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Q3A(R2)  IMPURITIES IN NEW DRUG SUBSTANCES
Contents-
• Introduction to Q3A (R2).
• History of Generation.
• Classification of Impurities.
• Rational for the Reporting and Control of Impurities.
• Analytical Procedure.
• Reporting Impurity Content of Batches.
• Listing Of Impurities in Specification.
• Qualification Of Impurities.
• Definitions.
• Decision Tree.
Introduction-
• This document is intended to provide guidance for registration
applications on the content and qualification of impurities in new drug
substances produced by chemical syntheses and not previously registered
in a region or member state.
• The following types of drug substances are not covered in this guideline:
biological/biotechnological, peptide, oligonucleotide,
radiopharmaceutical, fermentation product and semi-synthetic products
derived therefrom, herbal products, and crude products of animal or plant
origin.
Impurities in new drug substances are addressed from two perspectives:
• Chemistry Aspects include classification and identification of impurities,
report generation, listing of impurities in specifications, and a brief
discussion of analytical procedures; and
• Safety Aspects include specific guidance for qualifying those impurities
that were not present, or were present at substantially lower levels, in
batches of a new drug substance used in safety and clinical studies.
Definitions
A compound with the same molecular
formula as the drug substance that differs in the spatial arrangement of
atoms within the molecule and is a non-superimposable mirror image.
An impurity for which a structural
characterization has been achieved.
A limit above (>) which an impurity should
be identified.
Any component of the new drug substance that is not the
chemical entity defined as the new drug substance.
A description of the identified and unidentified
impurities present in a new drug substance.
The process of acquiring and evaluating data that
establishes the biological safety of an individual impurity or a given
impurity profile at the level(s) specified.
A limit above (>) which an impurity should
be qualified.
A limit above (>) which an impurity should be
reported. Reporting threshold is the same as reporting level in Q2B.
An impurity that is individually listed and limited
with a specific acceptance criterion in the new drug substance
specification. A specified impurity can be either identified or
unidentified.
History-
CLASSIFICATION OF
IMPURITIES-
Impurities can be classified into the following categories:
• Organic Impurities (process and drug related).
• Inorganic impurities .
• Residual solvents .
Organic Impurities
• It can arise during the manufacturing process and/or storage of the
new drug substance.
• They can be identified or unidentified, volatile or non-volatile, and
include:
o Starting materials
o By-products
o Intermediates
o Degradation products
o Reagents, ligands and catalysts
Inorganic Impurities
• Inorganic impurities can result from the
manufacturing process.
• They are normally known and identified and
include:
o Reagents, ligands and catalysts
o Heavy metals or other residual metals
o Inorganic salts
o Other materials (e.g., filter aids, charcoal)
Residual Solvents
• Solvents are inorganic or organic liquids used as vehicles for the
preparation of solutions or suspensions in the synthesis of a new drug
substance.
Rational For the Reporting and Control
Of Impurities
For Organic Impurities
• The applicant should summaries the actual and potential impurities
most likely to arise during the synthesis, purification, and storage of the
new drug substance.
• This summary should be based on the chemical reactions involved in
the synthesis.
• In addition, the applicant should summaries the laboratory studies
conducted to detect impurities in the new drug substance.
• This summary should include test results of batches manufactured to
determine the impurity profile
For Inorganic Impurities
• Inorganic impurities are normally detected and quantified using
pharmacopoeial or other appropriate procedures.
• The need for inclusion or exclusion of inorganic impurities in the new
drug substance specification should be discussed.
• Acceptance criteria should be based on pharmacopoeial standards or
known safety data.
For Solvents
• The control of residues of the solvents used in the manufacturing
process for the new drug substance should be discussed and presented
according to the ICH Q3C Guideline for Residual Solvents.
Analytical Procedure
• The registration application should include documented evidence that
the analytical procedures are validated and suitable for the detection
and quantification of impurities (As per given in ICH Q2A and Q2B
Guidelines for Analytical Validation).
• the use of lower precision techniques (e.g., thin-layer chromatography)
can be acceptable where justified and appropriately validated.
• Differences in the analytical procedures used during development and
those proposed for the commercial product should be discussed in the
registration application.
• The quantitation limit for the analytical procedure should be not more
than (≤) the reporting threshold.
• The drug substance can be used as a standard to estimate the levels of
impurities.
• Reference standards used in the analytical procedures for control of
impurities should be evaluated and characterized according to their
intended uses.
