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MX3089 INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
UNIT I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIES
Hazard-Types of Hazard- Risk-Hierarchy of Hazards Control
Measures-Lead indicators- lag Indicators-Flammability- Toxicity
Time-weighted Average (TWA) - Threshold LimitValue (TLV) -
Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL)- Immediately dangerous to
life or health (IDLH)- acute and chronic Effects- Routes of
Chemical Entry-Personnel Protective Equipment- Health and
Safety Policy-Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 2
Hazards
• A hazard can be anything that can cause harm or
damage to people, property, or the environment.
• It is important to note that a hazard does not
necessarily have to be physical; it can also be
chemical, biological, or psychological.
• Hazardous substances and conditions can exist in
both natural and man-made environments.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 3
Hazard Signs
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 4
What is Risk?
• Risk is the likelihood that a hazard will cause harm or
damage. It is important to note that not all hazards will
result in an accident or incident.
• The level of risk is determined by the severity of the
potential harm or damage and the likelihood that it will
occur.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 5
Types of Hazards
• Biological Hazards
• Chemical Hazards
• Ergonomic Hazards
• Physical Hazards
• Psychological Hazards
• Safety Hazards
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 6
Biological Hazard
• Biologic hazards that may be present at a
hazardous waste site include poisonous plants,
insects, animals, and indigenous pathogens.
• Wastes from hospitals and research facilities
may contain disease-causing organisms that
could infect site personnel.
• Like chemical hazards, etiologic agents may
be dispersed in the environment via water and
wind.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 7
Physical Hazard
• Radiation: including ionising, nonionizing
(EMF’s, microwaves, radio waves, etc.)
• High exposure to sunlight/ultraviolet rays
• Temperature extremes – hot and cold
• Constant loud noise
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 8
Ergonomics Hazards
• Improperly adjusted workstations and chairs
• Frequent lifting
• Poor posture
• Awkward movements, especially if they are
repetitive
• Repeating the same movements over and
over
• Vibration
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 9
Chemical Hazards
• Liquids like cleaning products, paints, acids,
solvents – especially if chemicals are in an
unlabelled container!
• Vapours and fumes that come from welding or
exposure to solvents
• Gases like acetylene, propane, carbon monoxide
and helium
• Flammable materials like gasoline, solvents, and
explosive chemicals.
• Pesticides
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 10
Safety Hazards
• Spills on floors or tripping hazards, such as blocked walkways
or cords running across the floor
• Working from heights, including ladders, scaffolds, roofs, or
any raised work area
• Unguarded machinery and moving machinery parts; guards
removed or moving parts that a worker can accidentally touch
• Electrical hazards like frayed cords, missing ground pins,
improper wiring
• Machinery-related hazards (lockout/tag out, boiler safety,
forklifts, etc
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 11
Work Organization Hazards
• Hazards or stress that cause stress (short term effects) and strain (long-
term effects).
• Workload demands
• Workplace violence
• Intensity and/or pace
• Respect (or lack of)
• Flexibility
• Control or say about things
• Social support/relations
• Sexual harassment
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 12
Hierarchy of Controls
• The hierarchy of controls is a way
of determining which actions will
best control exposures.
• The hierarchy of controls has five
levels of actions to reduce or
remove
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 13
Levels of actions
• Elimination
– Elimination removes the hazard at the source. This could include changing the
work process to stop using a toxic chemical, heavy object, or sharp tool. It is the
preferred solution to protect workers because no exposure can occur.
• Substitution
– Substitution is using a safer alternative to the source of the hazard. An example is
using plant-based printing inks as a substitute for solvent-based inks.
– When considering a substitute, it’s important to compare the potential new risks of
the substitute to the original risks. This review should consider how the substitute
will combine with other agents in the workplace. Effective substitutes reduce the
potential for harmful effects and do not create new risks.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 14
Levels of actions
• Engineering Controls
– Engineering controls reduce or prevent hazards from coming into contact with
workers. Engineering controls can include modifying equipment or the workspace,
using protective barriers, ventilation, and more.
