SlideShare a Scribd company logo
IMPACT OF ADOPTION OF CLIMATE-SMART
TECHNOLOGIES ON INCOME AMONG AGRO-
PASTORALISTS COMMUNITIES IN MARSABIT
COUNTY, KENYA
Gudere ,A; Wemali,E
and Ndunda ,E.
Background
• Climate change is a serious phenomenon affecting all communities
calling for interventions to reduce vulnerability
• Climate change negatively affect livestock and crop production
systems
• Marsabit County has experienced drought ,a major threat to
peoples’ livelihoods and socio-economic development.
• This is exemplified in livestock deaths due to pasture scarcity and
crop failures or reduced yields in the arable areas of ASALs.
Cont..
• Agro-pastoralists communities are in critical need of climate smart agricultural
technologies and practices.
• Climate Smart agricultural technologies and practices (CSA) are an intervention to
climate variability and change that is threatening livelihoods.
• Climate Smart Technologies and Adaptation options have been found to sustainably
increase productivity, enhance resilience to climatic stresses, and reduce greenhouse
gases (Lipper et al., 2014,World Bank, 2020).
• Studies show that adopters have experienced increase in yields from the fields and
improved income (Imran et al., (2018); Wekesa et al., (2018); Ogada et al., (2020); Mango
et al. (2020); Musafiri et al., 2022).
• This presentation is based on one of the objectives of the study which was:
• To assess how adaptation of livestock-crop climate smart technologies and practices impacts
on livelihoods of agro-pastoralists of Marsabit County.
Methodology
Study location
Sites visited
Methodology
• Survey research design was adopted for the study.
• Saku Sub-County was purposively selected.
• The sampling frame were households whose social organization is
based on the growing of crops and the raising of livestock as the
primary means of economic activity.
• Agropastoralists were randomly selected from Karare,
Sagante/Jaldesa, Dakabaricha/Marsabit Central wards.
• Saku Sub County, falls in zone IV and zone V. The study sample was
373 households derived from Yamane formula (Yamane, 1967).
Methodology cont.…
• Semi – structured questionnaire was administered through face-face
interviews to the house hold heads
• Six focus Group Discussions were held where each group had each set
of gender, one with male only and one with female only. This was done to
allow free participation to avoid cultural biasness.
• Key informant Interview :relevant livestock, agricultural officers, and
development partners (non-governmental organizations),participants for
this were purposively selected as the tool required people with expert
knowledge on specific aspects
• Data collected was analyzed using propensity score matching(PSM)
using STATA version 15
Cont..
• Sample Size
The study population 373 households derived from Yamane formula 1967)
• Yamane sample size is as given below:
• 𝑛 =
𝑁
1+𝑁(𝑒2)
• Where: n is the sample size; N is the total population of study and e is the
allowable error (%).
• 𝒏 =
𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟕
𝟏+𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟕(𝟎.𝟎𝟓)𝟐
= 373 households
Results &Discussion
Demographic information of respondents Frequency(n) Percentage (%)
Age(number) 48
Household size(number) 7
Average monthly income(ksh) 5204
Gender Female 155 41.6
Male 218 58.4
Marital status Single 73 19.6
Married 300 80.4
Level of education Non-formal Education 243 65.1
Formal Education 130 34.9
Crop-Livestock climate CST&P
adopted
• Improved and traditional crop varieties
• Improved crop varieties was practiced at 92% and growing traditional crops was
15.5%
• Managing diversity on farm
• Crop rotation 56% (n=209) and intercropping 36.5% (n=136).
• Water and water use management
• Grow water efficient crops-36.7%, rainwater harvesting by use of storage tanks was
29.5% and water pans-11.5%, small scale micro irrigation 16.9% , mulching 13.4%
Cont..
Soil fertility management
• Manure application-68.4%,crop retaining residues 31.4%, agroforestry
21.7%, mulching %13.4, fertilizer application 9.1%. The finding agree with
Ouédraogo, et. al., (2019) and Mwaura et al., (2021) who found that
manure application was highest practiced.
Livestock management
• Improved livestock breeds 19.8 %, local breeds 7.2%
Pasture management and conservation
• Fodder conservation and storage 49.6%, supplementary feeding 44.5%,
destocking 24.1%, grassland management 18.8%, rangeland reseeding
1.9%
Effect of adopting CST&P on income
Average monthly income ATE Caliper nn (nearest neighbor)
Coef. Std. Err Sig. Coef. Std. Err Sig. Coef. Std. Err Sig.
Crop farming
(1 vs 0)
-1181.859 407.8588 0.007 -1792.59 670.17 0.004 -931.46 344.73 0.007
Livestock farming
(1 vs 0)
-3120.509 279.7527 0.009 -2881.48 1109.34 0.000 -3156.52 366.95 0.000
Crop and livestock
(1 vs 0)
1895.755 473.3692 0.008 1193.68 447.28 0.000 1704.18 332.84 0.000
Cont..
• Results from propensity score matching shows that the coefficient of
those agro-pastoralists who adopted CST&P for either crop farming or
livestock farming is significantly negative .
• Respondents who had adopted CST&P for both crop growing and
livestock rearing have higher average monthly income than those who
have adopted either crop farming or livestock keeping practices.
• The study showed that the income was highest for those agro-
pastoralists who rely on both crops and livestock smart practices followed
by those who adopted crop smart practices and agro-pastoralists who
had only livestock CST&P earned the least income
Conclusion
• There were negative impact on the income for the agro-pastoralists
whose main source of income is from either crop or livestock
farming
• There was positive impact on adoption of climate smart
technologies on the income of those who practiced both crop and
livestock farming
• The adoption of crop and livestock climate smart technologies and
practice showed that there was higher income for agro-pastoralists
who integrated crop and livestock CST&P thus helps to encourage
promotion and dissemination of multiple and combined packages of
both crop and livestock CST&P.
Recommendations
• The study recommends the integration of crop and livestock
production by agro-pastoralists for increased income and
resilience.
• The ministry of agriculture in county and national government,
research institutions, NGOs, CBOs should promote integration of
crop and livestock farming in dissemination and upscaling of
climate smart technologies and practices,
Thank You

