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Income Tax Issues for
Older Adults
Barbara O’Neill, Ph.D., CFP®, AFC®
Owner/CEO, Money Talk
Disclaimer
I do not sell products or services to consumers.
Street Cred
• CFP® for 37 years
• Financial educator for 44 years
• Prepared my own taxes for 52 years
• Age 65+
• An older adult paying income taxes…just like you
Class Topics
• Federal income tax rates
• Tax deductions and credits
• Tax filing process
• Tax avoidance vs. tax evasion
• Tax record-keeping
• 13 tax topics that specifically apply to older adults
• Tax planning resources
Question #1
What questions do you have about
income taxes?
Background:
Major Taxes Paid in the U.S.
Taxes on Purchases
– Sales tax and excise tax (e.g., gas, cigarettes)
Taxes on Property
– Real estate property tax
– Personal property tax
Taxes on Wealth
– Federal estate tax (12 states+ DC)
– State inheritance tax (6 states); Maryland has both!
Taxes on Earnings
– Income tax and Social Security tax 3-6
Background: The Progressive
Nature of Federal Income Tax
• Progressive tax – Takes a larger percentage
of income from high-income taxpayers than
low-income taxpayers.
– Federal income tax
• Regressive tax – Takes a decreasing
percentage of income as income increases.
– State sales tax, excise taxes
Background: Federal Income
Tax Rates
• Established by Congress and change periodically
• Based on:
• Amount and type of taxable income
• Tax filing status - e.g., married filing jointly, single
• Set to revert back to 2017 rates after 2025 (TCJA)
http://njaes.rutgers.edu/money/taxinfo/
8
Background: Marginal Tax Rate Is
Applied to the Last Dollar Earned
• Marginal Tax Bracket (MTB) – One of the seven
income-range segments that are taxed at increasing
rates as income increases
– 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35%, 37% tax rates
• Marginal Tax Rate – The tax rate applied to your
last dollar of earnings
2022 Tax
Rate
Schedules
Background: Tax Credit Versus
Tax Deduction
$100 Tax Credit
Reduces Your Taxes by $100
$100 Tax Deduction
Amount Your Taxes are Reduced
is Based on Your Tax Bracket
3-11
Example: $5,000 x .22 mtb = $1,100 of tax savings; $3,900 net cost
Background:
Types of Deductions
Deduction = An amount subtracted from gross income to reduce
the amount of income subject to tax
• Standard Deduction- Amount established each year by tax
code; no need to itemize deductions; based on a taxpayer's
filing status and age; no receipts needed
– $12,550 (s) and $25,100 (mfj) in 2021
– $12,950 (s) and $25,900 (mfj) in 2022
• Itemized Deduction- Amounts spent on certain goods and
services throughout the year; allowed deductions include
mortgage interest, state and local taxes, charitable donations
12
Background: Itemizing Required
for Charitable Gift Benefits
• You can give thousands of dollars, but if you claim
the standard deduction on your tax return, charitable
gifts will do you no tax good
• You must itemize expenses on Schedule A to
deduct charitable donations
• Donors' deductions are limited to 60% of adjusted
gross income; rollover of excess gifts for up to 5
years
Who Itemizes Deductions?
Overall, only about 10% of taxpayers now itemize deductions
Background: Refundable and
Non-Refundable Tax Credits
• Refundable: When tax credits exceed amount of tax
owed; IRS sends a tax refund for the difference
– Example: Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), Child Tax
Credit, American Opportunity Tax Credit
• Non-Refundable: Credit can’t be used to create or
increase a tax refund. In other words, tax savings
cannot exceed the amount of tax owed.
