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Immutable Infrastructure
Rethinking Configuration in the Age of Easy Redeployment
RackN, Inc
May, 2019
Note: Graphics mainly from http://pexels.com
<<< Shift Left <<<
https://u.rackn.io/interop2019
2
RackN, Inc. and Digital Rebar Provision
Your Presenter ….
Software for Dell “CloudEdge” Hyperscale Hardware effort
Learned many DevOps lessons in the field
then created first OpenStack installer: “Crowbar”
1) Operations is inconsistent, manual and heterogenous
2) Foundational automation makes many problems go away
3) “Apply, Rinse, Repeat” (aka Immutable Infrastructure)
Founding Member, Chief
Solutions Architect, and
Community Evangelist
Shane Gibson
3
RackN, Inc. and Digital Rebar Provision
Your Presenter ….
Software for Dell “CloudEdge” Hyperscale Hardware effort
Learned many DevOps lessons in the field
then created first OpenStack installer: “Crowbar”
1) Operations is inconsistent, manual and heterogenous
2) Foundational automation makes many problems go away
3) “Apply, Rinse, Repeat” (aka Immutable Infrastructure)
Founding Member, Chief
Solutions Architect, and
Community Evangelist
Shane Gibson
But … really, who cares?
Let's get to the fun stuff …
4
@rackngo #immutable
Storytime! “Self-Bootstrapping Kubernetes”
Kubecon in Nov 2017 we created this demo
Simple “immutable” Idea:
1) In Memory Boot Machines
2) Install Docker
3) Elect Leader
4) Run Kubeadm on Leader
5) Run Kubeadm on Remainder
But….it’s shockingly hard to maintain.
Dependencies breaks the installation
And they are constantly changing.
5
@rackngo #immutable
Storytime! “Self-Bootstrapping Kubernetes”
So, while it’s pretty cool,
it’s not “real” immutability
Presentation & Demo
https://youtu.be/OowxF6GqK4I
sad!
Why is configuration fragile?
Why is configuration fragile?
mutation
V
8
@rackngo #immutable
But… I 💜 Infrastructure as Code?!
Sorry. Mutability adds complexity
Traditional “build-in place” approaches
● Have hidden dependency graphs
● Create variation between environments
● Are harder to “lock down” due to config
AND OMG… updates and patches are even harder
● Idempotent operations are difficult
● Roll backward is next to impossible!
● Creating indeterminate state
9
@rackngo #immutable
Traditional “build-in place” approaches
● Have hidden dependency graphs
● Create variation between environments
● Are harder to “lock down” due to config
AND OMG… updates and patches are even harder
● Idempotent operations are difficult
● Roll backward is impossible
● Creating indeterminate state
But… I 💜 Infrastructure as code?!
Sorry. Mutability adds complexity
Let’s lock it down!
What is Immutable Infrastructure?
What is Immutable Infrastructure?
Pre-deploy configured
V
12
@rackngo #immutable
Traditional Deploy and Configure
System is configured in situ from
a least common denominator
baseline.
This can be “immutable-like”
under the right conditions.
We’ll come back to that...
Delivery Pipeline
Deployment
Code
Build
Integrate
Run
Configure
13
@rackngo #immutable
Shifting Configuration BEFORE Deployment
In our ideal delivery pipeline,
configuration is before
deployment.
Running systems are delivered as
a complete runnable unit for
deployment.
Delivery Pipeline
Deployment
Code
Build
Integrate
Run
Configure
14
@rackngo #immutable
Shifting Configuration BEFORE Deployment
In reality, it’s very hard to create a
distinct artifact for every running
instance; instead, we create
incremental versions.
So we do some initialization of the
reusable versioned instance.
Cloud init is the most commonly
known pattern for this.
Delivery Pipeline
Deployment
Code
Build
Integrate
Run
Configure
Initialize!