More Related Content

Similar to Impacts of Adoption of Climate Smart Technologies on Income among Agro-Pastoralists Communities in Marsabit County, Kenya

Supporting Agricultural R4D in the Semi-Arid Tropics
Supporting Agricultural R4D in the Semi-Arid TropicsSupporting Agricultural R4D in the Semi-Arid Tropics
Supporting Agricultural R4D in the Semi-Arid Tropics
cropreg
 
Supporting Agricultural R4D in the Semi-Arid Tropics
Supporting Agricultural R4D in the Semi-Arid Tropics Supporting Agricultural R4D in the Semi-Arid Tropics
Supporting Agricultural R4D in the Semi-Arid Tropics
ICRISAT
 
Adapting to climate change in agricultural systems: Key findings from CGIAR a...
Adapting to climate change in agricultural systems: Key findings from CGIAR a...Adapting to climate change in agricultural systems: Key findings from CGIAR a...
Adapting to climate change in agricultural systems: Key findings from CGIAR a...
CCAFS | CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security
 
Climate smart agriculture
Climate smart agricultureClimate smart agriculture
Climate smart agriculture
Jimly Faraby
 
Pragati odisha
Pragati odishaPragati odisha
Pragati odisha
santy12832
 
CCAFS policy initiatives and research in Uganda and Kenya
CCAFS policy initiatives and research in Uganda and KenyaCCAFS policy initiatives and research in Uganda and Kenya
CCAFS policy initiatives and research in Uganda and Kenya
CCAFS | CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security
 
Pnp png workshop2016_fs climate change in png_nari_akkinapally
Pnp png workshop2016_fs climate change in png_nari_akkinapallyPnp png workshop2016_fs climate change in png_nari_akkinapally
Pnp png workshop2016_fs climate change in png_nari_akkinapally
Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU (CTA)
 
New dryland legume and cereal varieties for genetic intensification in semi-a...
New dryland legume and cereal varieties for genetic intensification in semi-a...New dryland legume and cereal varieties for genetic intensification in semi-a...
New dryland legume and cereal varieties for genetic intensification in semi-a...
africa-rising
 
Integration of CSA in agriculture- presentation at UFAAS ToT workshop
Integration of CSA in agriculture- presentation at UFAAS ToT workshopIntegration of CSA in agriculture- presentation at UFAAS ToT workshop
Integration of CSA in agriculture- presentation at UFAAS ToT workshop
Faith Okiror
 
Th1_Participatory identification of farmer-acceptable improved rice varieties...
Th1_Participatory identification of farmer-acceptable improved rice varieties...Th1_Participatory identification of farmer-acceptable improved rice varieties...
Th1_Participatory identification of farmer-acceptable improved rice varieties...
Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice)
 
Private Sector Actions to Enable (or Thwart) Climate- Smart Agriculture in Sm...
Private Sector Actions to Enable (or Thwart) Climate- Smart Agriculture in Sm...Private Sector Actions to Enable (or Thwart) Climate- Smart Agriculture in Sm...
Private Sector Actions to Enable (or Thwart) Climate- Smart Agriculture in Sm...
CCAFS | CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security
 
CIAT collaboration with the University of Florida
CIAT collaboration with the University of FloridaCIAT collaboration with the University of Florida
CIAT collaboration with the University of Florida
Decision and Policy Analysis Program
 
Climate smart agriculture 2
Climate smart agriculture 2Climate smart agriculture 2
Climate smart agriculture 2
Dr. Shalini Pandey
 
Kwesi Atta-Krah - What is a Climate Smart Agricultural Landscape
Kwesi Atta-Krah - What is a Climate Smart Agricultural LandscapeKwesi Atta-Krah - What is a Climate Smart Agricultural Landscape
Kwesi Atta-Krah - What is a Climate Smart Agricultural Landscape
The Landscapes for People, Food and Nature Initiative
 
Towards climate-smart dairy development
Towards climate-smart dairy developmentTowards climate-smart dairy development
Towards climate-smart dairy development
ILRI
 