– The most effective engineering controls:
• remove or block the hazard at the source before it comes into contact with the
worker
• prevent users from modifying or interfering with the control
• need minimal user input for the controls to work
• operate correctly without interfering with the work process or making the work
process more difficult
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 15
Levels of actions
• Administrative controls establish work practices that reduce the
duration, frequency, or intensity of exposure to hazards. This may
include:
– work process training
– job rotation
– ensuring adequate rest breaks
– limiting access to hazardous areas or machinery
– adjusting line speeds
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 16
Levels of actions
• Personal Protective Equipment is equipment worn to minimize exposure to hazards.
Examples of PPE include gloves, safety glasses, hearing protection, hard hats, and
respirators.
• When employees use PPE, employers should implement a PPE program. While
elements of the PPE program depend on the work process and the identified PPE, the
program should address:
– workplace hazards assessment
– PPE selection and use
– inspection and replacement of damaged or worn-out PPE
– employee training
– program monitoring for continued effectiveness
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 17
Lead Indicators
• Lead indicators are the proactive and predictive measures that
organizations undertake to improve their safety outcomes. They provide
insights into future health and safety performance and allow
organizations to take preventive actions to mitigate potential issues.
• Some examples of lead indicators are safety training attendance, near
miss reports, safety drills conducted, safety audits, employee safety
observations, maintenance of safety equipment, safety meetings and
briefings, employee engagement in safety committees, hazard
identification and risk assessment, and safety suggestions and feedback.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 18
Lag Indicators
• Lag indicators are the events that have already occurred that cause harm
to the people that work in an organization that are measured as an
indicator of safety performance. They reflect the effectiveness of the
safety management system and the impact of the hazard controls.
• Some examples of lag indicators are recordable injury rate, lost time
injury frequency rate, severity rate, fatality rate, property damage
incidents, workers’ compensation claims, safety violation fines,
occupational illness rate, incidents of non-compliance, and number of
safety corrective actions.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 19
Flammability
• Flammability refers to the susceptibility of a material to catch fire or ignite
and support combustion. It is a critical characteristic to consider in various
contexts, such as the design and manufacturing of products, storage and
handling of materials, and safety regulations in different industries.
• Flammable Materials:
– Solids: Flammable solids are materials in a solid state that can easily ignite and burn.
– Liquids: Flammable liquids are substances in liquid form that can catch fire and sustain
combustion.
– Gases: Flammable gases are materials in a gaseous state that can ignite and burn when
exposed to a flame or heat source.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 20
Flammability
• Flammable Limits:
– Every flammable substance has specific concentration limits within
which it can ignite and sustain combustion. Below the lower flammable
limit (LFL), there is insufficient concentration for combustion. Above
the upper flammable limit (UFL), there is too much of the substance for
combustion to occur.
• Flash Point:
– The flash point is the lowest temperature at which a substance emits
vapors that can ignite in the presence of an ignition source. It is a
crucial parameter for flammable liquids.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 21
Flammability
• Autoignition Temperature:
– The autoignition temperature is the lowest temperature at which
a substance can spontaneously ignite without an external ignition
source.
• Flame Spread and Fire Propagation:
– Flammable materials vary in their ability to spread flames. Some
materials may ignite easily and sustain a fire, while others may
resist flame spread.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 22
Flammability
• Flammability Ratings:
– Different industries may use flammability ratings or classifications to categorize
materials based on their fire hazards. For example, the NFPA (National Fire Protection
Association) provides flammability ratings for materials.
• Flame Retardants:
– Flame retardants are substances added to materials to reduce their flammability. They
work by either slowing down the ignition or inhibiting the spread of flames.
• Safety Measures:
– Safety measures to address flammability include proper storage, handling, and
transportation of flammable materials. Fire prevention systems, such as sprinklers and
fire extinguishers, are also critical for managing flammability risks
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 23
Toxicity indicators
• Toxicity indicators like Time-Weighted Average (TWA),
Threshold Limit Value (TLV), and Short-Term Exposure Limit
(STEL) are used in occupational health and safety to assess and
manage exposure to hazardous substances in the workplace.