• Acceptance criteria and analytical procedures used to estimate
identified or unidentified impurities can be based on analytical
assumptions (e.g., equivalent detector response).
REPORTING IMPURITY CONTENT OF
BATCHES
• Analytical results should be provided in the application for all batches of
the new drug substance used for clinical, safety, and stability testing, as
well as for batches representative of the proposed commercial process.
• Quantitative results should be presented numerically, and not in general
terms such as “complies”, “meets limit” etc.
• Below 1.0%, the results should be reported to two decimal places (e.g.,
0.06%, 0.13%); at and above 1.0%, the results should be reported to one
decimal place (e.g., 1.3%).
• A tabulation (e.g., spreadsheet) of the data is recommended.
• When analytical procedures change during development, reported
results should be linked to the procedure used, with appropriate
validation information provided.
• The applicant should ensure that complete impurity profiles (e.g.,
chromatograms) of individual batches are available, if requested.
• For each batch of the new drug substance, the report should include:
o Batch identity and size
o Date of manufacture
o Site of manufacture
o Manufacturing process
o Impurity content, individual and total
o Use of batches
o Reference to analytical procedure used
LISTING OF IMPURITIES IN
SPECIFICATIONS
• The specification for a new drug substance should include a list of
impurities.
• Stability studies, chemical development studies, and routine batch
analyses can be used to predict those impurities likely to occur in the
commercial product.
• A rationale for the inclusion or exclusion of impurities in the
specification should be presented.
• For impurities known to be unusually potent or to produce toxic or
unexpected pharmacological effects, the quantitation/detection limit of
the analytical procedures should be commensurate with the level at
which the impurities should be controlled.
QUALIFICATION OF IMPURITIES
• Qualification is the process of acquiring and evaluating data that
establishes the biological safety of an individual impurity or a given
impurity profile at the level(s) specified.
• applicant should provide a rationale for establishing impurity acceptance
criteria that includes safety considerations.
• The level of any impurity present in a new drug substance that has been
adequately tested in safety and/or clinical studies would be considered
qualified.
• A level of a qualified impurity higher than that present in a new drug
substance can also be justified based on an analysis of the actual amount
of impurity administered in previous relevant safety studies.
• The "Decision Tree for Identification and Qualification“ describes
considerations for the qualification of impurities when thresholds are
exceeded.
• Although this guideline is not intended to apply during the clinical
research stage of development, in the later stages of development the
thresholds in this guideline can be useful in evaluating new impurities
observed in drug substance batches prepared by the proposed
commercial process.
Decision Tree for Identification and
Qualification
NOTES
This procedure could not applied for the drug substances:
 Biological/biotechnological
 Peptide
 Oligonucleotide (genetics)
 Radiopharmaceutical
 Fermentation product and semi-synthetic
products derived therefrom, herbal products
 Crude products of animal or plant origin
? How to fix a limit for specified impurities?
 Limit can be fixed based on ICH Q6A recommended decision tree # 1.
 A Limit calculated on thresholds can also adopted.
Maximum Daily
Dose
Reporting
Threshold
Identification
Threshold
Qualification
Threshold
 2g/day 0.05%
0.10%
or
1.0 mg per day intake
(whichever is lower)
0.15%
or
1.0 mg per day intake
(whichever is lower)
> 2g/day 0.03% 0.05% 0.05%
? What is skip testing and which parameters can be assumed for
skip testing?
 Definition:
Skip testing is the performance of specified tests at
predetermined intervals, rather than on a batch-to-batch basis
with the understanding that those batches not being tested still
must meet all acceptance criteria established.
Selection of test parameters:
This concept may be applicable to, for example, residual solvents,
metallic impurities and microbiological testing (Q6A & Q3D).
? Why the Identification & Qualification threshold limit is
same for the MDD >2g ?
Maximum Daily
Dose
Reporting
Threshold
Identification
Threshold
Qualification
Threshold
> 2g/day 0.03% 0.05% 0.05%
 The impurity at Identification threshold should be qualified, due to total
daily intake of impurity shall high due to higher dosage, hence the
impurities will be identified and qualified at the level of 0.05%.
? What will be the limit for an impurity unknown & unidentified, if
surviving more than the identification threshold?
 A level of a qualified impurity higher than that present in a new
drug substance can also be justified based on an analysis of the
actual amount of impurity administered in relevant safety studies.