Participatory approaches to diversification and intensification of crop produ...
Participatory approaches to diversification and intensification of crop produ...Participatory approaches to diversification and intensification of crop produ...
Participatory approaches to diversification and intensification of crop produ...
Rachel Gilbert
 
Nyakwara
NyakwaraNyakwara
Nyakwara
20107-07
 
Nyakwara
NyakwaraNyakwara
Nyakwara
20107-07
 
Evidence on sustainable livestock from LMICs is urgently needed to inform nua...
Evidence on sustainable livestock from LMICs is urgently needed to inform nua...Evidence on sustainable livestock from LMICs is urgently needed to inform nua...
Evidence on sustainable livestock from LMICs is urgently needed to inform nua...
ILRI
 
BB59: Agroecological participatory action research and advisory systems - Tha...
BB59: Agroecological participatory action research and advisory systems - Tha...BB59: Agroecological participatory action research and advisory systems - Tha...
BB59: Agroecological participatory action research and advisory systems - Tha...
Brussels Briefings (brusselsbriefings.net)
 

Similar to Impacts of Adoption of Climate Smart Technologies on Income among Agro-Pastoralists Communities in Marsabit County, Kenya (20)

Supporting Agricultural R4D in the Semi-Arid Tropics
Supporting Agricultural R4D in the Semi-Arid TropicsSupporting Agricultural R4D in the Semi-Arid Tropics
Supporting Agricultural R4D in the Semi-Arid Tropics
 
Supporting Agricultural R4D in the Semi-Arid Tropics
Supporting Agricultural R4D in the Semi-Arid Tropics Supporting Agricultural R4D in the Semi-Arid Tropics
Supporting Agricultural R4D in the Semi-Arid Tropics
 
Adapting to climate change in agricultural systems: Key findings from CGIAR a...
Adapting to climate change in agricultural systems: Key findings from CGIAR a...Adapting to climate change in agricultural systems: Key findings from CGIAR a...
Adapting to climate change in agricultural systems: Key findings from CGIAR a...
 
Climate smart agriculture
Climate smart agricultureClimate smart agriculture
Climate smart agriculture
 
Pragati odisha
Pragati odishaPragati odisha
Pragati odisha
 
CCAFS policy initiatives and research in Uganda and Kenya
CCAFS policy initiatives and research in Uganda and KenyaCCAFS policy initiatives and research in Uganda and Kenya
CCAFS policy initiatives and research in Uganda and Kenya
 
Pnp png workshop2016_fs climate change in png_nari_akkinapally
Pnp png workshop2016_fs climate change in png_nari_akkinapallyPnp png workshop2016_fs climate change in png_nari_akkinapally
Pnp png workshop2016_fs climate change in png_nari_akkinapally
 
New dryland legume and cereal varieties for genetic intensification in semi-a...
New dryland legume and cereal varieties for genetic intensification in semi-a...New dryland legume and cereal varieties for genetic intensification in semi-a...
New dryland legume and cereal varieties for genetic intensification in semi-a...
 
Integration of CSA in agriculture- presentation at UFAAS ToT workshop
Integration of CSA in agriculture- presentation at UFAAS ToT workshopIntegration of CSA in agriculture- presentation at UFAAS ToT workshop
Integration of CSA in agriculture- presentation at UFAAS ToT workshop
 
Th1_Participatory identification of farmer-acceptable improved rice varieties...
Th1_Participatory identification of farmer-acceptable improved rice varieties...Th1_Participatory identification of farmer-acceptable improved rice varieties...
Th1_Participatory identification of farmer-acceptable improved rice varieties...
 
Private Sector Actions to Enable (or Thwart) Climate- Smart Agriculture in Sm...
Private Sector Actions to Enable (or Thwart) Climate- Smart Agriculture in Sm...Private Sector Actions to Enable (or Thwart) Climate- Smart Agriculture in Sm...
Private Sector Actions to Enable (or Thwart) Climate- Smart Agriculture in Sm...
 
CIAT collaboration with the University of Florida
CIAT collaboration with the University of FloridaCIAT collaboration with the University of Florida
CIAT collaboration with the University of Florida
 
Climate smart agriculture 2
Climate smart agriculture 2Climate smart agriculture 2
Climate smart agriculture 2
 
Kwesi Atta-Krah - What is a Climate Smart Agricultural Landscape
Kwesi Atta-Krah - What is a Climate Smart Agricultural LandscapeKwesi Atta-Krah - What is a Climate Smart Agricultural Landscape
Kwesi Atta-Krah - What is a Climate Smart Agricultural Landscape
 
Towards climate-smart dairy development
Towards climate-smart dairy developmentTowards climate-smart dairy development
Towards climate-smart dairy development
 
Participatory approaches to diversification and intensification of crop produ...
Participatory approaches to diversification and intensification of crop produ...Participatory approaches to diversification and intensification of crop produ...
Participatory approaches to diversification and intensification of crop produ...
 
