SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 8
Download to read offline
Tahmina Ferdous Tanny, SUST, Sylhet, email: tahminatanny@gmail.com, 13-5-2018
Impact of colonialism on British India
Economic impact
According to Barron, economic condition of Europe was not better than India till 18th
century,
but it began to fall in 19th
century because of the East India Company’s rough plunder &
continuous resource consumption.
Destruction of Indian handy craft
 In 18th
century India was an enriched country of agriculture & industries, & supplier of
the loom produced goods to the markets of Asia & Europe. The imperialist powers
exploited the colonies by importing raw materials at the cheapest possible rates and
exported the finished products at very high rates.
 Policy of British ruler in the first decade of nineteen century was to keep India under
Great Britain’s industry & to produce raw materials by India for the sake of the supply of
loom & other industrials products to them. Under the policy, Indian craftsmen were
forced to work in the factories of company.
 Indian silk & cotton cloths were driven away from England’s market under preventive
revenue.
 Products of England were imported to India without tax or in some cases with minimum
tax.
 Manufactured tax was imposed to the production of cotton clothes, which stopped
functioning of new still mills.
 This policy of systematic exploitation resulted in the draining of wealth and greatly
contributed to poverty, starvation and backwardness of the colonies.
Autocratic land & revenue policy
 British administration introduced land & revenue policy which ruined village
economy exchanging with land lords & merchant. Trade policy destroyed craftsmen
& made them helpless & created a number of frauds, small business men & agents
who were involved in earning by no other ways.
Tahmina Ferdous Tanny, SUST, Sylhet, email: tahminatanny@gmail.com, 13-5-2018
 Destroyed self-reliant village economic system by introducing ‘ ‘ in which the land
lords cultivated their lands through the system of taxes by the people those who had
not owned any lands. The last Muslim ruler in his last year of ruling received 4,
17,553 pounds of sterling revenue from lands, where the British in the same
provinces earned 26, 80,000 pounds of sterling.
The following figure shows the difference between the two ruling class:
Political impact
Positive impact
 In the political sphere, Imperialism proved to be a blessing in disguise for some countries.
For example it provided political unity to India which had been torn by dissensions and
strife before the arrival of the western powers. This was rendered possible due to
development of railways, modern means of transport and communication, press,
introduction of English language which served as lingua franca and a uniform system of
administration throughout the country.
 Secondly, the western colonialism and imperialism was responsible for the introduction
of western ideas like nationalism, democracy, constitutionalism etc. in Asia. The various
Afgan & Mughal emperors spent
money on armies that also brought
up their families.
Create separation within family ties
under British rules in case of
Indian armies.
Spent huge money on building
monuments, palaces & artists,
craftsmen were encouraged &
earned their livelihood.
Destroyed local industries
craftsmen, handicrafts.
Collected taxes, tributes used for
their people & went back to them
& enriched their arts & commerce.
Earned taxes sent to Britain,
enriched their industry in England.
Colonized rulerPre colonized ruler
Tahmina Ferdous Tanny, SUST, Sylhet, email: tahminatanny@gmail.com, 13-5-2018
imperialist powers tried to implant their ideas and institutions in their colonies of Asia
and Africa.
 The colonial powers introduced efficient system of administration in the country. It is
true that the administrative machinery was evolved primarily to promote the interest of
the imperialist powers and paid little attention to the well-being and welfare of the
natives.
Negative impact
 The natives were not given adequate representation in the civil services and generally
excluded from higher positions.
 The imperialist rule also led to the rise of slavery. The slaves began to be sold and
purchased as part of personal belongings.
 The colonialism and imperialism led to bitter rivalry among the European powers and
they fought various wars for the possession of the colonies. In India the French were
involved in a long drawn-out struggle with the British.
Social & cultural impact
In the social and cultural spheres the colonial and imperialist rule produced serious
consequences which are given below:
Affect religions: In the first place it adversely affected the religions of the local people because
the local people were encouraged by the Western Missionaries to embrace Christianity by
offering them certain material benefits. As a result soon Christianity became a thriving religion
in many Asian and African countries.
Provide social services: The Christian Missionaries played an important role in providing
certain social services to the local people in the form of hospitals, dispensaries, schools, colleges
etc. and thus greatly contributed to the enlightening of the people of Asia and Africa.
Racial segregation: Colonial and imperialist rule led to racial segregation. The European rulers
treated their culture as superior to the Asian and African cultures and tried to impose the same on
them. They believed that white races are superior to the black races and tried to keep aloof. They
Tahmina Ferdous Tanny, SUST, Sylhet, email: tahminatanny@gmail.com, 13-5-2018
often enacted discriminatory laws against the local people. For example, in India the Indians
could not travel in the railway compartment in which the Europeans were travelling.
Undermine morality: The imperialist rule undermined the moral principles. They abandoned all
norms of morality to keep their hold on the colonial people. They tried to divide the local people
and made them fight among themselves to retain power. This policy of 'divide and rule'
ultimately led to the partition of India.
Misery to humanity: The policy of colonialism and imperialism caused untold misery and
suffering to the people. The various imperialist powers were involved in a number of wars with
the local people as well as amongst themselves which resulted in loss of millions lives.
Impact/ process of colonialism on/in Bangladesh (In the context of internal colony)
After 1947, when the British left for England India and Pakistan two countries were created
based on the majority of religion. Bangladesh in the rule of British was used as exploitation
colony, then became inter colony of Pakistan. Inter colonialism in this context, is the process of
political and economic inequality between west and East Pakistan, which was characterized by
the uneven development of the two wings of Pakistan. The Bengalis of East Pakistan made up