If data are unavailable to qualify the proposed acceptance criterion
of an impurity, studies to obtain such data can be appropriate when
the usual qualification thresholds are exceeded.

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Q3A(R2) IMPURITIES IN NEW DRUG SUBSTANCES

  • 2. Contents- • Introduction to Q3A (R2). • History of Generation. • Classification of Impurities. • Rational for the Reporting and Control of Impurities. • Analytical Procedure. • Reporting Impurity Content of Batches. • Listing Of Impurities in Specification. • Qualification Of Impurities. • Definitions. • Decision Tree.
  • 3. Introduction- • This document is intended to provide guidance for registration applications on the content and qualification of impurities in new drug substances produced by chemical syntheses and not previously registered in a region or member state. • The following types of drug substances are not covered in this guideline: biological/biotechnological, peptide, oligonucleotide, radiopharmaceutical, fermentation product and semi-synthetic products derived therefrom, herbal products, and crude products of animal or plant origin.
  • 4. Impurities in new drug substances are addressed from two perspectives: • Chemistry Aspects include classification and identification of impurities, report generation, listing of impurities in specifications, and a brief discussion of analytical procedures; and • Safety Aspects include specific guidance for qualifying those impurities that were not present, or were present at substantially lower levels, in batches of a new drug substance used in safety and clinical studies.
  • 5. Definitions A compound with the same molecular formula as the drug substance that differs in the spatial arrangement of atoms within the molecule and is a non-superimposable mirror image. An impurity for which a structural characterization has been achieved. A limit above (>) which an impurity should be identified. Any component of the new drug substance that is not the chemical entity defined as the new drug substance.
  • 6. A description of the identified and unidentified impurities present in a new drug substance. The process of acquiring and evaluating data that establishes the biological safety of an individual impurity or a given impurity profile at the level(s) specified. A limit above (>) which an impurity should be qualified. A limit above (>) which an impurity should be reported. Reporting threshold is the same as reporting level in Q2B. An impurity that is individually listed and limited with a specific acceptance criterion in the new drug substance specification. A specified impurity can be either identified or unidentified.
  • 8. CLASSIFICATION OF IMPURITIES- Impurities can be classified into the following categories: • Organic Impurities (process and drug related). • Inorganic impurities . • Residual solvents .
  • 9. Organic Impurities • It can arise during the manufacturing process and/or storage of the new drug substance. • They can be identified or unidentified, volatile or non-volatile, and include: o Starting materials o By-products o Intermediates o Degradation products o Reagents, ligands and catalysts
  • 10. Inorganic Impurities • Inorganic impurities can result from the manufacturing process. • They are normally known and identified and include: o Reagents, ligands and catalysts o Heavy metals or other residual metals o Inorganic salts o Other materials (e.g., filter aids, charcoal)
  • 11. Residual Solvents • Solvents are inorganic or organic liquids used as vehicles for the preparation of solutions or suspensions in the synthesis of a new drug substance.
  • 12. Rational For the Reporting and Control Of Impurities For Organic Impurities • The applicant should summaries the actual and potential impurities most likely to arise during the synthesis, purification, and storage of the new drug substance. • This summary should be based on the chemical reactions involved in the synthesis. • In addition, the applicant should summaries the laboratory studies conducted to detect impurities in the new drug substance. • This summary should include test results of batches manufactured to determine the impurity profile
  • 13. For Inorganic Impurities • Inorganic impurities are normally detected and quantified using pharmacopoeial or other appropriate procedures. • The need for inclusion or exclusion of inorganic impurities in the new drug substance specification should be discussed. • Acceptance criteria should be based on pharmacopoeial standards or known safety data.
  • 14. For Solvents • The control of residues of the solvents used in the manufacturing process for the new drug substance should be discussed and presented according to the ICH Q3C Guideline for Residual Solvents.
  • 15. Analytical Procedure • The registration application should include documented evidence that the analytical procedures are validated and suitable for the detection and quantification of impurities (As per given in ICH Q2A and Q2B Guidelines for Analytical Validation). • the use of lower precision techniques (e.g., thin-layer chromatography) can be acceptable where justified and appropriately validated. • Differences in the analytical procedures used during development and those proposed for the commercial product should be discussed in the registration application. • The quantitation limit for the analytical procedure should be not more than (≤) the reporting threshold.