Nyakwara
NyakwaraNyakwara
Nyakwara
 
Nyakwara
NyakwaraNyakwara
Nyakwara
 
Evidence on sustainable livestock from LMICs is urgently needed to inform nua...
Evidence on sustainable livestock from LMICs is urgently needed to inform nua...Evidence on sustainable livestock from LMICs is urgently needed to inform nua...
Evidence on sustainable livestock from LMICs is urgently needed to inform nua...
 
BB59: Agroecological participatory action research and advisory systems - Tha...
BB59: Agroecological participatory action research and advisory systems - Tha...BB59: Agroecological participatory action research and advisory systems - Tha...
BB59: Agroecological participatory action research and advisory systems - Tha...
 

More from ESD UNU-IAS

FACTORIA 4.7 - Ibero-American Platform On Education For Sustainable Development
FACTORIA 4.7 - Ibero-American Platform On Education For Sustainable Development FACTORIA 4.7 - Ibero-American Platform On Education For Sustainable Development
FACTORIA 4.7 - Ibero-American Platform On Education For Sustainable Development
ESD UNU-IAS
 
Proyecto Boost - Promoting Environmental Education For Sustainability in the ...
Proyecto Boost - Promoting Environmental Education For Sustainability in the ...Proyecto Boost - Promoting Environmental Education For Sustainability in the ...
Proyecto Boost - Promoting Environmental Education For Sustainability in the ...
ESD UNU-IAS
 
Aprendiztegi
Aprendiztegi Aprendiztegi
Aprendiztegi
ESD UNU-IAS
 
Educational Community In Exile Without Institutional Support
Educational Community In Exile Without Institutional SupportEducational Community In Exile Without Institutional Support
Educational Community In Exile Without Institutional Support
ESD UNU-IAS
 
Vemo-nos no Monte (See You in the Forest)
Vemo-nos no Monte (See You in the Forest)Vemo-nos no Monte (See You in the Forest)
Vemo-nos no Monte (See You in the Forest)
ESD UNU-IAS
 
RCE South Poland
RCE South PolandRCE South Poland
RCE South Poland
ESD UNU-IAS
 
How Do We Build A Movement For Change
How Do We Build A Movement For Change How Do We Build A Movement For Change
How Do We Build A Movement For Change
ESD UNU-IAS
 
The Role of the Human Dimension in Promoting Education for Sustainable Develo...
The Role of the Human Dimension in Promoting Education for Sustainable Develo...The Role of the Human Dimension in Promoting Education for Sustainable Develo...
The Role of the Human Dimension in Promoting Education for Sustainable Develo...
ESD UNU-IAS
 
Araban Zu Zero – Climate Footprint Calculator
Araban Zu Zero – Climate Footprint CalculatorAraban Zu Zero – Climate Footprint Calculator
Araban Zu Zero – Climate Footprint Calculator
ESD UNU-IAS
 
Pedagogy Of Hope
Pedagogy Of HopePedagogy Of Hope
Pedagogy Of Hope
ESD UNU-IAS
 
The 15 Critical Uncertainties Taken Into Consideration
The 15 Critical Uncertainties Taken Into ConsiderationThe 15 Critical Uncertainties Taken Into Consideration
The 15 Critical Uncertainties Taken Into Consideration
ESD UNU-IAS
 
How Can We Support Education Professionals in (Re)Designing Education for Sus...
How Can We Support Education Professionals in (Re)Designing Education for Sus...How Can We Support Education Professionals in (Re)Designing Education for Sus...
How Can We Support Education Professionals in (Re)Designing Education for Sus...
ESD UNU-IAS
 
Monitoring and Evaluating Education for Sustainable Development
Monitoring and Evaluating Education for Sustainable DevelopmentMonitoring and Evaluating Education for Sustainable Development
Monitoring and Evaluating Education for Sustainable Development
ESD UNU-IAS
 
Inner Development Goals (IDGs)
Inner Development Goals (IDGs)Inner Development Goals (IDGs)
Inner Development Goals (IDGs)
ESD UNU-IAS
 
Role of Youth in Climate Action: Creating a Multistakeholdership in Japan
Role of Youth in Climate Action: Creating a Multistakeholdership in JapanRole of Youth in Climate Action: Creating a Multistakeholdership in Japan
Role of Youth in Climate Action: Creating a Multistakeholdership in Japan
ESD UNU-IAS
 
Intersectional Approach to Uplift the Vulnerable
Intersectional Approach to Uplift the VulnerableIntersectional Approach to Uplift the Vulnerable
Intersectional Approach to Uplift the Vulnerable
ESD UNU-IAS
 
Stakeholder Identification in Net Zero Initiatives
Stakeholder Identification in Net Zero InitiativesStakeholder Identification in Net Zero Initiatives
Stakeholder Identification in Net Zero Initiatives
ESD UNU-IAS
 
Result Based Project Design
Result Based Project DesignResult Based Project Design
Result Based Project Design
ESD UNU-IAS
 