– Examples: Elderly and Disabled Tax Credit, Saver’s Tax
Credit, Electric Vehicle Credit
Recommended Resource
“The Bible”: Annual Limits Relating to Financial
Planning (College for Financial Planning):
https://static1.squarespace.com/static/53d07a97e4b0f
44d69dd3888/t/61b21b2150b880632c7f9417/163906
2306063/2022-annual-limits.pdf
Background: Completing the
Federal Income Tax Return
 Filing status
 Income
 Adjustments to income
 Tax computation
 Tax credits
 Other taxes (such as from self-employment)
 Payments (total withholding and other payments)
 Refund or amount you owe
• Refunds can be directly deposited to a bank account
• Payments may be debited from a bank account
 Signature (most common filing error) 3-17
Background: Tax-Rate
Schedules and Tax Tables
• Tax-Rate Schedules – Used by persons with a
taxable income of $100,000 or more; requires a
mathematical computation to determine tax liability
• Tax Tables – Used to look up one’s tax liability
according to tax filing status and income range
Federal
Income
Tax Table
Filing Status
Taxable Income
Tax Liability
19
Background: Tax Avoidance
and Tax Evasion
Tax Avoidance (Minimization)
– Legitimate methods to reduce your tax obligation to
your fair share but no more
(e.g., deductions, credits, tax-deferred/tax-free investing)
– Keep good tax records (W-2s, 1099s, receipts)
Tax Evasion
– Illegally not paying taxes you owe, such as not
reporting all income or overstating deductions
3-20
Question #2
Who are some high-profile tax
evaders in U.S. history?
22
Background: Impact of Tax
Withholding on Net Income
More income tax deducted =
Smaller net income (pension, SS, paycheck, etc.) =
Larger tax refund
Less income tax deducted =
Larger net income =
Smaller tax refund or taxes owed
Question #3
What is your opinion about tax over-
withholding to get a big refund?
Is it a good idea to over-withhold to get a big tax
refund ($500 +)?
Cons:
 Taxpayer is not earning any interest on the money
 Government has had an interest-free loan
 Delays getting own money back; especially if ID theft occurs
Pros:
 Some people see it as discipline to save a large lump sum
 Provides “peace of mind” about not owing money
Background: Tax Refunds
24
Background: Tax Record
Retention
• Keep investment records to document capital gains
and the tax basis of the investments (for length of
investment ownership + at least 6 years)
• Don’t discard records relating to
– Home purchases/sales
– Contributions to retirement accounts
– Retirement account rollovers and conversions
• When in doubt about keeping a tax record, do NOT
throw it out!
– Save a hard copy and/or digitize it
25
General Tax Planning
Strategies to Minimize Taxes
If you expect Then you should Because
The same or a
lower tax rate next
year
Accelerate
deductions into this
year
Greater benefit to
higher tax rate
The same tax rate
next year
Delay income into
next year
Delay paying taxes
A higher tax rate
next year
Delay deductions Greater benefit
Accelerate income Taxed at lower rate
3-26
13 Tax Topics
for Older Adults
1. Required Minimum Distributions
• Applies to traditional IRAs, employer DC plans, SEPs
• Required starting at age 72
– RBD: April 1 of year after turning 72
• New RMD life expectancy table for 2022
– Divide 12/31 balance by the divisor for your age
• Examples: Age 72 divisor (2022) of 27.4
– $10,000 balance: $10,000 ÷ 27.4 = $365 (rounded)
– $100,000 balance: $100,000 ÷ 27.4 = $3,650 (rounded)
– $1,000,000 balance: $1,000,000 ÷27.4 = $36,500
(rounded)
RMD Table
Source: www.kitces.com
https://www.kitces.com/wp-
content/uploads/2020/12/C
urrent-Vs-New-Uniform-
Lifetime-Table-RMD-As-A-
Percentage-Of-Account-
Balance.pdf
2. Qualified Charitable
Contributions (QCDs)
• Available starting at age 70 ½; Traditional IRAs only
• Taxpayers can donate RMD to qualified charity (ies)
– Thereby reduces otherwise taxable income
• QCD made directly from IRA custodian to charity
• Maximum annual exclusion: $100,000 per person
– Same deadline as RMDs: December 31 of each tax year
3. Increased Standard Deduction
• Taxpayers age 65+ get increased standard
deduction
• “Higher hurdle” to cross to be able to benefit from
itemized deductions
• Singles: $14,700
– $12,950 + $1,750 additional for 65+
• Married couples filing jointly: $28,700
– $25,900 + $1,400 pp x 2 additional for 65 +
4. Form 1040-SR
• Only for taxpayers
age 65+
• Larger type (font) and
highlights standard
deductions
• Do not have to be
retired to use
• Can itemize or take
standard deduction
5. Taxable Social Security
Benefits
• Income ranges have not been inflation-adjusted
since SS taxation began in 1984!
