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LESSON 1. THE IMPORTANCE OF
RESEARCH IN DAILY LIFE
Research
• Search for knowledge
• Scientific and systematic search
for pertinent information on a
specific topic
• An art of scientific investigation
Objectives of Research
• To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new
insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed
as exploratory or formulative research studies);
• To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular
individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in
view are known as descriptive research studies);
• To determine the frequency with which something occurs
or with which it is associated with something else (studies
with this object in view are known as diagnostic research
studies);
• To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between
variables (such studies are known as hypothesis-testing
research studies).
Motivations in Research
• Desire to get a research degree along with its
consequential benefits;
• Desire to face the challenge in solving the
unsolved problems, i.e., concern over practical
problems initiates research;
• Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some
creative work;
• Desire to be of service to society;
• Desire to get respectability.
Significance of Research
• “All progress is born of inquiry.
Doubt is often better than
overconfidence, for it leads to
inquiry, and inquiry leads to
invention”
Significance of Research
• Research inculcates scientific and
inductive thinking and it
promotes the development of
logical habits of thinking and
organization.
Significance of Research
• Research provides the basis for
nearly all government policies in
our economic system.
Significance of Research
• Research has its special
significance in solving various
operational and planning
problems of business and
industry
Significance of Research
• Research is equally important for
social scientists in studying social
relationships and in seeking
answers to various social
problems
Significance of Research
• Research is the fountain of
knowledge for the sake of
knowledge and an important
source of providing guidelines for
solving different business,
governmental and social
problems
Written Output 1
• Explain the importance of
research in your daily life (5 to 10
statements)
LESSON 2. THE CHARACTERISTICS,
PROCESSES AND ETHICS OF RESEARCH
Characteristics of Research
• Empirical – based on direct experience or observation by
the researcher
• Logical – based on valid procedures and principles
• Cyclical – starts with a problem and ends with a problem
• Analytical – utilizes proven analytical procedures in
gathering the data, whether historical, descriptive,
experimental and case study
• Critical – exhibits careful and precise judgment
• Methodical – conducted in a methodical manner without
bias using systematic method and procedures
• Replicability – design and procedures are replicated or
repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and
conclusive results
Ethics in Research
• Ethics generally is considered to deal with
beliefs about what is right or wrong, proper or
improper, good or bad.
• According to a dictionary definition (Webster’s
1968), to be ethical is to conform to accepted
• Professional practice
Ethical considerations in conducting
research
1. Objectivity and integrity
2. Respect of the research subjects’ right to privacy
and dignity and protection of subjects from
personal harm
3. Presentation of research findings
4. Right use of research role
5. Acknowledgement of research collaboration and
assistance
6. Findings should not be distorted by sponsor
Unethical practices in conducting
research
1. Deceiving a respondent about the true purpose of a
study
2. Asking a respondent questions that cause him or her
extreme embarrassment; guilt emotional turmoil by
reminding him or her of an unpleasant experience
3. Invading the privacy of a respondent
4. Studying the respondents or research subjects
without their knowledge
5. When analyzing the data – revealing only part of the
facts, presenting facts out of context, falsifying
findings or offering misleading presentations such as
lying with statistics
Written Output 2
• Write an essay about the ethical
considerations in conducting research
LESSON 3. QUANTITATIVE AND
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
Quantitative Research
• A type of educational research in which the
researcher
– decides what to study;
– asks specific, narrow questions;
– collects quantifiable data from participants;
– analyzes data using statistics; and
– conducts the inquiry in an unbiased, objective
manner
Qualitative Research
• A type of educational research in which the
researcher
– relies on the views of participants;
– asks broad, general questions;
– collects data consisting largely words (text) from
participants;
– describes and analyzes these words for themes;
and
– conducts the inquiry in a subjective, biased
manner
Qualitative Quantitative
Objectives • In-depth
understanding of
underlying reasons
and motivations
• Quantification of
data
• Measurement of
incidence, etc.
