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INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON
GERMINATION OF VARIOUS AGROSTIS CULTIVARS
D.E. CARROLL AND J.E. KAMINSKI
THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY
CREEPING BENTGRASS (AGROSTIS STOLONIFERA)
• Important Species to
Golf Courses
• Many Maintain
Bentgrass Putting
Greens
• Widespread Use
ABG In CBG
ANNUAL BLUEGRASS (POA ANNUA L.)
• Winter Annual
• Common Weed on Golf
Courses
• Susceptible to Extreme
Temperatures
WINTER DAMAGE
• Caused by Desiccation, Direct Low Temperature Kill,
Anoxia, or Crown Hydration (Aamlid et al., 2009)
• Occurs Sporadically Throughout Northeast U.S.
• In 2015 80% of Those Surveyed Reported Winter Kill
(USGA, 2015)
• Superintendents Have a Small Window to Establish
New Turf
EARLY SPRING ESTABLISHMENT
• Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.)
Often Seeded into Bare Areas
• Little Information is Known About the
Influence of Temperature on Germination
• Bentgrass Germination at Low Temperatures
May Result in Quicker Establishment
OBJECTIVE
• Elucidate the Influence of Temperature on
Bentgrass Germination
MATERIALS AND METHODS
• Bentgrass Cultivars (n = 18)
• Water Agar
– Average of 60 Seeds Per Plate
• Temperatures (n = 4)
– 10˚C, 15˚C, 20˚C, 25˚C
– 24 Hour Darkness
BENTGRASS CULTIVARS
Cultivar Company Species
Alpha Simplot Creeping
Cobra2 Pickseed Creeping
Crystal Bluelinks Tee 2 Green Creeping
Focus Pickseed Creeping
Mackenzie Seed Res of Oregon Creeping
Penn A1 Tee 2 Green Creeping
Penn A4 Tee 2 Green Creeping
Penncross Tee 2 Green Creeping
Pureformance Tee 2 Green Creeping
*Agrostis canina – Velvet Bentgrass
Cultivar Company Species
Pure Distinction Tee 2 Green Creeping
Pure Select Tee 2 Green Creeping
SR 1150 Seed Res of Oregon Creeping
T-1 Simplot Creeping
Tyee Seed Res of Oregon Creeping
V8 Simplot Creeping
Vesper Pickseed Velvet*
Villa DLF Int Seeds Velvet*
007 Seed Res of Oregon Creeping
MATERIALS AND METHODS
• CRD with 4 Reps
• Germinated Seeds Counted
and Removed Daily
• Incubators Re-Randomized
and Study Repeated
• Data Analyzed With SAS,
MIXED Procedure
TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 25˚C
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Cultivar
A
CDE
BCD
AB
ABC
C-F
BCD
CDE
G
DEF
BCD
C-F
EF
BCD
A-D
C-F
F
BCD
PercentGermination
TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 25˚C
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Cultivar
A
CDE
BCD
AB
ABC
C-F
BCD
CDE
G
DEF
BCD
C-F
EF
BCD
A-D
C-F
F
BCD
PercentGermination
TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 20˚C
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Cultivar
A
ABC
AB
A
AB
B-EB-E
CDE
F
DE
A-DB-EA-E
CDE
A-D
B-E
E
ABC
PercentGermination
TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 20˚C
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Cultivar
A
ABC
AB
A
AB
B-EB-E
CDE
F
DE
A-DB-EA-E
CDE
A-D
B-E
E
ABC
PercentGermination
TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 15˚C
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Cultivar
A
A-DA-D
AB
ABC
CDECDE
CDE
G
DEF
ABC
CDE
BCD
EF
CDE
C-F
F
A-D
PercentGermination
TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 15˚C
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Cultivar
A
A-DA-D
AB
ABC
CDECDE
CDE
G
DEF
ABC
CDE
BCD
EF
CDE
C-F
F
A-D
PercentGermination
TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 10˚C
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Cultivar
A
D-G
C-F
A
BCD
B
BC
CDE
H
E-H
BC
C-FC-F
FGH
E-H
D-G
GH
D-G
PercentGermination
TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 10˚C
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Cultivar
A
D-G
C-F
A
BCD
B
BC
CDE
H
E-H
BC
C-FC-F
FGH
E-H
D-G
GH
D-G
PercentGermination
TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 10˚C
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Cultivar
A
D-G
C-F
A
BCD
B
BC
CDE
H
E-H
BC
C-FC-F
FGH
E-H
D-G
GH
D-G
PercentGermination
TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 10˚C
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Cultivar
A
D-G
C-F
A
BCD
B
BC
CDE
E-H
BC
C-FC-F
FGH
E-H
D-G
GH
D-G
H
PercentGermination
GERMINATION OF SELECT CULTIVARS 10˚C
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Pure Select
Penn A4
Crystal Bluelinks
007
Pureformance
Pure Distinction
Focus
Tyee
MacKenzie
T-1
Villa
E-H
PercentGermination
Day
A
A
B
BC
BCD
E-H
FGH
GH
H
BC
RESULTS
• Pure Select = Penn A4 > Crystal Bluelinks =Pure
Distinction = 007 = Pureformance Among Highest
Total Germination
• T-1 = Mackenzie = Focus = Tyee Among Lowest Total
Germination
• Villa had Poor Germination (<16%) – Fungal
Contamination
RESULTS
• At 10C, All Cultivars Began to Germinate ~11-12 Days
After Incubation
• Except for Penn A4, Germination Leveled Off Around
13-14 Days After Incubation
• Penn A4 Leveled Off Around Day 15-16
CONCLUSION
• Fungus Inhibited Villa
• Germination Differences Among Cultivars Existed
• Turfgrass Managers Can Use This Information to
Select Cultivars for Seeding in Early Spring
– Pure Select or Penn A4
• Consider Other Factors in Selection
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
• Students & Staff
– Tim Lulis
– Patrizia Rollo
– Cameron Stephens

