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### Index Notation

• 1. Index notation The following slides cover the use of index notation. Use these to help with the homework. Any questions please use the comment box (remember to give your email if you want a reply).
• 2. Index notation We use index notation to show repeated multiplication by the same number. For example, we can use index notation to write 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 as 2 5 This number is read as ‘two to the power of five’. 2 5 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 32 base Index or power
• 3. Index notation Evaluate the following: 6 2 = 6 × 6 = 36 3 4 = 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 = 81 (–5) 3 = – 5 × –5 × –5 = – 125 2 7 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 128 (–1) 5 = – 1 × –1 × –1 × –1 × –1 = – 1 (–4) 4 = – 4 × –4 × –4 × –4 = 64 When we raise a negative number to an odd power the answer is negative . When we raise a negative number to an even power the answer is positive .
• 4. Calculating powers We can use the x y key on a calculator to find powers. For example, to calculate the value of 7 4 we key in: The calculator shows this as 2401. 7 4 = 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 = 2401 7 x y 4 =
• 5. The first index law When we multiply two numbers written in index form and with the same base we can see an interesting result. For example, 3 4 × 3 2 = (3 × 3 × 3 × 3) × (3 × 3) = 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 = 3 6 7 3 × 7 5 = (7 × 7 × 7) × (7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7) = 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 = 7 8 What do you notice? When we multiply two numbers with the same base the indices are added . = 3 (4 + 2) = 7 (3 + 5)
• 6. The second index law When we divide two numbers written in index form and with the same base we can see another interesting result. For example, 4 5 ÷ 4 2 = 4 × 4 × 4 = 4 3 5 6 ÷ 5 4 = 5 × 5 = 5 2 What do you notice? = 4 (5 – 2) = 5 (6 – 4) When we divide two numbers with the same base the indices are subtracted . 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 4 × 4 = 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 =
• 7. Zero indices Look at the following division: 6 4 ÷ 6 4 = 1 Using the second index law 6 4 ÷ 6 4 = 6 (4 – 4) = 6 0 That means that 6 0 = 1 In fact, any number raised to the power of 0 is equal to 1. For example, 10 0 = 1 3.452 0 = 1 723 538 592 0 = 1
• 8. Negative indices Look at the following division: 3 2 ÷ 3 4 = Using the second index law 3 2 ÷ 3 4 = 3 (2 – 4) = 3 –2 That means that 3 –2 = Similarly, 6 –1 = 7 –4 = and 5 –3 = 3 × 3 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 = 1 3 × 3 = 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 6 1 7 4 1 5 3
• 9. Using algebra We can write all of these results algebraically. a m × a n = a ( m + n ) a m ÷ a n = a (m – n) a 0 = 1 a –1 = 1 a a – n = 1 a n
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