V
Cloud Native
Infrastructure
CNIbook.info
Justin Garrison & Kris Nova
“Infrastructure as software”
“Intent-Based Platform”
16
@rackngo #immutable
Which Enables… Delegating Operations
If you can make your artifacts
immutable then you can delegate
management of them to a
platform like Kubernetes.
Kubernetes does not configure
infrastructure. It maintains state
based on a manifest.
StateManager
(e.g.Kubernetes)
Code
Build
Integrate
Run
Configure
Delivery Pipeline
17
@rackngo #immutable
Which Enables… Delegating Operations
If you can make your artifacts
immutable then you can delegate
management of them to a
platform like Kubernetes.
Kubernetes does not configure
infrastructure. It maintains state
based on a manifest.
StateManager
(e.g.Kubernetes)
Code
Build
Integrate
Run
Configure
Delivery Pipeline
Kubernetes? WTF!
Is Immutable > K8s?
Immutable is a DevOps Pattern
<<< Shift Left & Create/Delete
19
@rackngo #immutable
The Problem
Immutability <<< Shifting Left
package
server
image
provision
server
initial
config
20
@rackngo #immutable
The Problem
Immutability <<< Shifting Left
patch 1
package
server
image
provision
server
initial
config
21
@rackngo #immutable
The Problem
Immutability <<< Shifting Left
patch 1 patch 2
package
server
image
provision
server
initial
config
22
@rackngo #immutable
The Problem
Immutability <<< Shifting Left
patch 1 patch 2
the madness doesn't
stop at patch 2!
package
server
image
provision
server
initial
config
23
@rackngo #immutable
The Problem
Immutability <<< Shifting Left
patch 1 patch 2
the madness doesn't
stop at patch 2!
What Madness?
● We have to maintain root access
● Patches assume system state
● Patches create dependency graphs
● Coordination? Should we halt work?
● Drift is inevitable!
package
server
image
provision
server
initial
config
24
@rackngo #immutable
The Problem
Immutability <<< Shifting Left
patch 1 patch 2
SAD !!package
server
image
provision
server
initial
config
25
@rackngo #immutable
Apply cloud and container lessons to our Bare Metal …
Immutability <<< Shifting Left
package
server
image
provision
server
initial
config
destroy!!
26
@rackngo #immutable
Apply cloud and container lessons to our Bare Metal …
Immutability <<< Shifting Left
destroy!!
destroy!!patch 1
package
server
image
provision
server
initial
config
package
server
image
provision
server
initial
config
27
@rackngo #immutable
Apply cloud and container lessons to our Bare Metal …
Immutability <<< Shifting Left
destroy!!
destroy!!patch 1
depatch 2
package
server
image
provision
server
initial
config
package
server
image
provision
server
initial
config
package
server
image
provision
server
initial
config
28
@rackngo #immutable
Apply cloud and container lessons to our Bare Metal …
Immutability <<< Shifting Left
destroy!!
destroy!!patch 1
patch N
depatch 2
package
server
image
provision
server
initial
config
package
server
image
provision
server
initial
config
package
server
image
provision
server
initial
config
package
server
image
provision
server
initial
config
Cloud like behavior …
30
Immutable Provisioning systems
treat infrastructure as a black box
Cloud-like Integration and Staged Workflow
Provisioning
System
Requested
State
Returned
State
REST
API
Event
Hook
31
Cloud-like Integration and Staged Workflow
Immutable Provisioning systems
treat infrastructure as a black box
Provision requests are for a system state
with optional parameters.
The intermediate changes to achieve the
state are not exposed to the requester.
Provisioning
System
Reset Join
Install
Config
Test
Requested
State
Returned
State
REST
API
Event
Hook
32
Cloud-like Integration and Staged Workflow
Immutable Provisioning systems
treat infrastructure as a black box
Provision requests are for a system state
with optional parameters.
The intermediate changes to achieve the
state are not exposed to the requester.
REMEMBER: Operators of the
provisioning system require high
transparency, stages and control.
Provisioning
System
Reset Join
Install
Config
Test
Requested
State
Returned
State
REST
API
Event
Hook
No hidden
operations!