Zeroing MY Foodprint - Transitioning the Carbon Loop of Food Waste to Net Zero
Zeroing MY Foodprint - Transitioning the Carbon Loop of Food Waste to Net ZeroZeroing MY Foodprint - Transitioning the Carbon Loop of Food Waste to Net Zero
Zeroing MY Foodprint - Transitioning the Carbon Loop of Food Waste to Net Zero
ESD UNU-IAS
 
Towards Jakarta Net Zero by 2050
Towards Jakarta Net Zero by 2050Towards Jakarta Net Zero by 2050
Towards Jakarta Net Zero by 2050
ESD UNU-IAS
 

More from ESD UNU-IAS (20)

FACTORIA 4.7 - Ibero-American Platform On Education For Sustainable Development
FACTORIA 4.7 - Ibero-American Platform On Education For Sustainable Development FACTORIA 4.7 - Ibero-American Platform On Education For Sustainable Development
FACTORIA 4.7 - Ibero-American Platform On Education For Sustainable Development
 
Proyecto Boost - Promoting Environmental Education For Sustainability in the ...
Proyecto Boost - Promoting Environmental Education For Sustainability in the ...Proyecto Boost - Promoting Environmental Education For Sustainability in the ...
Proyecto Boost - Promoting Environmental Education For Sustainability in the ...
 
Aprendiztegi
Aprendiztegi Aprendiztegi
Aprendiztegi
 
Educational Community In Exile Without Institutional Support
Educational Community In Exile Without Institutional SupportEducational Community In Exile Without Institutional Support
Educational Community In Exile Without Institutional Support
 
Vemo-nos no Monte (See You in the Forest)
Vemo-nos no Monte (See You in the Forest)Vemo-nos no Monte (See You in the Forest)
Vemo-nos no Monte (See You in the Forest)
 
RCE South Poland
RCE South PolandRCE South Poland
RCE South Poland
 
How Do We Build A Movement For Change
How Do We Build A Movement For Change How Do We Build A Movement For Change
How Do We Build A Movement For Change
 
The Role of the Human Dimension in Promoting Education for Sustainable Develo...
The Role of the Human Dimension in Promoting Education for Sustainable Develo...The Role of the Human Dimension in Promoting Education for Sustainable Develo...
The Role of the Human Dimension in Promoting Education for Sustainable Develo...
 
Araban Zu Zero – Climate Footprint Calculator
Araban Zu Zero – Climate Footprint CalculatorAraban Zu Zero – Climate Footprint Calculator
Araban Zu Zero – Climate Footprint Calculator
 
Pedagogy Of Hope
Pedagogy Of HopePedagogy Of Hope
Pedagogy Of Hope
 
The 15 Critical Uncertainties Taken Into Consideration
The 15 Critical Uncertainties Taken Into ConsiderationThe 15 Critical Uncertainties Taken Into Consideration
The 15 Critical Uncertainties Taken Into Consideration
 
How Can We Support Education Professionals in (Re)Designing Education for Sus...
How Can We Support Education Professionals in (Re)Designing Education for Sus...How Can We Support Education Professionals in (Re)Designing Education for Sus...
How Can We Support Education Professionals in (Re)Designing Education for Sus...
 
Monitoring and Evaluating Education for Sustainable Development
Monitoring and Evaluating Education for Sustainable DevelopmentMonitoring and Evaluating Education for Sustainable Development
Monitoring and Evaluating Education for Sustainable Development
 
Inner Development Goals (IDGs)
Inner Development Goals (IDGs)Inner Development Goals (IDGs)
Inner Development Goals (IDGs)
 
Role of Youth in Climate Action: Creating a Multistakeholdership in Japan
Role of Youth in Climate Action: Creating a Multistakeholdership in JapanRole of Youth in Climate Action: Creating a Multistakeholdership in Japan
Role of Youth in Climate Action: Creating a Multistakeholdership in Japan
 
Intersectional Approach to Uplift the Vulnerable
Intersectional Approach to Uplift the VulnerableIntersectional Approach to Uplift the Vulnerable
Intersectional Approach to Uplift the Vulnerable
 
Stakeholder Identification in Net Zero Initiatives
Stakeholder Identification in Net Zero InitiativesStakeholder Identification in Net Zero Initiatives
Stakeholder Identification in Net Zero Initiatives
 
Result Based Project Design
Result Based Project DesignResult Based Project Design
Result Based Project Design
 
Zeroing MY Foodprint - Transitioning the Carbon Loop of Food Waste to Net Zero
Zeroing MY Foodprint - Transitioning the Carbon Loop of Food Waste to Net ZeroZeroing MY Foodprint - Transitioning the Carbon Loop of Food Waste to Net Zero
Zeroing MY Foodprint - Transitioning the Carbon Loop of Food Waste to Net Zero
 
Towards Jakarta Net Zero by 2050
Towards Jakarta Net Zero by 2050Towards Jakarta Net Zero by 2050
Towards Jakarta Net Zero by 2050
 

Recently uploaded

一比一原版(uob学位证书)英国伯明翰大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uob学位证书)英国伯明翰大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(uob学位证书)英国伯明翰大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uob学位证书)英国伯明翰大学毕业证如何办理
yzxexy
 
