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Class XII: Chemistry

Important Reactions used for Organic Chemistry Conversions

In CBSE board exam, word problems (conversions) covering “Properties and
Reactions of Functional Groups” usually carry a weightage of 5 marks. So, it
is important that you do not miss out on these particular types of questions
while preparing for your exams.
Students tend to get confused while solving questions based on organic
conversions. Given below are a few conversions, explained in small logical
chunks which are easy to remember.
Broadly you can classify conversions into two types – aliphatic and aromatic.
1. Aliphatic Conversions
a. For stepping up the series:
Stepping up the series means that the product has one carbon more than
that of reactant. For such kind of a conversion, convert the given compound
to an alkyl halide and then to a cyanide and then to the required organic
compound as asked in the question. This way, the product has one carbon
more than the reactant.
b. For stepping down the series:
Stepping down the series means that the product has one carbon less than
that of its reactant. For such kind of a conversion, convert the given
compound to an amide and then let it undergo Hoffmann bromamide
degradation reaction. Then you convert it to the required product as asked in
the question.

c. Reaction with Grignard’s reagent:
Grignard’s reagent is a versatile reagent and can be used for many
conversions. Some of its reactions are given below:
dry ether

R − X + Mg → RMgX

→
RMgX + CO2  RCOOH
RMgX + HCHO  Pr imary alcohol
→
→
RMgX + RCHO  Secondary alcohol
O
ll

RMgX + R CR  Tertiary alcohol
→
O
ll

RMgX + R ' C ≡ N  R ' −C − R
→

2. Aromatic Conversions
There are two types of conversions possible in this case:
a. When the functional group contains carbon atom:

b. When the functional group does not contain carbon atom:
Important reactions for conversions xii chemistry

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Important reactions for conversions xii chemistry

  • 1. Class XII: Chemistry Important Reactions used for Organic Chemistry Conversions In CBSE board exam, word problems (conversions) covering “Properties and Reactions of Functional Groups” usually carry a weightage of 5 marks. So, it is important that you do not miss out on these particular types of questions while preparing for your exams. Students tend to get confused while solving questions based on organic conversions. Given below are a few conversions, explained in small logical chunks which are easy to remember. Broadly you can classify conversions into two types – aliphatic and aromatic. 1. Aliphatic Conversions a. For stepping up the series: Stepping up the series means that the product has one carbon more than that of reactant. For such kind of a conversion, convert the given compound to an alkyl halide and then to a cyanide and then to the required organic compound as asked in the question. This way, the product has one carbon more than the reactant.
  • 2. b. For stepping down the series: Stepping down the series means that the product has one carbon less than that of its reactant. For such kind of a conversion, convert the given compound to an amide and then let it undergo Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction. Then you convert it to the required product as asked in the question. c. Reaction with Grignard’s reagent: Grignard’s reagent is a versatile reagent and can be used for many conversions. Some of its reactions are given below:
  • 3. dry ether  R − X + Mg → RMgX → RMgX + CO2  RCOOH RMgX + HCHO  Pr imary alcohol → → RMgX + RCHO  Secondary alcohol O ll RMgX + R CR  Tertiary alcohol → O ll RMgX + R ' C ≡ N  R ' −C − R → 2. Aromatic Conversions There are two types of conversions possible in this case: a. When the functional group contains carbon atom: b. When the functional group does not contain carbon atom: