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Unit-IV
Workplace Health and Safety
Noise Hazard
A noise hazard refers to exposure to excessive and prolonged levels of noise that
has the potential to harm human health. It can occur in various settings,
including workplaces, recreational activities, and residential areas. Noise
hazards are typically measured in decibels (dB), a unit of measurement for
sound intensity .
Common Type of Noise Hazards
• Occupational Noise:
– Generated in the workplace by machinery, equipment, tools, or industrial
processes.
– Can cause hearing damage, decreased productivity, communication
difficulties, and other safety hazards.
– Employers are responsible for implementing noise safety programs and
control measures to protect workers’ health and safety.
4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 2
• Recreational Noise:
– Arises from leisure activities such as music concerts, sporting events, cultural
festivals, video arcades, and movie theaters.
– Can lead to hearing loss, sleep disturbance, stress, annoyance, and other
health problems.
– Proper measures are essential to prevent negative impacts on both human
health and the environment.
• Environmental Noise:
– Unwanted noise from human activities or natural sources in the
environment.
– Examples include road traffic, trains, industrial machinery, construction,
motorized gardening equipment, and noisy house appliances.
– Environmental noise can disrupt ecosystems and affect animal behavior and
feeding patterns.
4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 3
Particulate Matter
PM stands for particulate matter and encompasses a blend of solid particles
and liquid droplets found in the atmosphere.
Some particles, such as dust, dirt, soot, or smoke, are large enough to be seen
with the naked eye, while others are so tiny that they require an electron
microscope for detection.
Two common categories of PM are:
PM10: These are inhalable particles with diameters generally 10 micrometers
and smaller.
PM2.5: These are fine inhalable particles with diameters generally 2.5
micrometers and smaller.
4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 4
• Harmful Effectsof PM:
– Particulate matter contains microscopic solids or liquid droplets that can be
inhaled, leading to serious health problems.
– Particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter can penetrate deep into the
lungs, and some may even enter the bloodstream.
– Among these, particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) pose the
greatest risk to health.
• Reducing ParticlePollution:
– The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates inhalable particles.
– While particles of sand and large dust (larger than 10 micrometers) are not
regulated by the EPA, national and regional rules aim to reduce emissions of
pollutants that form PM. These efforts help state and local governments meet
national air quality standards. Stay informed by using air quality alerts which
provides real-time information on outdoor air quality and associated health
effects
4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 5
Musculoskeletal disorder improper sitting poster
• ProperSitting Posture:
– Illustrate the correct sitting posture with a clear and engaging poster.
– Emphasize the importance of maintaining a neutral spine, proper chair
height, and optimal positioning of the computer monitor.
– Encourage employees to sit with their feet flat on the floor, knees at a 90-
degree angle, and back supported.
• Adjustable Ergonomic Furniture:
– Advocate for the use of adjustable chairs and desks to accommodate
different body types and sizes.
– Ergonomic furniture allows individuals to customize their seating and
working positions.
4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 6
• RegularBreaks:
– Remind employees to take regular breaks and stretch to reduce the risk of
musculoskeletal disorders.
• Ergonomic Accessories:
– Highlight the use of ergonomic accessories such as lumbar
supports and wrist rests to enhance comfort during prolonged sitting.
Musculoskeletal disorder improper lifting
• Lifting Techniques:
– Provide a visual guide on proper lifting techniques.
– Emphasize bending at the knees, keeping the load close to the body, and using
leg muscles (not the back).
• TeamLifting:
• Encourage team lifting for heavy or awkward loads.
• Emphasize communication and coordination when lifting as a team.
4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 7
• Use of Mechanical Aids:
– Promote the use of mechanical aids for handling heavy loads.
• Training Programs:
– Conduct regular training programs on safe lifting practices.
– Include information on the potential consequences of improper lifting.
Ergonomics RULE & REBA
Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA)
– RULA is a vital tool designed to evaluate ergonomic risks associated with
upper extremities during work tasks.
– It assesses body posture, force, and repetition, offering a systematic approach
to identifying potential musculoskeletal issues
4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 8
Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA):
– REBA is an ergonomic assessment tool used to evaluate the risk factors
associated with whole-body tasks.
– It considers various aspects, including posture, force exertion, and duration of
the task.
– The goal is to identify potential risks and recommend improvements to
prevent musculoskeletal disorders.
• Applicationof RULA and REBA:
– RULA is commonly used in various industries, including manufacturing,
healthcare, and office settings.
– It helps organizations prioritize ergonomic improvements to enhance worker
safety and well-being
4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 9
Unsafe act & Unsafe Condition
Unsafe acts refer to actions or behaviors by employees that deviate from
safety guidelines. These actions can pose risks to their own safety or the
safety of others.