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_8_COLOMBIAN ENVIROMENTAL REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_8_COLOMBIAN ENVIROMENTAL REGIME.pdfGUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_8_COLOMBIAN ENVIROMENTAL REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_8_COLOMBIAN ENVIROMENTAL REGIME.pdf
ProexportColombia1
 
All Loan Insorance Are Money Problem.docx 1
All Loan Insorance Are Money Problem.docx 1All Loan Insorance Are Money Problem.docx 1
All Loan Insorance Are Money Problem.docx 1
arushiyadavp11
 
一比一原版英国阿伯丁大学毕业证(AU毕业证书)学历如何办理
一比一原版英国阿伯丁大学毕业证(AU毕业证书)学历如何办理一比一原版英国阿伯丁大学毕业证(AU毕业证书)学历如何办理
一比一原版英国阿伯丁大学毕业证(AU毕业证书)学历如何办理
afsebu
 
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证如何办理
teeaszt
 
CBO's Immigration Projections - Presentation
CBO's Immigration Projections - PresentationCBO's Immigration Projections - Presentation
CBO's Immigration Projections - Presentation
Congressional Budget Office
 
Causes Supporting Charity for Elderly People
Causes Supporting Charity for Elderly PeopleCauses Supporting Charity for Elderly People
Causes Supporting Charity for Elderly People
SERUDS INDIA
 
一比一原版加拿大麦科文大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版加拿大麦科文大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版加拿大麦科文大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版加拿大麦科文大学毕业证如何办理
qypomky
 
Health Insurance Coverage for the U.S. Population, 2024 to 2034
Health Insurance Coverage for the U.S. Population, 2024 to 2034Health Insurance Coverage for the U.S. Population, 2024 to 2034
Health Insurance Coverage for the U.S. Population, 2024 to 2034
Congressional Budget Office
 
G7 Apulia Leaders Communique, June 2024 (1).pdf
G7 Apulia Leaders Communique, June 2024 (1).pdfG7 Apulia Leaders Communique, June 2024 (1).pdf
G7 Apulia Leaders Communique, June 2024 (1).pdf
Energy for One World
 
Sponsor a Child for Education & Food.pptx
Sponsor a Child for Education & Food.pptxSponsor a Child for Education & Food.pptx
Sponsor a Child for Education & Food.pptx
SERUDS INDIA
 
The cost of poor health: What does rising health-related benefit spending mea...
The cost of poor health: What does rising health-related benefit spending mea...The cost of poor health: What does rising health-related benefit spending mea...
The cost of poor health: What does rising health-related benefit spending mea...
ResolutionFoundation
 
G7 Apulia Leaders Communique, 14th June 2024
G7 Apulia Leaders Communique, 14th June 2024G7 Apulia Leaders Communique, 14th June 2024
G7 Apulia Leaders Communique, 14th June 2024
Energy for One World
 
ColombiaPresentation.pptx macroeconomics
ColombiaPresentation.pptx macroeconomicsColombiaPresentation.pptx macroeconomics
ColombiaPresentation.pptx macroeconomics
JuanFelipeHerrera4
 
UN SDSN Sustainable Development Report 2024
UN SDSN Sustainable Development Report 2024UN SDSN Sustainable Development Report 2024
UN SDSN Sustainable Development Report 2024
Energy for One World
 
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_7_COLOMBIAN TAX REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_7_COLOMBIAN TAX REGIME.pdfGUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_7_COLOMBIAN TAX REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_7_COLOMBIAN TAX REGIME.pdf
ProexportColombia1
 
EI Statistical Review of World Energy 2024
EI Statistical Review of World Energy 2024EI Statistical Review of World Energy 2024
EI Statistical Review of World Energy 2024
Energy for One World
 
Jabatan Fungsional: Konsep, Peran & Prospeknya
Jabatan Fungsional: Konsep, Peran & ProspeknyaJabatan Fungsional: Konsep, Peran & Prospeknya
Jabatan Fungsional: Konsep, Peran & Prospeknya
Tri Widodo W. UTOMO
 
Lecture 7 Module VII Agriculture Insurance - Support Services (2).pdf
Lecture 7 Module VII Agriculture Insurance - Support Services (2).pdfLecture 7 Module VII Agriculture Insurance - Support Services (2).pdf
Lecture 7 Module VII Agriculture Insurance - Support Services (2).pdf
tshree896
 
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_6_IMMIGRATION_REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_6_IMMIGRATION_REGIME.pdfGUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_6_IMMIGRATION_REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_6_IMMIGRATION_REGIME.pdf
ProexportColombia1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

一比一原版(uob学位证书)英国伯明翰大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uob学位证书)英国伯明翰大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(uob学位证书)英国伯明翰大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(uob学位证书)英国伯明翰大学毕业证如何办理
 
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_8_COLOMBIAN ENVIROMENTAL REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_8_COLOMBIAN ENVIROMENTAL REGIME.pdfGUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_8_COLOMBIAN ENVIROMENTAL REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_8_COLOMBIAN ENVIROMENTAL REGIME.pdf
 