the majority of the population of Pakistan about 55%, but were not allowed an influential role in
the government & viewed as a source of revenue by West Pakistan.
Economic disparity between two parts of Pakistan
The two wings of Pakistan did not start their new partnership as a nation state on equal resources.
East Pakistan was neglected during the period of the Raj. It lacked a basic communication
structures such as railways and metaled roads. The geography and ecology of East Pakistan did
not help economic development because of monsoon, floods & cyclones for about three months
of every year. The economic developers of Pakistan were West Pakistan centric. West Pakistan
was under populated, while East Pakistan faced a serious problem of heavy population.
West Pakistan East Pakistan
Area 310,000 sq. miles
85% of the total
55,000 sq. miles
15% of the total
Tahmina Ferdous Tanny, SUST, Sylhet, email: tahminatanny@gmail.com, 13-5-2018
Population 33 million 42 million
Density 109 per sq. mile 727 per sq. mile
Muslims 97% 79%
Literacy 12% 18%
Agricultural labor force 64% of labor force 85% of labor force
Earning of jute sector used in West Pakistan
In 1950, jute was the world’s most and widely used packing material. East Pakistan produced
over 50% of world’s jute where India produced 25% but which was of inferior quality. The
Korean war 1950-53 ensured that every piece of jute was purchased and paid for in foreign
currency produced by East Pakistan. As capitalism developed in Pakistan, resources were gone
from the countryside in East Pakistan to the towns of West Pakistan and by 1950, about 50% of
the foreign export earnings came from this sector. The revenues collected from jute sector were
transferred to the central government of West Pakistan to balance the national books and to pay
for the industrialization process mainly concentrated in West Pakistan.
Competition between rice and jute & existence of acute food problem in East Pakistan
Rice was grown in competition with jute because jute was earning huge amounts of valuable
foreign exchange. As a result, the amount of land that was given to rice production was not
enough to meet the balanced diet of people of East Pakistan as it was their staple food. As the
price of jute raised more, jute was grown which also put up the price of rice & West Pakistan
was out of step in this matter because their staple food was wheat. The shortage of rice was so
acute that Pakistan government made a request to UK government to grant 3.7 million US dollar
food aid.
Exclusion of Bengalis from military establishment
Defence spending was a major Bengali grievance, not only because they were contributing huge
sums of money to the defence budget but they were excluded from the military establishment.
Pakistan had a very large establishment which consumed about 50% or 60% of the entire
government budget but East Pakistanis were omitted from military job while less than 10% of
Tahmina Ferdous Tanny, SUST, Sylhet, email: tahminatanny@gmail.com, 13-5-2018
the total of all military jobs went to East Pakistanis. In 1947, Bengalis constituted 1% of the total
strength of the armed services of Pakistan, while every second family of West Punjab had a
linked with the armed services. The exclusion of Bengalis from armed forces became crucial
during the period of martial law, as East Pakistan had no direct or indirect input into the
government.
From West Pakistan From East Pakistan
Lt. generals 3 0
Major generals 20 0
Brigadiers 34 1
Colonel 49 1
Lt. colonels 198 2
Majors 590 10
Air force officers 640 60
Naval officers 593 97
Disproportion of military officers between the two wings of Pakistan, in 1955
Sense of economic drain in East Pakistan
Between, 1947-1971 West Pakistan would not have survived financially without East Pakistan.
But East Pakistan did not see an equitable economic partnership. In the first financial year 1948-
49, 99% of all Pakistan’s income had come from five major sources; cotton, jute, wool, tea and
hides and skins. The two largest earners of foreign currency jute and tea which made up 50% of
the total currency came from East Pakistan. At the time of 1970 election East Pakistan’s jute
made up almost half of the total exports of Pakistan and provided a market for the goods
manufactured in West Pakistan.
Spending in development sector was West Pakistan based
Development planning in East Pakistan during the first six years of independence was very poor.
The central government was concentrating on the task of nation building with all of the functions
of government, civil services and military services based in West Pakistan. Between 1948 &
Tahmina Ferdous Tanny, SUST, Sylhet, email: tahminatanny@gmail.com, 13-5-2018
1953 the Pakistani government had spent 1880 million rupees on development expenditure of
which 235 million rupees was spent in West Pakistan.
Harassment of Hindus by Muslim government
The Hindu middle classes were major dominant socio economic group in east Pakistan but they
were being harassed financially by a Muslim government. The East Bengal (emergency)
Requisition of Property act empowered the government to take requisition houses and buildings
for accommodating refugees and migrants from India but most of the properties in urban areas
belonged to Hindus. The East Bengal Transfer of Agricultural land act was passed which stopped
the transfer of capital to West Bengal as a result many absentee Hindu zamidars and landlords
who were Calcutta based could not transfer their properties.
Employment in government service was West Pakistan based
Employment in government services was weighted against non -punjabis and Bengalis. The civil
service claimed that there was a lack of suitably qualified candidates in spite of being having
higher literacy rate than west Pakistan. The non-Bengali civil servant refused to learn Bengali
because they considered it inferior than urdu.
Rise of capitalism under government
The economic development of Pakistan was mainly development of certain people who had
close links with the power holders. Groups or institutions that had not linked with government
were not economically developed. The capitalists of the wet wing owned most of the industrial
capability of the west wing. (By 1970, just six non Bengali industrialists owned 40% of the
industrial assets of east Pakistan)
Benefits of foreign exchange gathered in west Pakistan
Jute was the largest single foreign exchange earner & the benefits of which were gathered in
west Pakistan without retaining it in it’s production country. East Pakistan was forced to borrow
from central bank at a high interest rate as a result economic disparity & standard of living was
degrading in east Pakistan. The following table shows the disparities in motor car ownership
between the two wings over a twenty year period:
Tahmina Ferdous Tanny, SUST, Sylhet, email: tahminatanny@gmail.com, 13-5-2018
East Pakistan West Pakistan
1947 85 600
1967 520 2660
Source: The Causes of the Bangladesh War
By Iain Cochrane