Data Analysis • Non-statistical
• Contextual
• Thematic
• Statistical
Outcomes • Not conclusive nor
generalizable
• Broad based insights
• Population based
understanding
Differences between Quantitative and
Qualitative Research
Quantitative Methodologies Qualitative Methodologies
Preference for precise hypothesis stated
at the outset
Preference for hypotheses that emerge as
the study develops
Preference for precise definitions stated
at the outset
Preference for definitions in context or as
study progresses
Data reduced to numerical scores Preference for narrative description
Much attention to assessing and
improving reliability of scores obtained
from instruments
Preference for assuming that reliability of
inferences is adequate
Assessment of validity through a variety
or procedures with reliance on statistical
indices
Assessment of validity through
crosschecking sources of information
(triangulation)
Differing Philosophical Assumptions of
Quantitative and Qualitative Researchers
Assumptions of Quantitative Researchers Assumptions of Qualitative Researchers
There exists a reality “out there,”
independent of us, waiting to be known.
The task of science is to discover the
nature of reality and how it works.
The individuals involved in the research
situations construct reality; thus, realities
exist in the form of multiple mental
constructions.
Research investigations can potentially
result in accurate statements about the
way the world really is.
Research investigations produce
alternative visions of what the world is
like.
It is possible for the researcher to remove
him-or herself- to stand apart – from that
which is being researched.
It is impossible for the researcher to
stand apart from the individuals he or she
studying.
Written Output 3: Identifying Qualitative and Quantitative
Research
1. Development of Single Microbial Fuel Cell utilizing Abaca Post-Harvest Biomass
2. Sustainability and Profitability of Abaca Farming in Lidong, Presentacion, Camarines Sur
3. Evolution of Learning Motivations among Lidong High School Grade 7-12 Learners
4. Perks and Perils of being a Working Student: Confronting Social and Economic Challenges
5. Pre-teen and Juvenile Marriage among Lidong High School Students: Implications on Social
Behaviour Influence and Self-Esteem
6. Academic Performance of Lidong High School Personnel-Sponsored Learners: Equating
Financial Support and Academic Success
7. Behavioural Fractals of Out-of-School Youth and Lidong High School Learners: Relating
Financial and Educational Motivations
8. Organizational Behaviour among Lidong High School Personnel: Assessing the Extent of
DepEd’s Core Values Inculcation
9. Formulation of Mosquito Larvicide from Bioactive Components of Ugob (Artocarpus camansi)
10. Environmental Impact Assessment of Exhaustive Abaca Farming Methods in Lidong,
Presentacion, Camarines Sur
Performance Task # 1
• Submit three possible research topics
Performance Task # 2
•Explain the submitted topic

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Importance of Research in Daily Life.pptx

  • 1. LESSON 1. THE IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH IN DAILY LIFE
  • 2. Research • Search for knowledge • Scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic • An art of scientific investigation
  • 3. Objectives of Research • To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies); • To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies); • To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies); • To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research studies).
  • 4. Motivations in Research • Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits; • Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems, i.e., concern over practical problems initiates research; • Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work; • Desire to be of service to society; • Desire to get respectability.
  • 5. Significance of Research • “All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention”
  • 6. Significance of Research • Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and organization.
  • 7. Significance of Research • Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system.