Examples of unsafe acts include incidents that result in injury or death or
situations where there is a threat to health and safety
Unsafe conditions pertain to physical factors within the workplace
environment that create hazards. These conditions immediately endanger
health and safety.
For instance, poorly maintained equipment, inadequate lighting, or
slippery floors are examples of unsafe conditions
4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 10
Electrical hazards
Electrical hazards are associated with the potential dangers and risks related to
electrical systems. These hazards can lead to serious injuries, burns, electric shock,
arc flash incidents, and even fires or explosions
• Common causesof electrical hazards
– Insufficient Insulation: Over time, electrical insulation can degrade due to
wear and tear, rodent damage, or exposure to moisture. This deterioration
can result in exposed wires, increasing the risk of electric shock or short
circuits.
– Circuit Breaker Failure: If a circuit breaker fails to trip during an overload, it
loses its protective function, further elevating the risk of electrical hazards.
– Damaged Electrical Appliances: Loose connections, frayed wires, or cracked
insulation in appliances can lead to electrical malfunctions.
4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 11
– Improper Use of Extension Cords: Practices like daisy chaining (connecting
multiple extension cords together) and overloading can cause overheating
and potentially ignite electrical fires.
– Inadequate Maintenance: Neglecting regular inspections of electrical
systems, ignoring warning signs, or bypassing safety procedures can
contribute to severe electrical hazards over time.
Crane Safety
Crane safety is of utmost importance in construction
sites where these towering machines play a pivotal role
in lifting heavy materials and equipment to construct
large buildings and structures.
4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 12
Crane safety encompasses a set of practices that organizations follow to mitigate
risks and hazards associated with operating cranes.
• Role of Cranes: Cranes are essential for hoisting, lowering, and moving
suspended loads. Their design and construction involve intricate
engineering to ensure safe lifting of heavy loads.
• Inherent Risks: Despite meticulous design, operating cranes involves
inherent risks. A systematic approach is crucial to reduce risks for operators
and everyone in the vicinity.
CommonCrane Safety Hazards:
– Falling Debris: Cranes lift materials high above ground, but there’s
always a risk of materials falling. Causes include visual impairment,
mechanical failure, operator errors, and slipping. Falling materials can
injure people below or cause property damage.
4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 13
– Overloading: Exceeding a crane’s load capacity can lead to structural
failure, tipping, or collapse. Proper load calculations and adherence to
weight limits are vital.
– Electrical Risks: Cranes operate near power lines, posing electrocution
hazards. Operators must maintain safe distances and follow electrical
safety protocols.
– Mechanical Failures: Malfunctions in crane components (e.g., cables,
hooks, brakes) can endanger operators and bystanders.
– Inadequate Maintenance: Regular inspections, maintenance, and
adherence to inspection checklists are essential to keep cranes running
smoothly.
BestPractices for Crane Safety:
– Operator Training:Thoroughly train crane operators on risks, safe
practices, and emergency procedures.
4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 14
– Pre-OperationChecks: Operators should inspect cranes daily, ensuring
proper functioning and identifying any issues.
– Stabilization: Properly stabilize cranes to prevent tipping during lifting
operations.
– Load Radius and Limits: Understand load radius (distance from crane
center to load) and adhere to load capacity limits.
– Travel Safety: Follow guidelines for crane travel, including avoiding
obstacles and maintaining stability.
– Rigging: Rig loads securely to prevent shifting or falling during lifting.
– Set-UpProcedures: Correctly set up cranes, considering ground
conditions and clearances.
– Electrical Safety: Maintain safe distances from power lines and follow
electrical safety protocols.
4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 15
Toxic Gas Release
Toxic gases pose significant risks in various settings, from industrial facilities to
emergency situations.
Sources of Toxic Gases:
– Natural Events: Volcanic eruptions, forest fires, and dust storms release
hazardous compounds into the atmosphere.
– Human Activities: Industrial processes, petrochemicals, manufacturing,
and waste treatment can emit toxic gases
Characteristics of Toxic Gases:
– Pressure and Expansion: Toxic gases are often stored and transported
under pressure. When released, they rapidly expand and disperse through
the air.
– Invisibility and Odor: Many toxic gases, such as hydrogen sulfide and
carbon monoxide, are invisible and lack reliable odor warnings
4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 16
Emergency Response:
• Timely Information: During a toxic gas release event, gathering and
providing timely information is critical. Companies must quickly determine:
– Safe zones for workers and responders.
– Impact on offsite areas and surrounding communities.
• Hazard Assessment and ERP: Establishing a baseline for pre-existing
conditions, plume modeling, and cyclical updates are essential components
of emergency response plans (ERPs) for toxic gas incidents.