More Related Content

What's hot

Creation of Bangladesh
Creation of BangladeshCreation of Bangladesh
Creation of BangladeshAreej Fatima
 
The Two Nation theory of Quaid e Azam & Allama Iqbal
The Two Nation theory of Quaid e Azam &  Allama IqbalThe Two Nation theory of Quaid e Azam &  Allama Iqbal
The Two Nation theory of Quaid e Azam & Allama IqbalAbdulAzizSapra
 
The causes of war of independence 1857
The causes of war of independence 1857The causes of war of independence 1857
The causes of war of independence 1857fareeha Awan
 
Economic issues of Pakistan & solutions
Economic issues of Pakistan & solutionsEconomic issues of Pakistan & solutions
Economic issues of Pakistan & solutionsSalman Mehmood
 
Comparative Analysis 1956, 1962, 1973
Comparative Analysis 1956, 1962, 1973 Comparative Analysis 1956, 1962, 1973
Comparative Analysis 1956, 1962, 1973 Dildar Ali
 
The cripps mission & general elections
The cripps mission & general electionsThe cripps mission & general elections
The cripps mission & general electionssaifkhankakar
 
Lecture#1 Muslim Rule In Sub-Continent
Lecture#1 Muslim Rule In Sub-ContinentLecture#1 Muslim Rule In Sub-Continent
Lecture#1 Muslim Rule In Sub-ContinentFida Hussain Solangi
 
Ideological rationale
Ideological rationaleIdeological rationale
Ideological rationaleRabia Nawaz
 
IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN
IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTANIDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN
IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTANAYESHA ZAKA
 
Formation of all india muslim league
Formation of all india muslim leagueFormation of all india muslim league
Formation of all india muslim leagueAmber Memon
 
POVERTY IN PAKISTAN
POVERTY IN PAKISTANPOVERTY IN PAKISTAN
POVERTY IN PAKISTANAsra Hameed
 
TERRORISM IN PAKISTAN, ITS CAUESES, IMPACTS & REMEDIES
TERRORISM IN PAKISTAN, ITS CAUESES, IMPACTS & REMEDIESTERRORISM IN PAKISTAN, ITS CAUESES, IMPACTS & REMEDIES
TERRORISM IN PAKISTAN, ITS CAUESES, IMPACTS & REMEDIESHasnaın Sheıkh
 