• More older adults pay tax on part of SS each year
– Combined income of $25k to $34k (single) and $32k and
$44k (mfj): tax on up to 50% of SS benefit
– Combined income more than $34k (single) and more than
$44k (mfj): tax on up to 85% of SS benefit
6. Catch-Up Contributions
• Begin in the year that you turn 50+
• Can save impressive amounts between age 50 and
retirement age
• Additional $1,000 to a Roth and/or traditional IRA for
a maximum 2022 contribution of $7,000
• Additional $6,500 to an employer DC tax-deferred
retirement plan for a maximum 2022 contribution of
$27,000
7. IRMAA Medicare Premiums
• Income-Related Monthly Adjusted Amount (IRMAA) is
additional Medicare premium charged to high earners
• Based on MAGI from two years prior (e.g., 2020
income for 2022 IRMA premiums)
MAGI = AGI
plus certain
items added
such as tax-
exempt or
excluded
income
8. No More Early Withdrawal
Penalties
• Before age 59½ ,10% early withdrawal penalty on earnings
from traditional or Roth IRAs (+ ordinary income tax) and tax-
deferred plans
– Example: $10,000 early distribution x .10 = $1,000 tax penalty, treated
as additional income
• Penalty goes away after age 59 ½
• From age 59½ to 72, account owners can take money
penalty-free (taxed) or leave it to grow tax-deferred
• Many older adults use RMD rules to set their withdrawals
9. Death of a Spouse
• Death of a spouse will change income and tax bill
– Can only file as “mfj” in the year of spouse’s death
– After that year, survivor must generally file as single
• Big variable: contribution of each spouse to total
household income
– Example #1: Low earner dies, surviving high earner could
be in higher tax bracket & have to pay (more) IRMAA tax
– Example #2: High earner dies, surviving low earner could
be in lower tax bracket and avoid IRMAA tax
• Seek assistance from a financial advisor and
change tax withholding accordingly
10. Income Tax Scams
• Older adults are frequent scam targets: 1. greater
accumulated wealth, 2. may be more trusting and
easier to contact, 3. diminished capacity issues
• Common tax fraud scams:
– Asking victims to disclose SSN
– Asking victims to disclose bank account information
– Requests to make tax payments via prepaid debit cards or
wire transfers
– False tax returns filed to obtain fraudulent refunds
11. Medical Expense Tax
Deduction
• Can be taken at any age but older adults typically
have higher health care costs
• Can deduct qualified unreimbursed medical
expenses that exceed 7.5% of AGI (Schedule A)
– Example: $40,000 AGI, expenses exceeding $3,000
($40,000 x 0.075)
• Qualified expenses include false teeth, hearing aids,
crutches, wheelchairs, eyeglasses
– See list at https://www.irs.gov/taxtopics/tc502
12. Larger Account Balances
(Than When You Were Younger)
• Regular saving for 4+ decades can cause tax
concerns (hesitate to call big savings a “problem”)
• Portfolio rebalancing large dollar amounts as asset class
weightings (%s) shift (causes a tax bill in taxable accounts)
• Large capital gains distributions from mutual funds held in
taxable accounts (when you own 1,000s of shares vs. 100s)
• Need to be “tax-diversified” (i.e., a combination of
taxable, tax-deferred, and tax-free accounts)
13. Older Adult Income Taxes
• Older adults can earn slightly more than those under
65 before they are required to file a tax return
• Older adult tax filing thresholds:
– $14, 250 (single) vs. $12,550 for younger taxpayers
– $28,500 for a married couple with two spouses age 65+ vs.
$25,100 for younger couples
• Income-based tax credit for low-income older adults
that requires Schedule R
• Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE) program for age
60+ taxpayers
Recommended Resources
IRS Publication 17 (Your
Federal Income Tax):
http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-
pdf/p17.pdf
AAII Personal Tax Planning
Guide (published annually),
American Association of
Individual Investors
Key Take-Aways
• Income tax rates are progressive; rise with income
– Marginal tax rates affect last dollar earned
• Tax-deferred investments postpone- but do not
eliminate- income taxes
• Few people can itemize tax deductions today without
a planning strategy
• Tax planning can legally lower income taxes
• Certain aspects of tax law just affect older adults
Tax Avoidance/Minimization
Famous Quote by Judge Learned Hand (United
States judge and judicial philosopher, 1872-1961):
"Anyone may arrange his affairs so that his taxes shall be as low as
possible; he is not bound to choose that pattern which best pays the
treasury. There is not even a patriotic duty to increase one's taxes.