• Training and Drills: Personnel should be well-trained to execute
contamination assessment, real-time monitoring, and other tasks swiftly
during an incident
4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 17

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Industrial Safety Unit-IV workplace health and safety.ppt

  • 2. Noise Hazard A noise hazard refers to exposure to excessive and prolonged levels of noise that has the potential to harm human health. It can occur in various settings, including workplaces, recreational activities, and residential areas. Noise hazards are typically measured in decibels (dB), a unit of measurement for sound intensity . Common Type of Noise Hazards • Occupational Noise: – Generated in the workplace by machinery, equipment, tools, or industrial processes. – Can cause hearing damage, decreased productivity, communication difficulties, and other safety hazards. – Employers are responsible for implementing noise safety programs and control measures to protect workers’ health and safety. 4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 2
  • 3. • Recreational Noise: – Arises from leisure activities such as music concerts, sporting events, cultural festivals, video arcades, and movie theaters. – Can lead to hearing loss, sleep disturbance, stress, annoyance, and other health problems. – Proper measures are essential to prevent negative impacts on both human health and the environment. • Environmental Noise: – Unwanted noise from human activities or natural sources in the environment. – Examples include road traffic, trains, industrial machinery, construction, motorized gardening equipment, and noisy house appliances. – Environmental noise can disrupt ecosystems and affect animal behavior and feeding patterns. 4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 3
  • 4. Particulate Matter PM stands for particulate matter and encompasses a blend of solid particles and liquid droplets found in the atmosphere. Some particles, such as dust, dirt, soot, or smoke, are large enough to be seen with the naked eye, while others are so tiny that they require an electron microscope for detection. Two common categories of PM are: PM10: These are inhalable particles with diameters generally 10 micrometers and smaller. PM2.5: These are fine inhalable particles with diameters generally 2.5 micrometers and smaller. 4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 4
  • 5. • Harmful Effectsof PM: – Particulate matter contains microscopic solids or liquid droplets that can be inhaled, leading to serious health problems. – Particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter can penetrate deep into the lungs, and some may even enter the bloodstream. – Among these, particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) pose the greatest risk to health. • Reducing ParticlePollution: – The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates inhalable particles. – While particles of sand and large dust (larger than 10 micrometers) are not regulated by the EPA, national and regional rules aim to reduce emissions of pollutants that form PM. These efforts help state and local governments meet national air quality standards. Stay informed by using air quality alerts which provides real-time information on outdoor air quality and associated health effects 4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 5
  • 6. Musculoskeletal disorder improper sitting poster • ProperSitting Posture: – Illustrate the correct sitting posture with a clear and engaging poster. – Emphasize the importance of maintaining a neutral spine, proper chair height, and optimal positioning of the computer monitor. – Encourage employees to sit with their feet flat on the floor, knees at a 90- degree angle, and back supported. • Adjustable Ergonomic Furniture: – Advocate for the use of adjustable chairs and desks to accommodate different body types and sizes. – Ergonomic furniture allows individuals to customize their seating and working positions. 4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 6
  • 7. • RegularBreaks: – Remind employees to take regular breaks and stretch to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. • Ergonomic Accessories: – Highlight the use of ergonomic accessories such as lumbar supports and wrist rests to enhance comfort during prolonged sitting. Musculoskeletal disorder improper lifting • Lifting Techniques: – Provide a visual guide on proper lifting techniques. – Emphasize bending at the knees, keeping the load close to the body, and using leg muscles (not the back). • TeamLifting: • Encourage team lifting for heavy or awkward loads. • Emphasize communication and coordination when lifting as a team. 4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 7
  • 8. • Use of Mechanical Aids: – Promote the use of mechanical aids for handling heavy loads. • Training Programs: – Conduct regular training programs on safe lifting practices. – Include information on the potential consequences of improper lifting. Ergonomics RULE & REBA Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) – RULA is a vital tool designed to evaluate ergonomic risks associated with upper extremities during work tasks. – It assesses body posture, force, and repetition, offering a systematic approach to identifying potential musculoskeletal issues 4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 8
  • 9. Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA): – REBA is an ergonomic assessment tool used to evaluate the risk factors associated with whole-body tasks. – It considers various aspects, including posture, force exertion, and duration of the task. – The goal is to identify potential risks and recommend improvements to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. • Applicationof RULA and REBA: – RULA is commonly used in various industries, including manufacturing, healthcare, and office settings. – It helps organizations prioritize ergonomic improvements to enhance worker safety and well-being 4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 9