Problems of pakistan and their solutions
Problems of pakistan and their solutionsProblems of pakistan and their solutions
Problems of pakistan and their solutionsHassaan Bin Jalil
 
Fourteen points of jinnah
Fourteen points of jinnahFourteen points of jinnah
Fourteen points of jinnahhaM xaH
 
Local Government System in Pakistan
Local Government System in PakistanLocal Government System in Pakistan
Local Government System in PakistanParas Bhutto
 
Democracy (reason for decline of democracy in pakistan)
Democracy (reason for decline of democracy in pakistan)Democracy (reason for decline of democracy in pakistan)
Democracy (reason for decline of democracy in pakistan)hussainshahid55
 
Kashmir conflict
Kashmir conflictKashmir conflict
Kashmir conflictRIPS-14
 
Military control in pakistan
Military control in pakistanMilitary control in pakistan
Military control in pakistanAgha A
 

What's hot (20)

Creation of Bangladesh
Creation of BangladeshCreation of Bangladesh
Creation of Bangladesh
 
Lecture 11 indian act 1935 and congress ministries
Lecture 11 indian act 1935 and congress ministriesLecture 11 indian act 1935 and congress ministries
Lecture 11 indian act 1935 and congress ministries
 
The Two Nation theory of Quaid e Azam & Allama Iqbal
The Two Nation theory of Quaid e Azam &  Allama IqbalThe Two Nation theory of Quaid e Azam &  Allama Iqbal
The Two Nation theory of Quaid e Azam & Allama Iqbal
 
The causes of war of independence 1857
The causes of war of independence 1857The causes of war of independence 1857
The causes of war of independence 1857
 
Economic issues of Pakistan & solutions
Economic issues of Pakistan & solutionsEconomic issues of Pakistan & solutions
Economic issues of Pakistan & solutions
 
Comparative Analysis 1956, 1962, 1973
Comparative Analysis 1956, 1962, 1973 Comparative Analysis 1956, 1962, 1973
Comparative Analysis 1956, 1962, 1973
 
The cripps mission & general elections
The cripps mission & general electionsThe cripps mission & general elections
The cripps mission & general elections
 
Lecture#1 Muslim Rule In Sub-Continent
Lecture#1 Muslim Rule In Sub-ContinentLecture#1 Muslim Rule In Sub-Continent
Lecture#1 Muslim Rule In Sub-Continent
 
Ideological rationale
Ideological rationaleIdeological rationale
Ideological rationale
 
IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN
IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTANIDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN
IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN
 
Formation of all india muslim league
Formation of all india muslim leagueFormation of all india muslim league
Formation of all india muslim league
 
POVERTY IN PAKISTAN
POVERTY IN PAKISTANPOVERTY IN PAKISTAN
POVERTY IN PAKISTAN
 
TERRORISM IN PAKISTAN, ITS CAUESES, IMPACTS & REMEDIES
TERRORISM IN PAKISTAN, ITS CAUESES, IMPACTS & REMEDIESTERRORISM IN PAKISTAN, ITS CAUESES, IMPACTS & REMEDIES
TERRORISM IN PAKISTAN, ITS CAUESES, IMPACTS & REMEDIES
 
Problems of pakistan and their solutions
Problems of pakistan and their solutionsProblems of pakistan and their solutions
Problems of pakistan and their solutions
 
1973 constitution of pakistan
1973 constitution of pakistan1973 constitution of pakistan
1973 constitution of pakistan
 
Fourteen points of jinnah
Fourteen points of jinnahFourteen points of jinnah
Fourteen points of jinnah
 
Local Government System in Pakistan
Local Government System in PakistanLocal Government System in Pakistan
Local Government System in Pakistan
 
Democracy (reason for decline of democracy in pakistan)
Democracy (reason for decline of democracy in pakistan)Democracy (reason for decline of democracy in pakistan)
Democracy (reason for decline of democracy in pakistan)
 
Kashmir conflict
Kashmir conflictKashmir conflict
Kashmir conflict
 
Military control in pakistan
Military control in pakistanMilitary control in pakistan
Military control in pakistan
 

Similar to Impact of colonialism on british india and east pakistan

POVERTY IN AFRICA, ASIA, AND SOUTH AMERICA
POVERTY IN AFRICA, ASIA, AND SOUTH AMERICAPOVERTY IN AFRICA, ASIA, AND SOUTH AMERICA
POVERTY IN AFRICA, ASIA, AND SOUTH AMERICAguestc48e0c
 
causes of poverty in India
causes of poverty in Indiacauses of poverty in India
causes of poverty in IndiaGaurang Asopa
 
Nationalism-in-India-The-Quest-for-Independence (2).pptx
Nationalism-in-India-The-Quest-for-Independence (2).pptxNationalism-in-India-The-Quest-for-Independence (2).pptx
Nationalism-in-India-The-Quest-for-Independence (2).pptxanilmallah76
 