• These indicators help establish guidelines and limits to protect
workers from the adverse effects of exposure to potentially
harmful substances.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 24
Toxicity indicators
• Time-Weighted Average (TWA):
– TWA is a measure of the average exposure to a substance over a specified period,
usually an 8-hour workday or 40-hour workweek. It takes into account variations in
exposure levels throughout the work shift. The formula for TWA is the total exposure
over a specified period divided by the duration of that period.
• Threshold Limit Value (TLV):
– TLV is a term used by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
(ACGIH) to represent the concentration of a substance in the air to which most workers
can be exposed without adverse effects over a specified time period. TLVs are typically
expressed as a TWA over an 8-hour workday but may also include other time periods.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 25
Toxicity indicators
• Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL):
– STEL represents the maximum concentration of a substance that
workers can be exposed to over a short period, usually 15
minutes, without suffering adverse health effects.
– It is designed to prevent acute health effects from short-term
exposures that might exceed the TWA.
– STEL values are often used in conjunction with TWAs to provide
comprehensive exposure guidelines.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 26
Acute and chronic effects
• Acute and chronic effects are terms used to describe the duration
and severity of the health impacts resulting from exposure to a
particular substance, condition, or event.
• These terms are often used in the context of occupational health and
safety, environmental health, and toxicology.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 27
Acute effects
• Acute effects refer to the immediate and often short-term health
consequences that result from a single, brief exposure to a hazardous
substance or condition.
• Acute effects manifest rapidly, typically within a short period
following exposure, ranging from seconds to hours.
• Examples: Respiratory irritation, nausea, dizziness, eye irritation,
and skin rashes are common acute effects.
• Acute exposures may lead to conditions like acute poisoning or
immediate injury
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 28
Chronic Effects:
• Chronic effects, on the other hand, result from long-term or repeated
exposures to a substance or condition over an extended period.
• Chronic effects develop gradually and become evident over an
extended period, often occurring after months or years of exposure.
• Examples: Chronic effects may include conditions such as cancer,
organ damage, respiratory diseases, and other health issues that
develop over time due to prolonged exposure to a harmful agent
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 29
Routes of Chemical Entry
• Chemicals can enter the body through various routes, and the route of entry often
influences the potential health effects. The primary routes of chemical entry
include:
1. Inhalation: Inhaling chemical substances is a common route of entry. It involves
breathing in airborne particles, gases, vapors, or aerosols. Examples: Inhalation
exposure can occur in workplaces with airborne contaminants, such as dust, fumes,
gases, and vapors.
2. Ingestion: It involves the entry of chemicals into the body through the mouth,
usually by swallowing contaminated food, water, or other substances.
Examples: Ingestion exposure can occur through contaminated food, water, or hands.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 30
Routes of Chemical Entry
3. Dermal (Skin) Contact: Chemicals can enter the body through direct contact with
the skin. This can include absorption through the skin or penetration through cuts or
abrasions. Examples: Exposure to chemicals in the workplace, such as contact with
liquid chemicals or exposure during activities like painting or cleaning.
4. Ocular (Eye) Exposure: Chemicals can enter the body through contact with the
eyes, leading to eye irritation or damage. Examples: Splashes of chemicals, dust, or
fumes that come into contact with the eyes in industrial settings or laboratories.
5. Injection: Injection involves the direct introduction of a substance into the body
through puncture wounds, needlesticks, or other invasive procedures.
Examples: Occupational hazards for healthcare workers, laboratory personnel, or
individuals who work with needles or sharps.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 31
Material Safety Data Sheet
• A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), also known as a Safety Data
Sheet (SDS), is a detailed informational document prepared by the
manufacturer or importer of a hazardous chemical.
• It describes the physical and chemical properties of the product.