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Influence of Temperature on Germination of Various Agrostis Cultivars

  • 1. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON GERMINATION OF VARIOUS AGROSTIS CULTIVARS D.E. CARROLL AND J.E. KAMINSKI THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY
  • 2. CREEPING BENTGRASS (AGROSTIS STOLONIFERA) • Important Species to Golf Courses • Many Maintain Bentgrass Putting Greens • Widespread Use
  • 4. ANNUAL BLUEGRASS (POA ANNUA L.) • Winter Annual • Common Weed on Golf Courses • Susceptible to Extreme Temperatures
  • 5. WINTER DAMAGE • Caused by Desiccation, Direct Low Temperature Kill, Anoxia, or Crown Hydration (Aamlid et al., 2009) • Occurs Sporadically Throughout Northeast U.S. • In 2015 80% of Those Surveyed Reported Winter Kill (USGA, 2015) • Superintendents Have a Small Window to Establish New Turf
  • 6. EARLY SPRING ESTABLISHMENT • Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) Often Seeded into Bare Areas • Little Information is Known About the Influence of Temperature on Germination • Bentgrass Germination at Low Temperatures May Result in Quicker Establishment
  • 7. OBJECTIVE • Elucidate the Influence of Temperature on Bentgrass Germination
  • 8. MATERIALS AND METHODS • Bentgrass Cultivars (n = 18) • Water Agar – Average of 60 Seeds Per Plate • Temperatures (n = 4) – 10˚C, 15˚C, 20˚C, 25˚C – 24 Hour Darkness
  • 9. BENTGRASS CULTIVARS Cultivar Company Species Alpha Simplot Creeping Cobra2 Pickseed Creeping Crystal Bluelinks Tee 2 Green Creeping Focus Pickseed Creeping Mackenzie Seed Res of Oregon Creeping Penn A1 Tee 2 Green Creeping Penn A4 Tee 2 Green Creeping Penncross Tee 2 Green Creeping Pureformance Tee 2 Green Creeping *Agrostis canina – Velvet Bentgrass Cultivar Company Species Pure Distinction Tee 2 Green Creeping Pure Select Tee 2 Green Creeping SR 1150 Seed Res of Oregon Creeping T-1 Simplot Creeping Tyee Seed Res of Oregon Creeping V8 Simplot Creeping Vesper Pickseed Velvet* Villa DLF Int Seeds Velvet* 007 Seed Res of Oregon Creeping
  • 10. MATERIALS AND METHODS • CRD with 4 Reps • Germinated Seeds Counted and Removed Daily • Incubators Re-Randomized and Study Repeated • Data Analyzed With SAS, MIXED Procedure
  • 11.
  • 12. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 25˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A CDE BCD AB ABC C-F BCD CDE G DEF BCD C-F EF BCD A-D C-F F BCD PercentGermination
  • 13. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 25˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A CDE BCD AB ABC C-F BCD CDE G DEF BCD C-F EF BCD A-D C-F F BCD PercentGermination
  • 14. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 20˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A ABC AB A AB B-EB-E CDE F DE A-DB-EA-E CDE A-D B-E E ABC PercentGermination
  • 15. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 20˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A ABC AB A AB B-EB-E CDE F DE A-DB-EA-E CDE A-D B-E E ABC PercentGermination
  • 16. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 15˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A A-DA-D AB ABC CDECDE CDE G DEF ABC CDE BCD EF CDE C-F F A-D PercentGermination
  • 17. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 15˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A A-DA-D AB ABC CDECDE CDE G DEF ABC CDE BCD EF CDE C-F F A-D PercentGermination
  • 18. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 10˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A D-G C-F A BCD B BC CDE H E-H BC C-FC-F FGH E-H D-G GH D-G PercentGermination
  • 19. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 10˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A D-G C-F A BCD B BC CDE H E-H BC C-FC-F FGH E-H D-G GH D-G PercentGermination
  • 20. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 10˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A D-G C-F A BCD B BC CDE H E-H BC C-FC-F FGH E-H D-G GH D-G PercentGermination
  • 21. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 10˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A D-G C-F A BCD B BC CDE E-H BC C-FC-F FGH E-H D-G GH D-G H PercentGermination
  • 22. GERMINATION OF SELECT CULTIVARS 10˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Pure Select Penn A4 Crystal Bluelinks 007 Pureformance Pure Distinction Focus Tyee MacKenzie T-1 Villa E-H PercentGermination Day A A B BC BCD E-H FGH GH H BC
  • 23. RESULTS • Pure Select = Penn A4 > Crystal Bluelinks =Pure Distinction = 007 = Pureformance Among Highest Total Germination • T-1 = Mackenzie = Focus = Tyee Among Lowest Total Germination • Villa had Poor Germination (<16%) – Fungal Contamination
  • 24. RESULTS • At 10C, All Cultivars Began to Germinate ~11-12 Days After Incubation • Except for Penn A4, Germination Leveled Off Around 13-14 Days After Incubation • Penn A4 Leveled Off Around Day 15-16
  • 25. CONCLUSION • Fungus Inhibited Villa • Germination Differences Among Cultivars Existed • Turfgrass Managers Can Use This Information to Select Cultivars for Seeding in Early Spring – Pure Select or Penn A4 • Consider Other Factors in Selection
  • 26. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS • Students & Staff – Tim Lulis – Patrizia Rollo – Cameron Stephens

Editor's Notes

  1. This is a severe situation of ABG on CBG putting green. Quality reduced due to lack of uniformity, variation in color among species, and reduced smoothness.