Nationalism-in-India-The-Quest-for-Independence (2).pptx
Nationalism-in-India-The-Quest-for-Independence (2).pptxNationalism-in-India-The-Quest-for-Independence (2).pptx
Nationalism-in-India-The-Quest-for-Independence (2).pptxanilmallah76
 
Colonialism and underdevelopment of indian economy
Colonialism and underdevelopment of indian economyColonialism and underdevelopment of indian economy
Colonialism and underdevelopment of indian economyMahendra Kumar Ghadoliya
 
Colonialism and underdevelopment of indian economy
Colonialism and underdevelopment of indian economyColonialism and underdevelopment of indian economy
Colonialism and underdevelopment of indian economyMk Ghadoliya
 
Topic 8 multiracial society
Topic 8 multiracial societyTopic 8 multiracial society
Topic 8 multiracial societyChe Amm
 
development experiences of india and neighbour countries
development experiences of india and neighbour countriesdevelopment experiences of india and neighbour countries
development experiences of india and neighbour countriesguestf4d2be
 
New Imperialism: Colonial encounters
New Imperialism: Colonial encountersNew Imperialism: Colonial encounters
New Imperialism: Colonial encountersColleen Skadl
 
comparison of india,pakistan and china.pptx
comparison of india,pakistan and china.pptxcomparison of india,pakistan and china.pptx
comparison of india,pakistan and china.pptxSidhiSarika
 
Economic Ideas of Dadabhai Naoroji
Economic Ideas of Dadabhai NaorojiEconomic Ideas of Dadabhai Naoroji
Economic Ideas of Dadabhai Naorojinabila km
 

Similar to Impact of colonialism on british india and east pakistan (20)

POVERTY IN AFRICA, ASIA, AND SOUTH AMERICA
POVERTY IN AFRICA, ASIA, AND SOUTH AMERICAPOVERTY IN AFRICA, ASIA, AND SOUTH AMERICA
POVERTY IN AFRICA, ASIA, AND SOUTH AMERICA
 
causes of poverty in India
causes of poverty in Indiacauses of poverty in India
causes of poverty in India
 
Imperialism Dbq Essay
Imperialism Dbq EssayImperialism Dbq Essay
Imperialism Dbq Essay
 
Essay On India
Essay On IndiaEssay On India
Essay On India
 
Indian Economy
Indian EconomyIndian Economy
Indian Economy
 
Structural change
Structural changeStructural change
Structural change
 
Nationalism-in-India-The-Quest-for-Independence (2).pptx
Nationalism-in-India-The-Quest-for-Independence (2).pptxNationalism-in-India-The-Quest-for-Independence (2).pptx
Nationalism-in-India-The-Quest-for-Independence (2).pptx
 
Nationalism-in-India-The-Quest-for-Independence (2).pptx
Nationalism-in-India-The-Quest-for-Independence (2).pptxNationalism-in-India-The-Quest-for-Independence (2).pptx
Nationalism-in-India-The-Quest-for-Independence (2).pptx
 
I031201056058
I031201056058I031201056058
I031201056058
 
African conflicts
African conflictsAfrican conflicts
African conflicts
 
Chapter 33
Chapter 33Chapter 33
Chapter 33
 
Colonialism and underdevelopment of indian economy
Colonialism and underdevelopment of indian economyColonialism and underdevelopment of indian economy
Colonialism and underdevelopment of indian economy
 
Colonialism and underdevelopment of indian economy
Colonialism and underdevelopment of indian economyColonialism and underdevelopment of indian economy
Colonialism and underdevelopment of indian economy
 
Chapter 27
Chapter 27Chapter 27
Chapter 27
 
Wisp(Rwanda)
Wisp(Rwanda)Wisp(Rwanda)
Wisp(Rwanda)
 
Topic 8 multiracial society
Topic 8 multiracial societyTopic 8 multiracial society
Topic 8 multiracial society
 
development experiences of india and neighbour countries
development experiences of india and neighbour countriesdevelopment experiences of india and neighbour countries
development experiences of india and neighbour countries
 
New Imperialism: Colonial encounters
New Imperialism: Colonial encountersNew Imperialism: Colonial encounters
New Imperialism: Colonial encounters
 
comparison of india,pakistan and china.pptx
comparison of india,pakistan and china.pptxcomparison of india,pakistan and china.pptx
comparison of india,pakistan and china.pptx
 
Economic Ideas of Dadabhai Naoroji
Economic Ideas of Dadabhai NaorojiEconomic Ideas of Dadabhai Naoroji
Economic Ideas of Dadabhai Naoroji
 