MSDSs contain useful information such as flash points, toxicity,
procedures for spills and leaks, and first aid information.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 32
Purpose of MSDS
The main objectives of an MSDS are:
• Identifying Hazards: MSDS provides detailed information about the physical and chemical
properties of the substance, its hazards, how it can be safely stored, handled, and used, what to
do in case of an emergency, and the measures to be taken if someone is exposed to it.
• Protecting Workers: MSDS protects workers from potential harm by providing information
about the hazards associated with a chemical or product. They contain detailed first aid
measures and recommended personal protective equipment for handling the substance.
• Emergency Preparation: In an emergency involving a substance, such as a spill or fire, the
MSDS provides crucial information on handling the situation safely.
• Environmental Safety: MSDS also provides information on the environmental impact of the
substance, including details on how to dispose of the substance safely and environmentally
friendly.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 33
Benefits Of Using MSDS
• Worker Safety: When employees know the hazards and understand how to
handle a substance safely, the risk of accidents and injuries is significantly
reduced.
• Compliance: Providing MSDS helps organizations comply with safety
regulations and standards, such as those set by OSHA in the United States.
Failure to provide these documents can lead to penalties.
• Efficient Emergency Response: In an accident or emergency, having access to
MSDS allows for a quick and efficient response, potentially reducing harm and
damage.
• Knowledge and Training: MSDS are valuable resources for training new
employees about the potential hazards in the workplace and the safe handling of
substances.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 34
Common Components in MSDS
• A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) typically contains various sections that provide
essential information about a chemical substance or product. While the specific format may
vary depending on regional regulations and industry practices, the following are the
common components found in an MSDS:
• Identification: It provides the product’s name and the manufacturer’s or distributor’s name,
address, and contact information. It may also include an emergency phone number for
immediate contact in a crisis. Information on recommended use and restrictions on use can
also be found in this section.
• Hazard Identification: Here, the physical, health, and environmental hazards associated
with the substance is described. This could include whether the material is flammable,
corrosive, toxic, or an irritant. The severity of these hazards is often represented using signal
words like “warning” or “danger” and hazard statements that describe the nature of the risk.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 35
Common Components in MSDS
• Composition/Information on Ingredients: This section lists the substance’s
chemical components and relative concentrations. Not all ingredients may be listed
for complex mixtures, but those contributing to the product’s hazard level will be.
• First Aid Measures: This area details the actions to take if a person is exposed to the
chemical—inhalation, skin or eye contact, or ingestion. It describes symptoms and
required treatment; the information should be specific and practical.
• Fire-Fighting Measures: Here, you will find the best methods to extinguish a fire
involving the material, any special protective equipment for firefighters, and
potential hazards that may arise when the substance is burned.
• Accidental Release Measures: This portion details the steps to follow if the
substance spills or leaks, including emergency procedures, protective equipment, and
methods for containment and cleanup to prevent environmental damage.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 36
Common Components in MSDS
• Handling and Storage: It offers guidelines for safely handling the substance to
minimize exposure and instructions for properly storing the substance to prevent
accidents, like fire or exposure to hazardous fumes.
• Exposure Controls/Personal Protection: It includes measures to limit workers’
exposure to the substance, such as recommendations on specific types of
ventilation, personal protective equipment like gloves or respirators, and what type
of eye protection should be worn.
• Physical and Chemical Properties: It provides technical data about the substance,
such as its appearance, odor, boiling and melting points, flash point (the
temperature at which it can ignite), solubility in water, and other relevant
characteristics.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 37
Common Components in MSDS
• Toxicological Information: It describes the health effects of exposure to the substance,
including immediate effects and any long-term health problems it could cause.
• Ecological Information: It provides information on the substance’s environmental impact,
including toxicity to aquatic organisms, persistence and degradability, and its bio-
accumulation potential.
• Disposal Considerations: It includes recommendations for appropriate disposal practices,
recycling or reclamation of the chemical or its container, and safe handling practices.
• Transport Information: It provides guidance on how to safely transport the substance,
including any special precautions that should be taken.