  • 16. • The drug substance can be used as a standard to estimate the levels of impurities. • Reference standards used in the analytical procedures for control of impurities should be evaluated and characterized according to their intended uses. • Acceptance criteria and analytical procedures used to estimate identified or unidentified impurities can be based on analytical assumptions (e.g., equivalent detector response).
  • 17. REPORTING IMPURITY CONTENT OF BATCHES • Analytical results should be provided in the application for all batches of the new drug substance used for clinical, safety, and stability testing, as well as for batches representative of the proposed commercial process. • Quantitative results should be presented numerically, and not in general terms such as “complies”, “meets limit” etc. • Below 1.0%, the results should be reported to two decimal places (e.g., 0.06%, 0.13%); at and above 1.0%, the results should be reported to one decimal place (e.g., 1.3%). • A tabulation (e.g., spreadsheet) of the data is recommended.
  • 18. • When analytical procedures change during development, reported results should be linked to the procedure used, with appropriate validation information provided. • The applicant should ensure that complete impurity profiles (e.g., chromatograms) of individual batches are available, if requested. • For each batch of the new drug substance, the report should include: o Batch identity and size o Date of manufacture o Site of manufacture o Manufacturing process o Impurity content, individual and total o Use of batches o Reference to analytical procedure used
  • 19. LISTING OF IMPURITIES IN SPECIFICATIONS • The specification for a new drug substance should include a list of impurities. • Stability studies, chemical development studies, and routine batch analyses can be used to predict those impurities likely to occur in the commercial product. • A rationale for the inclusion or exclusion of impurities in the specification should be presented. • For impurities known to be unusually potent or to produce toxic or unexpected pharmacological effects, the quantitation/detection limit of the analytical procedures should be commensurate with the level at which the impurities should be controlled.
  • 20. QUALIFICATION OF IMPURITIES • Qualification is the process of acquiring and evaluating data that establishes the biological safety of an individual impurity or a given impurity profile at the level(s) specified. • applicant should provide a rationale for establishing impurity acceptance criteria that includes safety considerations. • The level of any impurity present in a new drug substance that has been adequately tested in safety and/or clinical studies would be considered qualified. • A level of a qualified impurity higher than that present in a new drug substance can also be justified based on an analysis of the actual amount of impurity administered in previous relevant safety studies.
  • 21. • The "Decision Tree for Identification and Qualification“ describes considerations for the qualification of impurities when thresholds are exceeded. • Although this guideline is not intended to apply during the clinical research stage of development, in the later stages of development the thresholds in this guideline can be useful in evaluating new impurities observed in drug substance batches prepared by the proposed commercial process.
  • 22. Decision Tree for Identification and Qualification
  • 23. NOTES This procedure could not applied for the drug substances:  Biological/biotechnological  Peptide  Oligonucleotide (genetics)  Radiopharmaceutical  Fermentation product and semi-synthetic products derived therefrom, herbal products  Crude products of animal or plant origin
  • 24. ? How to fix a limit for specified impurities?  Limit can be fixed based on ICH Q6A recommended decision tree # 1.
  • 25.  A Limit calculated on thresholds can also adopted. Maximum Daily Dose Reporting Threshold Identification Threshold Qualification Threshold  2g/day 0.05% 0.10% or 1.0 mg per day intake (whichever is lower) 0.15% or 1.0 mg per day intake (whichever is lower) > 2g/day 0.03% 0.05% 0.05%
  • 26. ? What is skip testing and which parameters can be assumed for skip testing?  Definition: Skip testing is the performance of specified tests at predetermined intervals, rather than on a batch-to-batch basis with the understanding that those batches not being tested still must meet all acceptance criteria established. Selection of test parameters: This concept may be applicable to, for example, residual solvents, metallic impurities and microbiological testing (Q6A & Q3D).
  • 27. ? Why the Identification & Qualification threshold limit is same for the MDD >2g ? Maximum Daily Dose Reporting Threshold Identification Threshold Qualification Threshold > 2g/day 0.03% 0.05% 0.05%  The impurity at Identification threshold should be qualified, due to total daily intake of impurity shall high due to higher dosage, hence the impurities will be identified and qualified at the level of 0.05%.
  • 28. ? What will be the limit for an impurity unknown & unidentified, if surviving more than the identification threshold?  A level of a qualified impurity higher than that present in a new drug substance can also be justified based on an analysis of the actual amount of impurity administered in relevant safety studies. If data are unavailable to qualify the proposed acceptance criterion of an impurity, studies to obtain such data can be appropriate when the usual qualification thresholds are exceeded.