All Loan Insorance Are Money Problem.docx 1
All Loan Insorance Are Money Problem.docx 1All Loan Insorance Are Money Problem.docx 1
All Loan Insorance Are Money Problem.docx 1
 
一比一原版英国阿伯丁大学毕业证(AU毕业证书)学历如何办理
一比一原版英国阿伯丁大学毕业证(AU毕业证书)学历如何办理一比一原版英国阿伯丁大学毕业证(AU毕业证书)学历如何办理
一比一原版英国阿伯丁大学毕业证(AU毕业证书)学历如何办理
 
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Adelaide毕业证)阿德莱德大学毕业证如何办理
 
CBO's Immigration Projections - Presentation
CBO's Immigration Projections - PresentationCBO's Immigration Projections - Presentation
CBO's Immigration Projections - Presentation
 
Causes Supporting Charity for Elderly People
Causes Supporting Charity for Elderly PeopleCauses Supporting Charity for Elderly People
Causes Supporting Charity for Elderly People
 
一比一原版加拿大麦科文大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版加拿大麦科文大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版加拿大麦科文大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版加拿大麦科文大学毕业证如何办理
 
Health Insurance Coverage for the U.S. Population, 2024 to 2034
Health Insurance Coverage for the U.S. Population, 2024 to 2034Health Insurance Coverage for the U.S. Population, 2024 to 2034
Health Insurance Coverage for the U.S. Population, 2024 to 2034
 
G7 Apulia Leaders Communique, June 2024 (1).pdf
G7 Apulia Leaders Communique, June 2024 (1).pdfG7 Apulia Leaders Communique, June 2024 (1).pdf
G7 Apulia Leaders Communique, June 2024 (1).pdf
 
Sponsor a Child for Education & Food.pptx
Sponsor a Child for Education & Food.pptxSponsor a Child for Education & Food.pptx
Sponsor a Child for Education & Food.pptx
 
The cost of poor health: What does rising health-related benefit spending mea...
The cost of poor health: What does rising health-related benefit spending mea...The cost of poor health: What does rising health-related benefit spending mea...
The cost of poor health: What does rising health-related benefit spending mea...
 
G7 Apulia Leaders Communique, 14th June 2024
G7 Apulia Leaders Communique, 14th June 2024G7 Apulia Leaders Communique, 14th June 2024
G7 Apulia Leaders Communique, 14th June 2024
 
ColombiaPresentation.pptx macroeconomics
ColombiaPresentation.pptx macroeconomicsColombiaPresentation.pptx macroeconomics
ColombiaPresentation.pptx macroeconomics
 
UN SDSN Sustainable Development Report 2024
UN SDSN Sustainable Development Report 2024UN SDSN Sustainable Development Report 2024
UN SDSN Sustainable Development Report 2024
 
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_7_COLOMBIAN TAX REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_7_COLOMBIAN TAX REGIME.pdfGUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_7_COLOMBIAN TAX REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_7_COLOMBIAN TAX REGIME.pdf
 
EI Statistical Review of World Energy 2024
EI Statistical Review of World Energy 2024EI Statistical Review of World Energy 2024
EI Statistical Review of World Energy 2024
 
Jabatan Fungsional: Konsep, Peran & Prospeknya
Jabatan Fungsional: Konsep, Peran & ProspeknyaJabatan Fungsional: Konsep, Peran & Prospeknya
Jabatan Fungsional: Konsep, Peran & Prospeknya
 
Lecture 7 Module VII Agriculture Insurance - Support Services (2).pdf
Lecture 7 Module VII Agriculture Insurance - Support Services (2).pdfLecture 7 Module VII Agriculture Insurance - Support Services (2).pdf
Lecture 7 Module VII Agriculture Insurance - Support Services (2).pdf
 
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_6_IMMIGRATION_REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_6_IMMIGRATION_REGIME.pdfGUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_6_IMMIGRATION_REGIME.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER_6_IMMIGRATION_REGIME.pdf
 

Impacts of Adoption of Climate Smart Technologies on Income among Agro-Pastoralists Communities in Marsabit County, Kenya