  • 10. Unsafe act & Unsafe Condition Unsafe acts refer to actions or behaviors by employees that deviate from safety guidelines. These actions can pose risks to their own safety or the safety of others. Examples of unsafe acts include incidents that result in injury or death or situations where there is a threat to health and safety Unsafe conditions pertain to physical factors within the workplace environment that create hazards. These conditions immediately endanger health and safety. For instance, poorly maintained equipment, inadequate lighting, or slippery floors are examples of unsafe conditions 4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 10
  • 11. Electrical hazards Electrical hazards are associated with the potential dangers and risks related to electrical systems. These hazards can lead to serious injuries, burns, electric shock, arc flash incidents, and even fires or explosions • Common causesof electrical hazards – Insufficient Insulation: Over time, electrical insulation can degrade due to wear and tear, rodent damage, or exposure to moisture. This deterioration can result in exposed wires, increasing the risk of electric shock or short circuits. – Circuit Breaker Failure: If a circuit breaker fails to trip during an overload, it loses its protective function, further elevating the risk of electrical hazards. – Damaged Electrical Appliances: Loose connections, frayed wires, or cracked insulation in appliances can lead to electrical malfunctions. 4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 11
  • 12. – Improper Use of Extension Cords: Practices like daisy chaining (connecting multiple extension cords together) and overloading can cause overheating and potentially ignite electrical fires. – Inadequate Maintenance: Neglecting regular inspections of electrical systems, ignoring warning signs, or bypassing safety procedures can contribute to severe electrical hazards over time. Crane Safety Crane safety is of utmost importance in construction sites where these towering machines play a pivotal role in lifting heavy materials and equipment to construct large buildings and structures. 4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 12
  • 13. Crane safety encompasses a set of practices that organizations follow to mitigate risks and hazards associated with operating cranes. • Role of Cranes: Cranes are essential for hoisting, lowering, and moving suspended loads. Their design and construction involve intricate engineering to ensure safe lifting of heavy loads. • Inherent Risks: Despite meticulous design, operating cranes involves inherent risks. A systematic approach is crucial to reduce risks for operators and everyone in the vicinity. CommonCrane Safety Hazards: – Falling Debris: Cranes lift materials high above ground, but there’s always a risk of materials falling. Causes include visual impairment, mechanical failure, operator errors, and slipping. Falling materials can injure people below or cause property damage. 4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 13
  • 14. – Overloading: Exceeding a crane’s load capacity can lead to structural failure, tipping, or collapse. Proper load calculations and adherence to weight limits are vital. – Electrical Risks: Cranes operate near power lines, posing electrocution hazards. Operators must maintain safe distances and follow electrical safety protocols. – Mechanical Failures: Malfunctions in crane components (e.g., cables, hooks, brakes) can endanger operators and bystanders. – Inadequate Maintenance: Regular inspections, maintenance, and adherence to inspection checklists are essential to keep cranes running smoothly. BestPractices for Crane Safety: – Operator Training:Thoroughly train crane operators on risks, safe practices, and emergency procedures. 4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 14
  • 15. – Pre-OperationChecks: Operators should inspect cranes daily, ensuring proper functioning and identifying any issues. – Stabilization: Properly stabilize cranes to prevent tipping during lifting operations. – Load Radius and Limits: Understand load radius (distance from crane center to load) and adhere to load capacity limits. – Travel Safety: Follow guidelines for crane travel, including avoiding obstacles and maintaining stability. – Rigging: Rig loads securely to prevent shifting or falling during lifting. – Set-UpProcedures: Correctly set up cranes, considering ground conditions and clearances. – Electrical Safety: Maintain safe distances from power lines and follow electrical safety protocols. 4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 15
  • 16. Toxic Gas Release Toxic gases pose significant risks in various settings, from industrial facilities to emergency situations. Sources of Toxic Gases: – Natural Events: Volcanic eruptions, forest fires, and dust storms release hazardous compounds into the atmosphere. – Human Activities: Industrial processes, petrochemicals, manufacturing, and waste treatment can emit toxic gases Characteristics of Toxic Gases: – Pressure and Expansion: Toxic gases are often stored and transported under pressure. When released, they rapidly expand and disperse through the air. – Invisibility and Odor: Many toxic gases, such as hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide, are invisible and lack reliable odor warnings 4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 16
  • 17. Emergency Response: • Timely Information: During a toxic gas release event, gathering and providing timely information is critical. Companies must quickly determine: – Safe zones for workers and responders. – Impact on offsite areas and surrounding communities. • Hazard Assessment and ERP: Establishing a baseline for pre-existing conditions, plume modeling, and cyclical updates are essential components of emergency response plans (ERPs) for toxic gas incidents. • Training and Drills: Personnel should be well-trained to execute contamination assessment, real-time monitoring, and other tasks swiftly during an incident 4/15/2024 MX3089 Industrial Safety 17