• Regulatory Information: It offers additional details about the substance as required by
specific regulations. This could include regulations from various jurisdictions, such as
international, federal, state or local.
4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 38

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Industrial Safety Unit-I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIES

  • 2. UNIT I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIES Hazard-Types of Hazard- Risk-Hierarchy of Hazards Control Measures-Lead indicators- lag Indicators-Flammability- Toxicity Time-weighted Average (TWA) - Threshold LimitValue (TLV) - Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL)- Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH)- acute and chronic Effects- Routes of Chemical Entry-Personnel Protective Equipment- Health and Safety Policy-Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 2
  • 3. Hazards • A hazard can be anything that can cause harm or damage to people, property, or the environment. • It is important to note that a hazard does not necessarily have to be physical; it can also be chemical, biological, or psychological. • Hazardous substances and conditions can exist in both natural and man-made environments. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 3
  • 4. Hazard Signs 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 4
  • 5. What is Risk? • Risk is the likelihood that a hazard will cause harm or damage. It is important to note that not all hazards will result in an accident or incident. • The level of risk is determined by the severity of the potential harm or damage and the likelihood that it will occur. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 5
  • 6. Types of Hazards • Biological Hazards • Chemical Hazards • Ergonomic Hazards • Physical Hazards • Psychological Hazards • Safety Hazards 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 6
  • 7. Biological Hazard • Biologic hazards that may be present at a hazardous waste site include poisonous plants, insects, animals, and indigenous pathogens. • Wastes from hospitals and research facilities may contain disease-causing organisms that could infect site personnel. • Like chemical hazards, etiologic agents may be dispersed in the environment via water and wind. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 7
  • 8. Physical Hazard • Radiation: including ionising, nonionizing (EMF’s, microwaves, radio waves, etc.) • High exposure to sunlight/ultraviolet rays • Temperature extremes – hot and cold • Constant loud noise 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 8
  • 9. Ergonomics Hazards • Improperly adjusted workstations and chairs • Frequent lifting • Poor posture • Awkward movements, especially if they are repetitive • Repeating the same movements over and over • Vibration 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 9
  • 10. Chemical Hazards • Liquids like cleaning products, paints, acids, solvents – especially if chemicals are in an unlabelled container! • Vapours and fumes that come from welding or exposure to solvents • Gases like acetylene, propane, carbon monoxide and helium • Flammable materials like gasoline, solvents, and explosive chemicals. • Pesticides 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 10
  • 11. Safety Hazards • Spills on floors or tripping hazards, such as blocked walkways or cords running across the floor • Working from heights, including ladders, scaffolds, roofs, or any raised work area • Unguarded machinery and moving machinery parts; guards removed or moving parts that a worker can accidentally touch • Electrical hazards like frayed cords, missing ground pins, improper wiring • Machinery-related hazards (lockout/tag out, boiler safety, forklifts, etc 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 11
  • 12. Work Organization Hazards • Hazards or stress that cause stress (short term effects) and strain (long- term effects). • Workload demands • Workplace violence • Intensity and/or pace • Respect (or lack of) • Flexibility • Control or say about things • Social support/relations • Sexual harassment 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 12
  • 13. Hierarchy of Controls • The hierarchy of controls is a way of determining which actions will best control exposures. • The hierarchy of controls has five levels of actions to reduce or remove 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 13
  • 14. Levels of actions • Elimination – Elimination removes the hazard at the source. This could include changing the work process to stop using a toxic chemical, heavy object, or sharp tool. It is the preferred solution to protect workers because no exposure can occur. • Substitution – Substitution is using a safer alternative to the source of the hazard. An example is using plant-based printing inks as a substitute for solvent-based inks. – When considering a substitute, it’s important to compare the potential new risks of the substitute to the original risks. This review should consider how the substitute will combine with other agents in the workplace. Effective substitutes reduce the potential for harmful effects and do not create new risks. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 14