  • 1. IMPACT OF ADOPTION OF CLIMATE-SMART TECHNOLOGIES ON INCOME AMONG AGRO- PASTORALISTS COMMUNITIES IN MARSABIT COUNTY, KENYA Gudere ,A; Wemali,E and Ndunda ,E.
  • 2. Background • Climate change is a serious phenomenon affecting all communities calling for interventions to reduce vulnerability • Climate change negatively affect livestock and crop production systems • Marsabit County has experienced drought ,a major threat to peoples’ livelihoods and socio-economic development. • This is exemplified in livestock deaths due to pasture scarcity and crop failures or reduced yields in the arable areas of ASALs.
  • 3. Cont.. • Agro-pastoralists communities are in critical need of climate smart agricultural technologies and practices. • Climate Smart agricultural technologies and practices (CSA) are an intervention to climate variability and change that is threatening livelihoods. • Climate Smart Technologies and Adaptation options have been found to sustainably increase productivity, enhance resilience to climatic stresses, and reduce greenhouse gases (Lipper et al., 2014,World Bank, 2020). • Studies show that adopters have experienced increase in yields from the fields and improved income (Imran et al., (2018); Wekesa et al., (2018); Ogada et al., (2020); Mango et al. (2020); Musafiri et al., 2022). • This presentation is based on one of the objectives of the study which was: • To assess how adaptation of livestock-crop climate smart technologies and practices impacts on livelihoods of agro-pastoralists of Marsabit County.
  • 7. Methodology • Survey research design was adopted for the study. • Saku Sub-County was purposively selected. • The sampling frame were households whose social organization is based on the growing of crops and the raising of livestock as the primary means of economic activity. • Agropastoralists were randomly selected from Karare, Sagante/Jaldesa, Dakabaricha/Marsabit Central wards. • Saku Sub County, falls in zone IV and zone V. The study sample was 373 households derived from Yamane formula (Yamane, 1967).
  • 8. Methodology cont.… • Semi – structured questionnaire was administered through face-face interviews to the house hold heads • Six focus Group Discussions were held where each group had each set of gender, one with male only and one with female only. This was done to allow free participation to avoid cultural biasness. • Key informant Interview :relevant livestock, agricultural officers, and development partners (non-governmental organizations),participants for this were purposively selected as the tool required people with expert knowledge on specific aspects • Data collected was analyzed using propensity score matching(PSM) using STATA version 15
  • 9. Cont.. • Sample Size The study population 373 households derived from Yamane formula 1967) • Yamane sample size is as given below: • 𝑛 = 𝑁 1+𝑁(𝑒2) • Where: n is the sample size; N is the total population of study and e is the allowable error (%). • 𝒏 = 𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟕 𝟏+𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟕(𝟎.𝟎𝟓)𝟐 = 373 households
  • 10. Results &Discussion Demographic information of respondents Frequency(n) Percentage (%) Age(number) 48 Household size(number) 7 Average monthly income(ksh) 5204 Gender Female 155 41.6 Male 218 58.4 Marital status Single 73 19.6 Married 300 80.4 Level of education Non-formal Education 243 65.1 Formal Education 130 34.9
  • 11. Crop-Livestock climate CST&P adopted • Improved and traditional crop varieties • Improved crop varieties was practiced at 92% and growing traditional crops was 15.5% • Managing diversity on farm • Crop rotation 56% (n=209) and intercropping 36.5% (n=136). • Water and water use management • Grow water efficient crops-36.7%, rainwater harvesting by use of storage tanks was 29.5% and water pans-11.5%, small scale micro irrigation 16.9% , mulching 13.4%
  • 12. Cont.. Soil fertility management • Manure application-68.4%,crop retaining residues 31.4%, agroforestry 21.7%, mulching %13.4, fertilizer application 9.1%. The finding agree with Ouédraogo, et. al., (2019) and Mwaura et al., (2021) who found that manure application was highest practiced. Livestock management • Improved livestock breeds 19.8 %, local breeds 7.2% Pasture management and conservation • Fodder conservation and storage 49.6%, supplementary feeding 44.5%, destocking 24.1%, grassland management 18.8%, rangeland reseeding 1.9%
  • 13. Effect of adopting CST&P on income Average monthly income ATE Caliper nn (nearest neighbor) Coef. Std. Err Sig. Coef. Std. Err Sig. Coef. Std. Err Sig. Crop farming (1 vs 0) -1181.859 407.8588 0.007 -1792.59 670.17 0.004 -931.46 344.73 0.007 Livestock farming (1 vs 0) -3120.509 279.7527 0.009 -2881.48 1109.34 0.000 -3156.52 366.95 0.000 Crop and livestock (1 vs 0) 1895.755 473.3692 0.008 1193.68 447.28 0.000 1704.18 332.84 0.000
  • 14. Cont.. • Results from propensity score matching shows that the coefficient of those agro-pastoralists who adopted CST&P for either crop farming or livestock farming is significantly negative . • Respondents who had adopted CST&P for both crop growing and livestock rearing have higher average monthly income than those who have adopted either crop farming or livestock keeping practices. • The study showed that the income was highest for those agro- pastoralists who rely on both crops and livestock smart practices followed by those who adopted crop smart practices and agro-pastoralists who had only livestock CST&P earned the least income
  • 15. Conclusion • There were negative impact on the income for the agro-pastoralists whose main source of income is from either crop or livestock farming • There was positive impact on adoption of climate smart technologies on the income of those who practiced both crop and livestock farming • The adoption of crop and livestock climate smart technologies and practice showed that there was higher income for agro-pastoralists who integrated crop and livestock CST&P thus helps to encourage promotion and dissemination of multiple and combined packages of both crop and livestock CST&P.
  • 16. Recommendations • The study recommends the integration of crop and livestock production by agro-pastoralists for increased income and resilience. • The ministry of agriculture in county and national government, research institutions, NGOs, CBOs should promote integration of crop and livestock farming in dissemination and upscaling of climate smart technologies and practices,