More from Tahmina Ferdous Tanny (15)

Quantitative data analysis
Quantitative data analysisQuantitative data analysis
Quantitative data analysis
 
Approaches of Philosophy of Science in Social Research
Approaches of Philosophy of Science in Social ResearchApproaches of Philosophy of Science in Social Research
Approaches of Philosophy of Science in Social Research
 
Approcahes of developement
Approcahes of developementApprocahes of developement
Approcahes of developement
 
Land degradation
Land degradationLand degradation
Land degradation
 
Role of Elite in Social Development
Role of Elite in Social DevelopmentRole of Elite in Social Development
Role of Elite in Social Development
 
Reliability and validity
Reliability and validityReliability and validity
Reliability and validity
 
Survey Research Design
Survey Research DesignSurvey Research Design
Survey Research Design
 
Suo Motu Rule
Suo Motu RuleSuo Motu Rule
Suo Motu Rule
 
Scientific management
Scientific managementScientific management
Scientific management
 
Approcahes of developement
Approcahes of developementApprocahes of developement
Approcahes of developement
 
Assignment on development and undevelopment theory
Assignment on development and undevelopment theoryAssignment on development and undevelopment theory
Assignment on development and undevelopment theory
 
UNDP
UNDPUNDP
UNDP
 
Techniques of data collection in qualitative method
Techniques of data collection in qualitative methodTechniques of data collection in qualitative method
Techniques of data collection in qualitative method
 
Presentation on refugee crisis
Presentation on refugee crisisPresentation on refugee crisis
Presentation on refugee crisis
 
World war 1
World war 1World war 1
World war 1
 

Recently uploaded

BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxObserving-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxAdelaideRefugio
 
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...EADTU
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxMarlene Maheu
 
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....Ritu480198
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024Borja Sotomayor
 
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptxdemyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptxMohamed Rizk Khodair
 
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading RoomSternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading RoomSean M. Fox
 
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...Gary Wood
 
male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................MirzaAbrarBaig5
 
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17Celine George
 
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文中 央社
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnershipsexpandedwebsite
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...EduSkills OECD
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17Celine George
 
Climbers and Creepers used in landscaping
Climbers and Creepers used in landscapingClimbers and Creepers used in landscaping
Climbers and Creepers used in landscapingDr. M. Kumaresan Hort.
 

Recently uploaded (20)

BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
 
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxObserving-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
 
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
 
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdfIncluding Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
 
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
 
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptxdemyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
 
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading RoomSternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
 
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
 
male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................
 
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
 
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
 
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
 
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17
 
Climbers and Creepers used in landscaping
Climbers and Creepers used in landscapingClimbers and Creepers used in landscaping
Climbers and Creepers used in landscaping
 
