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IMPACT OF INEQUALITY Some facts and ideas
ANATOMY OF UK INEQUALITY Two nations or maybe three?  -  Super-rich, alienated middle, disenfranchised below that Poorest have got poorer Entrenched and persistent social exclusion High levels of distrust especially towards the state and big business History of treating symptoms, not causes
INCOME & WEALTH INEQUALITY Income – see tables at end Wealth –  Richest 1% own 25% of UK wealth Top 50% own 91% of UK wealth The bottom 10% are in debt
HEALTH INEQUALITY In poorest neighbourhoods, people die on average 7 years earlier than in richest Average disability-free life expectancy – 17 years difference Influenced by differences in: Smoking, diet, obesity, alcohol and drug use, patterns of exercise Level of medical care Child development factors – parental depression, being played with and read to, bedtimes But effects of stress still exist when you equalise all of these – affects all but the very richest
EST. COST TO SOCIETY OF MORTALITY & MORBIDITY Productivity loss - £31 - £33Bn p.a. in taxes Higher benefit payments - £20 - £32Bn p.a. Additional NHS costs – over £5.5Bn
EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITY Only 32% of children with routine job parents get 5 A-C grade GCSEs (Higher prof – 77%) 22% of employers unwilling to consider employing jobseekers with less A persistent 13-14% get less than this at any grade Those with lowest achievements are more likely to be - male, poor, single-parent, many siblings, free school meals, truants
GENDER, DISABILITY, ETHNICITY All to some extent linked with unequal school attainment – for instance:  Girls already doing far better in school by 5 years. Curriculum seems to favour them Four fifths of young people with special needs have been bullied & bullying strongly affects attainment Cultural context affects achievement - some ethnic groupings vastly underachieve: others over-achieve compared with average
EDUCATIONAL IMPACT Unemployment linked to poorer health (mental and physical), higher mortality Poorer types of employment lead to low pay, unhealthy conditions, insecurity, stressful conditions, less control Therefore societal costs/ opportunity costs: Lost productivity + health effects + “problems” in society
For instance - PRISON POPULATIONS &  SELF-REPORTED CRIMINALITY Correlations with:  Male, unemployment, low income, low educational achievement, ethnic minority, strained family relations, drugs and heavy drinking, mental health history, friends & family involved with police, truancy, habit of bullying others
HOW DOES INEQUALITY WORK? Many inter-related factors create self- reinforcement and hard-to-break patterns Seem to be strong correlations between high levels of inequality and low levels of social capital and trust – everyone feels the stress Greater inequality appears to create overall worse outcomes for the whole of a society.  There are costs to almost everyone in terms of stress, violence, social costs, worse comparisons with more equal societies on all fronts
WHAT’S BEHIND STRESS? Consumerism and celebrity culture Choice – (A luxury of the wealthy?) Self-interest leads to competitive, stress-inducing behaviour, leads to stress hormones Social divisions rigid - segregation, antagonistism, anger, victimhood Stress in growing proportion as the rich move up and popular culture reveals their life-styles
POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES FOR INTERVENTION Direct versus indirect? “Obliquity” – financial rewards and happiness as by-products of actions that benefit others  Linking social capital (between social groups) versus bonding social capital (within groups) Bottom-up versus top-down Small pots locally versus big programmes nationally Broadening or changing roles of professionals & institutions – recognise interconnections
CITIZENS’ ROLE IN SOCIETY  Impact of different groups Level of Capability Education Buying power Resourceful-ness High Low Low High Degree of Willingness to make contribution to wider society DISENGAGED OR DISENFRANCHISED Net cost to society or fall through cracks CAPABLE INDIVIDUALISTS Impact neutral – little cost to society, but little contribution WILLING & ACTIVE CITIZENS Net contributors WILLING BUT NOT ACTIVE Potential resource – realised the problems, want to help solve them
FACTORS INFLUENCING ROLE SHIFT Scope for action Capability Education Buying power Resourceful-ness High Low Low High Willingness DISENGAGED Net cost to society or fall through cracks CAPABLE INDIVIDUALISTS Impact neutral WILLING & ACTIVE CITIZENS Net contributors WILLING BUT NOT ENGAGED Potential resource Moment of truth  through catalytic events, professionals and local community leaders SSE & other Bottom up Initiatives -  learning, reflection & experimentation, supported by facilitation and small investments Inducements -  self-interest Reinforcement Arrows show scope for movement
 
 
 
 

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Impact of inequality dartington