Over and over again, the Courts have said that there is nothing
sinister in so arranging affairs as to keep taxes as low as possible.
Everyone does it, rich and poor alike and all do right, for nobody
owes any public duty to pay more than the law demands."
Questions? Comments?
Experiences?

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Income Tax Issues for Older Adults-MTP-02-22.pdf

  • 1. Income Tax Issues for Older Adults Barbara O’Neill, Ph.D., CFP®, AFC® Owner/CEO, Money Talk
  • 2. Disclaimer I do not sell products or services to consumers.
  • 3. Street Cred • CFP® for 37 years • Financial educator for 44 years • Prepared my own taxes for 52 years • Age 65+ • An older adult paying income taxes…just like you
  • 4. Class Topics • Federal income tax rates • Tax deductions and credits • Tax filing process • Tax avoidance vs. tax evasion • Tax record-keeping • 13 tax topics that specifically apply to older adults • Tax planning resources
  • 5. Question #1 What questions do you have about income taxes?
  • 6. Background: Major Taxes Paid in the U.S. Taxes on Purchases – Sales tax and excise tax (e.g., gas, cigarettes) Taxes on Property – Real estate property tax – Personal property tax Taxes on Wealth – Federal estate tax (12 states+ DC) – State inheritance tax (6 states); Maryland has both! Taxes on Earnings – Income tax and Social Security tax 3-6
  • 7. Background: The Progressive Nature of Federal Income Tax • Progressive tax – Takes a larger percentage of income from high-income taxpayers than low-income taxpayers. – Federal income tax • Regressive tax – Takes a decreasing percentage of income as income increases. – State sales tax, excise taxes
  • 8. Background: Federal Income Tax Rates • Established by Congress and change periodically • Based on: • Amount and type of taxable income • Tax filing status - e.g., married filing jointly, single • Set to revert back to 2017 rates after 2025 (TCJA) http://njaes.rutgers.edu/money/taxinfo/ 8
  • 9. Background: Marginal Tax Rate Is Applied to the Last Dollar Earned • Marginal Tax Bracket (MTB) – One of the seven income-range segments that are taxed at increasing rates as income increases – 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35%, 37% tax rates • Marginal Tax Rate – The tax rate applied to your last dollar of earnings
  • 11. Background: Tax Credit Versus Tax Deduction $100 Tax Credit Reduces Your Taxes by $100 $100 Tax Deduction Amount Your Taxes are Reduced is Based on Your Tax Bracket 3-11 Example: $5,000 x .22 mtb = $1,100 of tax savings; $3,900 net cost
  • 12. Background: Types of Deductions Deduction = An amount subtracted from gross income to reduce the amount of income subject to tax • Standard Deduction- Amount established each year by tax code; no need to itemize deductions; based on a taxpayer's filing status and age; no receipts needed – $12,550 (s) and $25,100 (mfj) in 2021 – $12,950 (s) and $25,900 (mfj) in 2022 • Itemized Deduction- Amounts spent on certain goods and services throughout the year; allowed deductions include mortgage interest, state and local taxes, charitable donations 12
  • 13. Background: Itemizing Required for Charitable Gift Benefits • You can give thousands of dollars, but if you claim the standard deduction on your tax return, charitable gifts will do you no tax good • You must itemize expenses on Schedule A to deduct charitable donations • Donors' deductions are limited to 60% of adjusted gross income; rollover of excess gifts for up to 5 years
  • 14. Who Itemizes Deductions? Overall, only about 10% of taxpayers now itemize deductions
  • 15. Background: Refundable and Non-Refundable Tax Credits • Refundable: When tax credits exceed amount of tax owed; IRS sends a tax refund for the difference – Example: Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), Child Tax Credit, American Opportunity Tax Credit • Non-Refundable: Credit can’t be used to create or increase a tax refund. In other words, tax savings cannot exceed the amount of tax owed. – Examples: Elderly and Disabled Tax Credit, Saver’s Tax Credit, Electric Vehicle Credit
  • 16. Recommended Resource “The Bible”: Annual Limits Relating to Financial Planning (College for Financial Planning): https://static1.squarespace.com/static/53d07a97e4b0f 44d69dd3888/t/61b21b2150b880632c7f9417/163906 2306063/2022-annual-limits.pdf
  • 17. Background: Completing the Federal Income Tax Return  Filing status  Income  Adjustments to income  Tax computation  Tax credits  Other taxes (such as from self-employment)  Payments (total withholding and other payments)  Refund or amount you owe • Refunds can be directly deposited to a bank account • Payments may be debited from a bank account  Signature (most common filing error) 3-17
  • 18. Background: Tax-Rate Schedules and Tax Tables • Tax-Rate Schedules – Used by persons with a taxable income of $100,000 or more; requires a mathematical computation to determine tax liability • Tax Tables – Used to look up one’s tax liability according to tax filing status and income range
  • 20. Background: Tax Avoidance and Tax Evasion Tax Avoidance (Minimization) – Legitimate methods to reduce your tax obligation to your fair share but no more (e.g., deductions, credits, tax-deferred/tax-free investing) – Keep good tax records (W-2s, 1099s, receipts) Tax Evasion – Illegally not paying taxes you owe, such as not reporting all income or overstating deductions 3-20
  • 21. Question #2 Who are some high-profile tax evaders in U.S. history?