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
 

Impact of colonialism on british india and east pakistan

  • 1. Tahmina Ferdous Tanny, SUST, Sylhet, email: tahminatanny@gmail.com, 13-5-2018 Impact of colonialism on British India Economic impact According to Barron, economic condition of Europe was not better than India till 18th century, but it began to fall in 19th century because of the East India Company’s rough plunder & continuous resource consumption. Destruction of Indian handy craft  In 18th century India was an enriched country of agriculture & industries, & supplier of the loom produced goods to the markets of Asia & Europe. The imperialist powers exploited the colonies by importing raw materials at the cheapest possible rates and exported the finished products at very high rates.  Policy of British ruler in the first decade of nineteen century was to keep India under Great Britain’s industry & to produce raw materials by India for the sake of the supply of loom & other industrials products to them. Under the policy, Indian craftsmen were forced to work in the factories of company.  Indian silk & cotton cloths were driven away from England’s market under preventive revenue.  Products of England were imported to India without tax or in some cases with minimum tax.  Manufactured tax was imposed to the production of cotton clothes, which stopped functioning of new still mills.  This policy of systematic exploitation resulted in the draining of wealth and greatly contributed to poverty, starvation and backwardness of the colonies. Autocratic land & revenue policy  British administration introduced land & revenue policy which ruined village economy exchanging with land lords & merchant. Trade policy destroyed craftsmen & made them helpless & created a number of frauds, small business men & agents who were involved in earning by no other ways.
  • 2. Tahmina Ferdous Tanny, SUST, Sylhet, email: tahminatanny@gmail.com, 13-5-2018  Destroyed self-reliant village economic system by introducing ‘ ‘ in which the land lords cultivated their lands through the system of taxes by the people those who had not owned any lands. The last Muslim ruler in his last year of ruling received 4, 17,553 pounds of sterling revenue from lands, where the British in the same provinces earned 26, 80,000 pounds of sterling. The following figure shows the difference between the two ruling class: Political impact Positive impact  In the political sphere, Imperialism proved to be a blessing in disguise for some countries. For example it provided political unity to India which had been torn by dissensions and strife before the arrival of the western powers. This was rendered possible due to development of railways, modern means of transport and communication, press, introduction of English language which served as lingua franca and a uniform system of administration throughout the country.  Secondly, the western colonialism and imperialism was responsible for the introduction of western ideas like nationalism, democracy, constitutionalism etc. in Asia. The various Afgan & Mughal emperors spent money on armies that also brought up their families. Create separation within family ties under British rules in case of Indian armies. Spent huge money on building monuments, palaces & artists, craftsmen were encouraged & earned their livelihood. Destroyed local industries craftsmen, handicrafts. Collected taxes, tributes used for their people & went back to them & enriched their arts & commerce. Earned taxes sent to Britain, enriched their industry in England. Colonized rulerPre colonized ruler
  • 3. Tahmina Ferdous Tanny, SUST, Sylhet, email: tahminatanny@gmail.com, 13-5-2018 imperialist powers tried to implant their ideas and institutions in their colonies of Asia and Africa.  The colonial powers introduced efficient system of administration in the country. It is true that the administrative machinery was evolved primarily to promote the interest of the imperialist powers and paid little attention to the well-being and welfare of the natives. Negative impact  The natives were not given adequate representation in the civil services and generally excluded from higher positions.  The imperialist rule also led to the rise of slavery. The slaves began to be sold and purchased as part of personal belongings.  The colonialism and imperialism led to bitter rivalry among the European powers and they fought various wars for the possession of the colonies. In India the French were involved in a long drawn-out struggle with the British. Social & cultural impact In the social and cultural spheres the colonial and imperialist rule produced serious consequences which are given below: Affect religions: In the first place it adversely affected the religions of the local people because the local people were encouraged by the Western Missionaries to embrace Christianity by offering them certain material benefits. As a result soon Christianity became a thriving religion in many Asian and African countries. Provide social services: The Christian Missionaries played an important role in providing certain social services to the local people in the form of hospitals, dispensaries, schools, colleges etc. and thus greatly contributed to the enlightening of the people of Asia and Africa. Racial segregation: Colonial and imperialist rule led to racial segregation. The European rulers treated their culture as superior to the Asian and African cultures and tried to impose the same on them. They believed that white races are superior to the black races and tried to keep aloof. They
  • 4. Tahmina Ferdous Tanny, SUST, Sylhet, email: tahminatanny@gmail.com, 13-5-2018 often enacted discriminatory laws against the local people. For example, in India the Indians could not travel in the railway compartment in which the Europeans were travelling. Undermine morality: The imperialist rule undermined the moral principles. They abandoned all norms of morality to keep their hold on the colonial people. They tried to divide the local people and made them fight among themselves to retain power. This policy of 'divide and rule' ultimately led to the partition of India. Misery to humanity: The policy of colonialism and imperialism caused untold misery and suffering to the people. The various imperialist powers were involved in a number of wars with the local people as well as amongst themselves which resulted in loss of millions lives. Impact/ process of colonialism on/in Bangladesh (In the context of internal colony) After 1947, when the British left for England India and Pakistan two countries were created based on the majority of religion. Bangladesh in the rule of British was used as exploitation colony, then became inter colony of Pakistan. Inter colonialism in this context, is the process of political and economic inequality between west and East Pakistan, which was characterized by the uneven development of the two wings of Pakistan. The Bengalis of East Pakistan made up the majority of the population of Pakistan about 55%, but were not allowed an influential role in the government & viewed as a source of revenue by West Pakistan. Economic disparity between two parts of Pakistan The two wings of Pakistan did not start their new partnership as a nation state on equal resources. East Pakistan was neglected during the period of the Raj. It lacked a basic communication structures such as railways and metaled roads. The geography and ecology of East Pakistan did not help economic development because of monsoon, floods & cyclones for about three months of every year. The economic developers of Pakistan were West Pakistan centric. West Pakistan was under populated, while East Pakistan faced a serious problem of heavy population. West Pakistan East Pakistan Area 310,000 sq. miles 85% of the total 55,000 sq. miles 15% of the total
