUSIONS 48 VETERANS' MEDIA LITERACY INDEX: 2023 THE ROLE OF MEDIA IN SOCIETY ■ The level of the general media literacy index among veterans is higher than among the Ukrainian audience aged 18-65. The share of the audience with an above-average level of media literacy among veterans is 80%, while among Ukrainians in general it is 76%. At the same time, the share of people with a high level of media competence among veterans is 6% higher compared to the general population: 20% and 14%, respectively. ■ Veterans are characterized by higher digital competence and sensitivity to distorted media content than the general population of Ukraine. ■ According to the findings, 3% of veterans have low media literacy, 18% have below average, 60% have above average media literacy, and one in five (20%) have high media literacy. ■ Veterans of the war with Russia are more likely than Ukrainians in general to point out the public importance of the media in controlling the government (42% vs. 26%) and in broadcasting certain values important to society and the state (41% vs. 35%). ■ There is no significant difference in understanding the impact of media on the audience between veterans and Ukrainians in general. Most often, veterans state that the media influence their emotional state (48%), their assessment of social and political events (31%), and the formation of an agenda - topics/events that I will think about (29%).
  • 49. 49 PERCEPTION OF THE MEDIA INDUSTRY AND PERCEPTION OF THE UKRAINIAN MEDIA SPACE CHANGES IN MEDIA PREFERENCES ■ Among the changes in the media preferences of veterans over the past year, we should note a strong increase in interest in Ukrainian-made content (52%), and pieces on Ukrainian history and culture; as well as content by military experts (60%). ■ At the same time, 72% to 86% completely abandoned Russian-made media products (including music), as well as official and opposition socio-political content. ■ The attitude to the telethon format among veterans is more negative compared to the Ukrainian audience as a whole (39% vs. 27%). ■ However, attitudes toward criticizing the government do not appear to differ. Both among veterans and the general population, 49% support criticism of the government. ■ Compared to the general Ukrainian audience, veterans are less informed about the existence of public service media in Ukraine: 49% are aware of their existence (54% among Ukrainians). Three out of four veterans (70%) consider the existence of public service media in the country to be important. The share of those who do not believe in the independence of the media is higher among veterans than among the Ukrainian audience as a whole (19% vs. 12%). CONCLUSIONS
  • 50. 50 MEDIA CONSUMPTION: SOURCES AND FREQUENCY OF RECEIVING INFORMATION ON SOCIAL AND POLITICAL TOPICS INTERNET USE AND DIGITAL COMPETENCE ■ The share of veterans who use instant messengers and online information resources to obtain information about social and political life is higher than among Ukrainians in general: 59% and 36%, respectively. ■ At the same time, veterans are less likely to watch the national telethon (21%) and political life (21%). and are more likely to communicate with family members as a source of information about social ■ Among veterans, 92% access the Internet daily or almost daily, and only 4% do not use the Internet at all. ■ Among the devices for accessing the Internet, the absolute leader is the smartphone, with 98% of veterans using it most often. Laptops (19%) and tablets (7%) are in second place with a large margin. 8% use a desktop computer most often, and 4% use a smart TV. CONCLUSIONS
  • 51. 51 MEDIA LITERACY: TRUST IN MEDIA AND SENSITIVITY TO DISTORTED CONTENT ■ The importance of the problem of disinformation is emphasized by 66% of veterans. This figure is 64% among Ukrainians. ■ Among the main signs of reliable news, veterans say that the piece contains a reference to the source of information (41%), it is published in a trusted media outlet (41%); 21% of veterans make their decision intuitively. ■ The share of Ukrainians who check information for reliability is 5% lower than among veterans (54% and 59%, respectively). 72% of veterans look for confirmation of news in other media, 28% look for the original source of information to which there is a link; 30% assess the reliability of the source to which there is a link. ■ Veterans trust interviews with eyewitnesses (54%), references to Ukrainian authorities (31%), and opinions of well-known experts (29%) the most. ■ According to veterans, media content is most often distorted in the interests of politicians and political forces to promote their positive image (70%). Remarkably, the share of veterans who believe that the government is an institution interested in producing distorted content is 28%. This is higher than among the Ukrainian audience as a whole (20%). CONCLUSIONS
  • 52. 52 AWARENESS OF MEDIA EDUCATION ■ Veterans are less aware of civil society organizations that check the accuracy and truthfulness of media materials compared to Ukrainians aged 18-65. ■ Stop Fake (21%) and Detector Media (8%) were mentioned most often. CONCLUSIONS
  • 53. 53 DAILY USAGE OF TELEGRAM CHANNELS Sample size: those who use the Internet, N = 1132 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), and N =192 (veterans). Question: How many Telegram channels do you read every day? * The difference is significant at the level of 0,05. 30 34 10 10 4 12 30 30 14 8 6 12 1-2 from 3 to 6 from 7 to 10 Over 10 Hard to say I don't use Telegram Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans %
  • 54. 54 Sample size: those who use Telegram, N = 992 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), N = 169 (veterans). Question: Who are the authors of the Telegram channels you subscribe to? 56 % 40 24 14 10 4 10 34 30 9 10 6 11 I don't pay attention to who runs the Telegram channel, interesting content is most important I am mostly subscribed to Telegram channels of professional media, officials and government agencies Mostly subscribed to monitor Telegram channels to keep track of the security situation during air raid alerts I mostly consume information from the Telegram channels of famous bloggers I mostly consume information from anonymous Telegram channels Hard to say Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans USAGE OF ANONIMOUS TELEGRAM CHANNELS
  • 55. 55 EMOTIONAL CONTENT ON THE INTERNET Sample size: those who use the Internet, N = 1132 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), and N = 192 (veterans). When you come across content on the Internet that evokes certain emotions, do you usually...? % 36 31 25 22 20 2 37 27 26 17 18 5 Show no reaction Send to friends/family Discuss it with your friends and family Repost (post on your page) Look for more details Hard to say Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans
  • 56. 56 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Sample size: those who use the Internet, N = 1132 (Ukrainians, 18-65 y.o.), and N = 192 (veterans). Do you use artificial intelligence systems? Do you think artificial intelligence can spread disinformation and generate false content? 56 % 21 12 11 10 33 12 20 8 6 15 42 8 Never heard of artificial intelligence Yes, I use it in my work Yes, I use it in my studies Yes, I use it for other personal needs No, because I don't need it No, because I don't know how to use artificial intelligence Ukrainians, 18-65 Veterans 17 15 30 27 15 12 39 46 Veterans Ukrainians, 18-65 No, artificial intelligence is not a threat Yes, I know of cases where AI-generated falsehoods have been spread, but I would be hard pressed to identify them Yes, but I have the skills to work with AI and regularly check the information Hard to say