  • 22. 22 Background: Impact of Tax Withholding on Net Income More income tax deducted = Smaller net income (pension, SS, paycheck, etc.) = Larger tax refund Less income tax deducted = Larger net income = Smaller tax refund or taxes owed
  • 23. Question #3 What is your opinion about tax over- withholding to get a big refund?
  • 24. Is it a good idea to over-withhold to get a big tax refund ($500 +)? Cons:  Taxpayer is not earning any interest on the money  Government has had an interest-free loan  Delays getting own money back; especially if ID theft occurs Pros:  Some people see it as discipline to save a large lump sum  Provides “peace of mind” about not owing money Background: Tax Refunds 24
  • 25. Background: Tax Record Retention • Keep investment records to document capital gains and the tax basis of the investments (for length of investment ownership + at least 6 years) • Don’t discard records relating to – Home purchases/sales – Contributions to retirement accounts – Retirement account rollovers and conversions • When in doubt about keeping a tax record, do NOT throw it out! – Save a hard copy and/or digitize it 25
  • 26. General Tax Planning Strategies to Minimize Taxes If you expect Then you should Because The same or a lower tax rate next year Accelerate deductions into this year Greater benefit to higher tax rate The same tax rate next year Delay income into next year Delay paying taxes A higher tax rate next year Delay deductions Greater benefit Accelerate income Taxed at lower rate 3-26
  • 27. 13 Tax Topics for Older Adults
  • 28. 1. Required Minimum Distributions • Applies to traditional IRAs, employer DC plans, SEPs • Required starting at age 72 – RBD: April 1 of year after turning 72 • New RMD life expectancy table for 2022 – Divide 12/31 balance by the divisor for your age • Examples: Age 72 divisor (2022) of 27.4 – $10,000 balance: $10,000 ÷ 27.4 = $365 (rounded) – $100,000 balance: $100,000 ÷ 27.4 = $3,650 (rounded) – $1,000,000 balance: $1,000,000 ÷27.4 = $36,500 (rounded)
  • 30. 2. Qualified Charitable Contributions (QCDs) • Available starting at age 70 ½; Traditional IRAs only • Taxpayers can donate RMD to qualified charity (ies) – Thereby reduces otherwise taxable income • QCD made directly from IRA custodian to charity • Maximum annual exclusion: $100,000 per person – Same deadline as RMDs: December 31 of each tax year
  • 31. 3. Increased Standard Deduction • Taxpayers age 65+ get increased standard deduction • “Higher hurdle” to cross to be able to benefit from itemized deductions • Singles: $14,700 – $12,950 + $1,750 additional for 65+ • Married couples filing jointly: $28,700 – $25,900 + $1,400 pp x 2 additional for 65 +
  • 32. 4. Form 1040-SR • Only for taxpayers age 65+ • Larger type (font) and highlights standard deductions • Do not have to be retired to use • Can itemize or take standard deduction
  • 33. 5. Taxable Social Security Benefits • Income ranges have not been inflation-adjusted since SS taxation began in 1984! • More older adults pay tax on part of SS each year – Combined income of $25k to $34k (single) and $32k and $44k (mfj): tax on up to 50% of SS benefit – Combined income more than $34k (single) and more than $44k (mfj): tax on up to 85% of SS benefit
  • 34. 6. Catch-Up Contributions • Begin in the year that you turn 50+ • Can save impressive amounts between age 50 and retirement age • Additional $1,000 to a Roth and/or traditional IRA for a maximum 2022 contribution of $7,000 • Additional $6,500 to an employer DC tax-deferred retirement plan for a maximum 2022 contribution of $27,000
  • 35. 7. IRMAA Medicare Premiums • Income-Related Monthly Adjusted Amount (IRMAA) is additional Medicare premium charged to high earners • Based on MAGI from two years prior (e.g., 2020 income for 2022 IRMA premiums) MAGI = AGI plus certain items added such as tax- exempt or excluded income