  • 5. Tahmina Ferdous Tanny, SUST, Sylhet, email: tahminatanny@gmail.com, 13-5-2018 Population 33 million 42 million Density 109 per sq. mile 727 per sq. mile Muslims 97% 79% Literacy 12% 18% Agricultural labor force 64% of labor force 85% of labor force Earning of jute sector used in West Pakistan In 1950, jute was the world’s most and widely used packing material. East Pakistan produced over 50% of world’s jute where India produced 25% but which was of inferior quality. The Korean war 1950-53 ensured that every piece of jute was purchased and paid for in foreign currency produced by East Pakistan. As capitalism developed in Pakistan, resources were gone from the countryside in East Pakistan to the towns of West Pakistan and by 1950, about 50% of the foreign export earnings came from this sector. The revenues collected from jute sector were transferred to the central government of West Pakistan to balance the national books and to pay for the industrialization process mainly concentrated in West Pakistan. Competition between rice and jute & existence of acute food problem in East Pakistan Rice was grown in competition with jute because jute was earning huge amounts of valuable foreign exchange. As a result, the amount of land that was given to rice production was not enough to meet the balanced diet of people of East Pakistan as it was their staple food. As the price of jute raised more, jute was grown which also put up the price of rice & West Pakistan was out of step in this matter because their staple food was wheat. The shortage of rice was so acute that Pakistan government made a request to UK government to grant 3.7 million US dollar food aid. Exclusion of Bengalis from military establishment Defence spending was a major Bengali grievance, not only because they were contributing huge sums of money to the defence budget but they were excluded from the military establishment. Pakistan had a very large establishment which consumed about 50% or 60% of the entire government budget but East Pakistanis were omitted from military job while less than 10% of
  • 6. Tahmina Ferdous Tanny, SUST, Sylhet, email: tahminatanny@gmail.com, 13-5-2018 the total of all military jobs went to East Pakistanis. In 1947, Bengalis constituted 1% of the total strength of the armed services of Pakistan, while every second family of West Punjab had a linked with the armed services. The exclusion of Bengalis from armed forces became crucial during the period of martial law, as East Pakistan had no direct or indirect input into the government. From West Pakistan From East Pakistan Lt. generals 3 0 Major generals 20 0 Brigadiers 34 1 Colonel 49 1 Lt. colonels 198 2 Majors 590 10 Air force officers 640 60 Naval officers 593 97 Disproportion of military officers between the two wings of Pakistan, in 1955 Sense of economic drain in East Pakistan Between, 1947-1971 West Pakistan would not have survived financially without East Pakistan. But East Pakistan did not see an equitable economic partnership. In the first financial year 1948- 49, 99% of all Pakistan’s income had come from five major sources; cotton, jute, wool, tea and hides and skins. The two largest earners of foreign currency jute and tea which made up 50% of the total currency came from East Pakistan. At the time of 1970 election East Pakistan’s jute made up almost half of the total exports of Pakistan and provided a market for the goods manufactured in West Pakistan. Spending in development sector was West Pakistan based Development planning in East Pakistan during the first six years of independence was very poor. The central government was concentrating on the task of nation building with all of the functions of government, civil services and military services based in West Pakistan. Between 1948 &
  • 7. Tahmina Ferdous Tanny, SUST, Sylhet, email: tahminatanny@gmail.com, 13-5-2018 1953 the Pakistani government had spent 1880 million rupees on development expenditure of which 235 million rupees was spent in West Pakistan. Harassment of Hindus by Muslim government The Hindu middle classes were major dominant socio economic group in east Pakistan but they were being harassed financially by a Muslim government. The East Bengal (emergency) Requisition of Property act empowered the government to take requisition houses and buildings for accommodating refugees and migrants from India but most of the properties in urban areas belonged to Hindus. The East Bengal Transfer of Agricultural land act was passed which stopped the transfer of capital to West Bengal as a result many absentee Hindu zamidars and landlords who were Calcutta based could not transfer their properties. Employment in government service was West Pakistan based Employment in government services was weighted against non -punjabis and Bengalis. The civil service claimed that there was a lack of suitably qualified candidates in spite of being having higher literacy rate than west Pakistan. The non-Bengali civil servant refused to learn Bengali because they considered it inferior than urdu. Rise of capitalism under government The economic development of Pakistan was mainly development of certain people who had close links with the power holders. Groups or institutions that had not linked with government were not economically developed. The capitalists of the wet wing owned most of the industrial capability of the west wing. (By 1970, just six non Bengali industrialists owned 40% of the industrial assets of east Pakistan) Benefits of foreign exchange gathered in west Pakistan Jute was the largest single foreign exchange earner & the benefits of which were gathered in west Pakistan without retaining it in it’s production country. East Pakistan was forced to borrow from central bank at a high interest rate as a result economic disparity & standard of living was degrading in east Pakistan. The following table shows the disparities in motor car ownership between the two wings over a twenty year period:
  • 8. Tahmina Ferdous Tanny, SUST, Sylhet, email: tahminatanny@gmail.com, 13-5-2018 East Pakistan West Pakistan 1947 85 600 1967 520 2660 Source: The Causes of the Bangladesh War By Iain Cochrane