  • 8. Significance of Research • Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry
  • 9. Significance of Research • Research is equally important for social scientists in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems
  • 10. Significance of Research • Research is the fountain of knowledge for the sake of knowledge and an important source of providing guidelines for solving different business, governmental and social problems
  • 11. Written Output 1 • Explain the importance of research in your daily life (5 to 10 statements)
  • 12. LESSON 2. THE CHARACTERISTICS, PROCESSES AND ETHICS OF RESEARCH
  • 13. Characteristics of Research • Empirical – based on direct experience or observation by the researcher • Logical – based on valid procedures and principles • Cyclical – starts with a problem and ends with a problem • Analytical – utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering the data, whether historical, descriptive, experimental and case study • Critical – exhibits careful and precise judgment • Methodical – conducted in a methodical manner without bias using systematic method and procedures • Replicability – design and procedures are replicated or repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results
  • 14. Ethics in Research • Ethics generally is considered to deal with beliefs about what is right or wrong, proper or improper, good or bad. • According to a dictionary definition (Webster’s 1968), to be ethical is to conform to accepted • Professional practice
  • 15. Ethical considerations in conducting research 1. Objectivity and integrity 2. Respect of the research subjects’ right to privacy and dignity and protection of subjects from personal harm 3. Presentation of research findings 4. Right use of research role 5. Acknowledgement of research collaboration and assistance 6. Findings should not be distorted by sponsor
  • 16. Unethical practices in conducting research 1. Deceiving a respondent about the true purpose of a study 2. Asking a respondent questions that cause him or her extreme embarrassment; guilt emotional turmoil by reminding him or her of an unpleasant experience 3. Invading the privacy of a respondent 4. Studying the respondents or research subjects without their knowledge 5. When analyzing the data – revealing only part of the facts, presenting facts out of context, falsifying findings or offering misleading presentations such as lying with statistics
  • 17. Written Output 2 • Write an essay about the ethical considerations in conducting research
  • 18. LESSON 3. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 19. Quantitative Research • A type of educational research in which the researcher – decides what to study; – asks specific, narrow questions; – collects quantifiable data from participants; – analyzes data using statistics; and – conducts the inquiry in an unbiased, objective manner
  • 20. Qualitative Research • A type of educational research in which the researcher – relies on the views of participants; – asks broad, general questions; – collects data consisting largely words (text) from participants; – describes and analyzes these words for themes; and – conducts the inquiry in a subjective, biased manner
  • 21. Qualitative Quantitative Objectives • In-depth understanding of underlying reasons and motivations • Quantification of data • Measurement of incidence, etc. Data Analysis • Non-statistical • Contextual • Thematic • Statistical Outcomes • Not conclusive nor generalizable • Broad based insights • Population based understanding
  • 22. Differences between Quantitative and Qualitative Research Quantitative Methodologies Qualitative Methodologies Preference for precise hypothesis stated at the outset Preference for hypotheses that emerge as the study develops Preference for precise definitions stated at the outset Preference for definitions in context or as study progresses Data reduced to numerical scores Preference for narrative description Much attention to assessing and improving reliability of scores obtained from instruments Preference for assuming that reliability of inferences is adequate Assessment of validity through a variety or procedures with reliance on statistical indices Assessment of validity through crosschecking sources of information (triangulation)
  • 23. Differing Philosophical Assumptions of Quantitative and Qualitative Researchers Assumptions of Quantitative Researchers Assumptions of Qualitative Researchers There exists a reality “out there,” independent of us, waiting to be known. The task of science is to discover the nature of reality and how it works. The individuals involved in the research situations construct reality; thus, realities exist in the form of multiple mental constructions. Research investigations can potentially result in accurate statements about the way the world really is. Research investigations produce alternative visions of what the world is like. It is possible for the researcher to remove him-or herself- to stand apart – from that which is being researched. It is impossible for the researcher to stand apart from the individuals he or she studying.
  • 24. Written Output 3: Identifying Qualitative and Quantitative Research 1. Development of Single Microbial Fuel Cell utilizing Abaca Post-Harvest Biomass 2. Sustainability and Profitability of Abaca Farming in Lidong, Presentacion, Camarines Sur 3. Evolution of Learning Motivations among Lidong High School Grade 7-12 Learners 4. Perks and Perils of being a Working Student: Confronting Social and Economic Challenges 5. Pre-teen and Juvenile Marriage among Lidong High School Students: Implications on Social Behaviour Influence and Self-Esteem 6. Academic Performance of Lidong High School Personnel-Sponsored Learners: Equating Financial Support and Academic Success 7. Behavioural Fractals of Out-of-School Youth and Lidong High School Learners: Relating Financial and Educational Motivations 8. Organizational Behaviour among Lidong High School Personnel: Assessing the Extent of DepEd’s Core Values Inculcation 9. Formulation of Mosquito Larvicide from Bioactive Components of Ugob (Artocarpus camansi) 10. Environmental Impact Assessment of Exhaustive Abaca Farming Methods in Lidong, Presentacion, Camarines Sur
  • 25. Performance Task # 1 • Submit three possible research topics
  • 26. Performance Task # 2 •Explain the submitted topic