  • 15. Levels of actions • Engineering Controls – Engineering controls reduce or prevent hazards from coming into contact with workers. Engineering controls can include modifying equipment or the workspace, using protective barriers, ventilation, and more. – The most effective engineering controls: • remove or block the hazard at the source before it comes into contact with the worker • prevent users from modifying or interfering with the control • need minimal user input for the controls to work • operate correctly without interfering with the work process or making the work process more difficult 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 15
  • 16. Levels of actions • Administrative controls establish work practices that reduce the duration, frequency, or intensity of exposure to hazards. This may include: – work process training – job rotation – ensuring adequate rest breaks – limiting access to hazardous areas or machinery – adjusting line speeds 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 16
  • 17. Levels of actions • Personal Protective Equipment is equipment worn to minimize exposure to hazards. Examples of PPE include gloves, safety glasses, hearing protection, hard hats, and respirators. • When employees use PPE, employers should implement a PPE program. While elements of the PPE program depend on the work process and the identified PPE, the program should address: – workplace hazards assessment – PPE selection and use – inspection and replacement of damaged or worn-out PPE – employee training – program monitoring for continued effectiveness 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 17
  • 18. Lead Indicators • Lead indicators are the proactive and predictive measures that organizations undertake to improve their safety outcomes. They provide insights into future health and safety performance and allow organizations to take preventive actions to mitigate potential issues. • Some examples of lead indicators are safety training attendance, near miss reports, safety drills conducted, safety audits, employee safety observations, maintenance of safety equipment, safety meetings and briefings, employee engagement in safety committees, hazard identification and risk assessment, and safety suggestions and feedback. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 18
  • 19. Lag Indicators • Lag indicators are the events that have already occurred that cause harm to the people that work in an organization that are measured as an indicator of safety performance. They reflect the effectiveness of the safety management system and the impact of the hazard controls. • Some examples of lag indicators are recordable injury rate, lost time injury frequency rate, severity rate, fatality rate, property damage incidents, workers’ compensation claims, safety violation fines, occupational illness rate, incidents of non-compliance, and number of safety corrective actions. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 19
  • 20. Flammability • Flammability refers to the susceptibility of a material to catch fire or ignite and support combustion. It is a critical characteristic to consider in various contexts, such as the design and manufacturing of products, storage and handling of materials, and safety regulations in different industries. • Flammable Materials: – Solids: Flammable solids are materials in a solid state that can easily ignite and burn. – Liquids: Flammable liquids are substances in liquid form that can catch fire and sustain combustion. – Gases: Flammable gases are materials in a gaseous state that can ignite and burn when exposed to a flame or heat source. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 20
  • 21. Flammability • Flammable Limits: – Every flammable substance has specific concentration limits within which it can ignite and sustain combustion. Below the lower flammable limit (LFL), there is insufficient concentration for combustion. Above the upper flammable limit (UFL), there is too much of the substance for combustion to occur. • Flash Point: – The flash point is the lowest temperature at which a substance emits vapors that can ignite in the presence of an ignition source. It is a crucial parameter for flammable liquids. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 21
  • 22. Flammability • Autoignition Temperature: – The autoignition temperature is the lowest temperature at which a substance can spontaneously ignite without an external ignition source. • Flame Spread and Fire Propagation: – Flammable materials vary in their ability to spread flames. Some materials may ignite easily and sustain a fire, while others may resist flame spread. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 22
  • 23. Flammability • Flammability Ratings: – Different industries may use flammability ratings or classifications to categorize materials based on their fire hazards. For example, the NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) provides flammability ratings for materials. • Flame Retardants: – Flame retardants are substances added to materials to reduce their flammability. They work by either slowing down the ignition or inhibiting the spread of flames. • Safety Measures: – Safety measures to address flammability include proper storage, handling, and transportation of flammable materials. Fire prevention systems, such as sprinklers and fire extinguishers, are also critical for managing flammability risks 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 23