  • 1. IMPACT OF INEQUALITY Some facts and ideas
  • 2. ANATOMY OF UK INEQUALITY Two nations or maybe three? - Super-rich, alienated middle, disenfranchised below that Poorest have got poorer Entrenched and persistent social exclusion High levels of distrust especially towards the state and big business History of treating symptoms, not causes
  • 3. INCOME & WEALTH INEQUALITY Income – see tables at end Wealth – Richest 1% own 25% of UK wealth Top 50% own 91% of UK wealth The bottom 10% are in debt
  • 4. HEALTH INEQUALITY In poorest neighbourhoods, people die on average 7 years earlier than in richest Average disability-free life expectancy – 17 years difference Influenced by differences in: Smoking, diet, obesity, alcohol and drug use, patterns of exercise Level of medical care Child development factors – parental depression, being played with and read to, bedtimes But effects of stress still exist when you equalise all of these – affects all but the very richest
  • 5. EST. COST TO SOCIETY OF MORTALITY & MORBIDITY Productivity loss - £31 - £33Bn p.a. in taxes Higher benefit payments - £20 - £32Bn p.a. Additional NHS costs – over £5.5Bn
  • 6. EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITY Only 32% of children with routine job parents get 5 A-C grade GCSEs (Higher prof – 77%) 22% of employers unwilling to consider employing jobseekers with less A persistent 13-14% get less than this at any grade Those with lowest achievements are more likely to be - male, poor, single-parent, many siblings, free school meals, truants
  • 7. GENDER, DISABILITY, ETHNICITY All to some extent linked with unequal school attainment – for instance: Girls already doing far better in school by 5 years. Curriculum seems to favour them Four fifths of young people with special needs have been bullied & bullying strongly affects attainment Cultural context affects achievement - some ethnic groupings vastly underachieve: others over-achieve compared with average
  • 8. EDUCATIONAL IMPACT Unemployment linked to poorer health (mental and physical), higher mortality Poorer types of employment lead to low pay, unhealthy conditions, insecurity, stressful conditions, less control Therefore societal costs/ opportunity costs: Lost productivity + health effects + “problems” in society
  • 9. For instance - PRISON POPULATIONS & SELF-REPORTED CRIMINALITY Correlations with: Male, unemployment, low income, low educational achievement, ethnic minority, strained family relations, drugs and heavy drinking, mental health history, friends & family involved with police, truancy, habit of bullying others
  • 10. HOW DOES INEQUALITY WORK? Many inter-related factors create self- reinforcement and hard-to-break patterns Seem to be strong correlations between high levels of inequality and low levels of social capital and trust – everyone feels the stress Greater inequality appears to create overall worse outcomes for the whole of a society. There are costs to almost everyone in terms of stress, violence, social costs, worse comparisons with more equal societies on all fronts
  • 11. WHAT’S BEHIND STRESS? Consumerism and celebrity culture Choice – (A luxury of the wealthy?) Self-interest leads to competitive, stress-inducing behaviour, leads to stress hormones Social divisions rigid - segregation, antagonistism, anger, victimhood Stress in growing proportion as the rich move up and popular culture reveals their life-styles
  • 12. POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES FOR INTERVENTION Direct versus indirect? “Obliquity” – financial rewards and happiness as by-products of actions that benefit others Linking social capital (between social groups) versus bonding social capital (within groups) Bottom-up versus top-down Small pots locally versus big programmes nationally Broadening or changing roles of professionals & institutions – recognise interconnections
  • 13. CITIZENS’ ROLE IN SOCIETY Impact of different groups Level of Capability Education Buying power Resourceful-ness High Low Low High Degree of Willingness to make contribution to wider society DISENGAGED OR DISENFRANCHISED Net cost to society or fall through cracks CAPABLE INDIVIDUALISTS Impact neutral – little cost to society, but little contribution WILLING & ACTIVE CITIZENS Net contributors WILLING BUT NOT ACTIVE Potential resource – realised the problems, want to help solve them
  • 14. FACTORS INFLUENCING ROLE SHIFT Scope for action Capability Education Buying power Resourceful-ness High Low Low High Willingness DISENGAGED Net cost to society or fall through cracks CAPABLE INDIVIDUALISTS Impact neutral WILLING & ACTIVE CITIZENS Net contributors WILLING BUT NOT ENGAGED Potential resource Moment of truth through catalytic events, professionals and local community leaders SSE & other Bottom up Initiatives - learning, reflection & experimentation, supported by facilitation and small investments Inducements - self-interest Reinforcement Arrows show scope for movement
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18.