  • 36. 8. No More Early Withdrawal Penalties • Before age 59½ ,10% early withdrawal penalty on earnings from traditional or Roth IRAs (+ ordinary income tax) and tax- deferred plans – Example: $10,000 early distribution x .10 = $1,000 tax penalty, treated as additional income • Penalty goes away after age 59 ½ • From age 59½ to 72, account owners can take money penalty-free (taxed) or leave it to grow tax-deferred • Many older adults use RMD rules to set their withdrawals
  • 37. 9. Death of a Spouse • Death of a spouse will change income and tax bill – Can only file as “mfj” in the year of spouse’s death – After that year, survivor must generally file as single • Big variable: contribution of each spouse to total household income – Example #1: Low earner dies, surviving high earner could be in higher tax bracket & have to pay (more) IRMAA tax – Example #2: High earner dies, surviving low earner could be in lower tax bracket and avoid IRMAA tax • Seek assistance from a financial advisor and change tax withholding accordingly
  • 38. 10. Income Tax Scams • Older adults are frequent scam targets: 1. greater accumulated wealth, 2. may be more trusting and easier to contact, 3. diminished capacity issues • Common tax fraud scams: – Asking victims to disclose SSN – Asking victims to disclose bank account information – Requests to make tax payments via prepaid debit cards or wire transfers – False tax returns filed to obtain fraudulent refunds
  • 39. 11. Medical Expense Tax Deduction • Can be taken at any age but older adults typically have higher health care costs • Can deduct qualified unreimbursed medical expenses that exceed 7.5% of AGI (Schedule A) – Example: $40,000 AGI, expenses exceeding $3,000 ($40,000 x 0.075) • Qualified expenses include false teeth, hearing aids, crutches, wheelchairs, eyeglasses – See list at https://www.irs.gov/taxtopics/tc502
  • 40. 12. Larger Account Balances (Than When You Were Younger) • Regular saving for 4+ decades can cause tax concerns (hesitate to call big savings a “problem”) • Portfolio rebalancing large dollar amounts as asset class weightings (%s) shift (causes a tax bill in taxable accounts) • Large capital gains distributions from mutual funds held in taxable accounts (when you own 1,000s of shares vs. 100s) • Need to be “tax-diversified” (i.e., a combination of taxable, tax-deferred, and tax-free accounts)
  • 41. 13. Older Adult Income Taxes • Older adults can earn slightly more than those under 65 before they are required to file a tax return • Older adult tax filing thresholds: – $14, 250 (single) vs. $12,550 for younger taxpayers – $28,500 for a married couple with two spouses age 65+ vs. $25,100 for younger couples • Income-based tax credit for low-income older adults that requires Schedule R • Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE) program for age 60+ taxpayers
  • 42. Recommended Resources IRS Publication 17 (Your Federal Income Tax): http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs- pdf/p17.pdf AAII Personal Tax Planning Guide (published annually), American Association of Individual Investors
  • 43. Key Take-Aways • Income tax rates are progressive; rise with income – Marginal tax rates affect last dollar earned • Tax-deferred investments postpone- but do not eliminate- income taxes • Few people can itemize tax deductions today without a planning strategy • Tax planning can legally lower income taxes • Certain aspects of tax law just affect older adults
  • 44. Tax Avoidance/Minimization Famous Quote by Judge Learned Hand (United States judge and judicial philosopher, 1872-1961): "Anyone may arrange his affairs so that his taxes shall be as low as possible; he is not bound to choose that pattern which best pays the treasury. There is not even a patriotic duty to increase one's taxes. Over and over again, the Courts have said that there is nothing sinister in so arranging affairs as to keep taxes as low as possible. Everyone does it, rich and poor alike and all do right, for nobody owes any public duty to pay more than the law demands."