  • 24. Toxicity indicators • Toxicity indicators like Time-Weighted Average (TWA), Threshold Limit Value (TLV), and Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL) are used in occupational health and safety to assess and manage exposure to hazardous substances in the workplace. • These indicators help establish guidelines and limits to protect workers from the adverse effects of exposure to potentially harmful substances. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 24
  • 25. Toxicity indicators • Time-Weighted Average (TWA): – TWA is a measure of the average exposure to a substance over a specified period, usually an 8-hour workday or 40-hour workweek. It takes into account variations in exposure levels throughout the work shift. The formula for TWA is the total exposure over a specified period divided by the duration of that period. • Threshold Limit Value (TLV): – TLV is a term used by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) to represent the concentration of a substance in the air to which most workers can be exposed without adverse effects over a specified time period. TLVs are typically expressed as a TWA over an 8-hour workday but may also include other time periods. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 25
  • 26. Toxicity indicators • Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL): – STEL represents the maximum concentration of a substance that workers can be exposed to over a short period, usually 15 minutes, without suffering adverse health effects. – It is designed to prevent acute health effects from short-term exposures that might exceed the TWA. – STEL values are often used in conjunction with TWAs to provide comprehensive exposure guidelines. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 26
  • 27. Acute and chronic effects • Acute and chronic effects are terms used to describe the duration and severity of the health impacts resulting from exposure to a particular substance, condition, or event. • These terms are often used in the context of occupational health and safety, environmental health, and toxicology. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 27
  • 28. Acute effects • Acute effects refer to the immediate and often short-term health consequences that result from a single, brief exposure to a hazardous substance or condition. • Acute effects manifest rapidly, typically within a short period following exposure, ranging from seconds to hours. • Examples: Respiratory irritation, nausea, dizziness, eye irritation, and skin rashes are common acute effects. • Acute exposures may lead to conditions like acute poisoning or immediate injury 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 28
  • 29. Chronic Effects: • Chronic effects, on the other hand, result from long-term or repeated exposures to a substance or condition over an extended period. • Chronic effects develop gradually and become evident over an extended period, often occurring after months or years of exposure. • Examples: Chronic effects may include conditions such as cancer, organ damage, respiratory diseases, and other health issues that develop over time due to prolonged exposure to a harmful agent 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 29
  • 30. Routes of Chemical Entry • Chemicals can enter the body through various routes, and the route of entry often influences the potential health effects. The primary routes of chemical entry include: 1. Inhalation: Inhaling chemical substances is a common route of entry. It involves breathing in airborne particles, gases, vapors, or aerosols. Examples: Inhalation exposure can occur in workplaces with airborne contaminants, such as dust, fumes, gases, and vapors. 2. Ingestion: It involves the entry of chemicals into the body through the mouth, usually by swallowing contaminated food, water, or other substances. Examples: Ingestion exposure can occur through contaminated food, water, or hands. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 30
  • 31. Routes of Chemical Entry 3. Dermal (Skin) Contact: Chemicals can enter the body through direct contact with the skin. This can include absorption through the skin or penetration through cuts or abrasions. Examples: Exposure to chemicals in the workplace, such as contact with liquid chemicals or exposure during activities like painting or cleaning. 4. Ocular (Eye) Exposure: Chemicals can enter the body through contact with the eyes, leading to eye irritation or damage. Examples: Splashes of chemicals, dust, or fumes that come into contact with the eyes in industrial settings or laboratories. 5. Injection: Injection involves the direct introduction of a substance into the body through puncture wounds, needlesticks, or other invasive procedures. Examples: Occupational hazards for healthcare workers, laboratory personnel, or individuals who work with needles or sharps. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 31
  • 32. Material Safety Data Sheet • A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), also known as a Safety Data Sheet (SDS), is a detailed informational document prepared by the manufacturer or importer of a hazardous chemical. • It describes the physical and chemical properties of the product. MSDSs contain useful information such as flash points, toxicity, procedures for spills and leaks, and first aid information. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 32
  • 33. Purpose of MSDS The main objectives of an MSDS are: • Identifying Hazards: MSDS provides detailed information about the physical and chemical properties of the substance, its hazards, how it can be safely stored, handled, and used, what to do in case of an emergency, and the measures to be taken if someone is exposed to it. • Protecting Workers: MSDS protects workers from potential harm by providing information about the hazards associated with a chemical or product. They contain detailed first aid measures and recommended personal protective equipment for handling the substance. • Emergency Preparation: In an emergency involving a substance, such as a spill or fire, the MSDS provides crucial information on handling the situation safely. • Environmental Safety: MSDS also provides information on the environmental impact of the substance, including details on how to dispose of the substance safely and environmentally friendly. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 33
  • 34. Benefits Of Using MSDS • Worker Safety: When employees know the hazards and understand how to handle a substance safely, the risk of accidents and injuries is significantly reduced. • Compliance: Providing MSDS helps organizations comply with safety regulations and standards, such as those set by OSHA in the United States. Failure to provide these documents can lead to penalties. • Efficient Emergency Response: In an accident or emergency, having access to MSDS allows for a quick and efficient response, potentially reducing harm and damage. • Knowledge and Training: MSDS are valuable resources for training new employees about the potential hazards in the workplace and the safe handling of substances. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 34
  • 35. Common Components in MSDS • A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) typically contains various sections that provide essential information about a chemical substance or product. While the specific format may vary depending on regional regulations and industry practices, the following are the common components found in an MSDS: • Identification: It provides the product’s name and the manufacturer’s or distributor’s name, address, and contact information. It may also include an emergency phone number for immediate contact in a crisis. Information on recommended use and restrictions on use can also be found in this section. • Hazard Identification: Here, the physical, health, and environmental hazards associated with the substance is described. This could include whether the material is flammable, corrosive, toxic, or an irritant. The severity of these hazards is often represented using signal words like “warning” or “danger” and hazard statements that describe the nature of the risk. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 35
  • 36. Common Components in MSDS • Composition/Information on Ingredients: This section lists the substance’s chemical components and relative concentrations. Not all ingredients may be listed for complex mixtures, but those contributing to the product’s hazard level will be. • First Aid Measures: This area details the actions to take if a person is exposed to the chemical—inhalation, skin or eye contact, or ingestion. It describes symptoms and required treatment; the information should be specific and practical. • Fire-Fighting Measures: Here, you will find the best methods to extinguish a fire involving the material, any special protective equipment for firefighters, and potential hazards that may arise when the substance is burned. • Accidental Release Measures: This portion details the steps to follow if the substance spills or leaks, including emergency procedures, protective equipment, and methods for containment and cleanup to prevent environmental damage. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 36
  • 37. Common Components in MSDS • Handling and Storage: It offers guidelines for safely handling the substance to minimize exposure and instructions for properly storing the substance to prevent accidents, like fire or exposure to hazardous fumes. • Exposure Controls/Personal Protection: It includes measures to limit workers’ exposure to the substance, such as recommendations on specific types of ventilation, personal protective equipment like gloves or respirators, and what type of eye protection should be worn. • Physical and Chemical Properties: It provides technical data about the substance, such as its appearance, odor, boiling and melting points, flash point (the temperature at which it can ignite), solubility in water, and other relevant characteristics. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 37
  • 38. Common Components in MSDS • Toxicological Information: It describes the health effects of exposure to the substance, including immediate effects and any long-term health problems it could cause. • Ecological Information: It provides information on the substance’s environmental impact, including toxicity to aquatic organisms, persistence and degradability, and its bio- accumulation potential. • Disposal Considerations: It includes recommendations for appropriate disposal practices, recycling or reclamation of the chemical or its container, and safe handling practices. • Transport Information: It provides guidance on how to safely transport the substance, including any special precautions that should be taken. • Regulatory Information: It offers additional details about the substance as required by specific regulations. This could include regulations from various jurisdictions, such as international, federal, state or local. 4/15/2024 MX3089 -INDUSTRIAL SAFETY 38

Editor's Notes

  1. https://www.hseblog.com/leading-lagging-indicators/