Immutable Patterns
1) Baseline + Configuration
2) Live Boot + Configuration
3) Image Deploy
34
Provision
1: Baseline + Configuration
Benefit: Easiest to achieve with current tools, Safer than Patching
Challenge: Lots of Post-Configuration, Not Really “Immutable”, Slow
Instead of relying on patches, rely on starting from a pristine image
ResetBaseline Configure Run
Additional Reference https://thenewstack.io/immutable-hardware-ops-hygiene-security-efficiency/
35
Provision
1: Baseline + Configuration
Benefit: Easiest to achieve with current tools, Safer than Patching
Challenge: Lots of Post-Configuration, Not Really “Immutable”, Slow
Instead of relying on patches, rely on starting from a pristine image
ResetBaseline Configure Run
Additional Reference https://thenewstack.io/immutable-hardware-ops-hygiene-security-efficiency/
You must control ALL
of your dependency
chain !!!
36
Provision
1: Baseline + Configuration
Benefit: Easiest to achieve with current tools, Safer than Patching
Challenge: Lots of Post-Configuration, Not Really “Immutable”, Slow
Instead of relying on patches, rely on starting from a pristine image
ResetBaseline Configure Run
Additional Reference https://thenewstack.io/immutable-hardware-ops-hygiene-security-efficiency/
...every single (!!)
package from the
base OS on up ...
37
Benefit: Fast reset times, forces good behavior
Challenge: Provisioning becomes critical path, still have dependency graph
Like #1 but clean-up is simply a reboot. Favors smaller footprint O/S.
2: Live Boot + Configuration
Provision RebootBaseline Configure Run
38
How much of OS, Packages, and Application stack is in your Live Boot image
will determine how much work you have to do on dependency tracking and
version lock down.
2: Live Boot + Configuration
Provision RebootBaseline Configure Run
39
3: Image Deploy
Benefit: Shorter time to ready, highly controlled (“shift left”), rollback
Challenge: Harder to create and deploy images
Image is deployed from source instead of Baseline + Configure
Provision
Deploy
Image
Run Provision
Deploy
Image
Run
40
3: Image Deploy
Benefit: Shorter time to ready, highly controlled (“shift left”), rollback
Challenge: Harder to create and deploy images
Image is deployed from single artifact instead of Baseline + Configure
Provision
Deploy
Image
Run Provision
Deploy
Image
Run
Initialize!
V
Initialize!
V
41
So… Let’s talk Image Creation
Ideally in an automation build process.
You DO THE CONFIGURATION on a
live system (so you still need
configuration tools) and then capture
the image into a portable format.
Tools like Hashicorp Packer, Image
Builder, WBIC or raw images are used
to create source files (e.g. Root FS
Tarball, Disk Image, AMI, OVS).
42
So… Let’s talk Image Creation
Ideally in an automation build process.
You DO THE CONFIGURATION on a
live system (so you still need
configuration tools) and then capture
the image into a portable format.
Tools like Hashicorp Packer, Image
Builder, WBIC or raw images are used
to create source files (e.g. Root FS
Tarball, Disk Image, AMI, OVS).
That sounds like a lot
of work & really slow!
Yes, But…
It’s faster, safer & more scalable.
44
Build Pipeline
Immutable Demo
Prep: Image is pre-created from reference system.
Reference
System
45
Build Pipeline
Immutable Demo
Prep: Image is pre-created from reference system.
Reference
System
customize
46
Build Pipeline
Immutable Demo
Prep: Image is pre-created from reference system.
Reference
System
Image
Read
customize
47
Deploy Pipeline
Build Pipeline
Immutable Demo
Prep: Image is pre-created from reference system.
Stage: Boot RAM image and write image to disk(s)
Reference
System
Image
Target System
RAM BOOT
Write
Read
customize
48
Deploy Pipeline
Build Pipeline
Immutable Demo
Prep: Image is pre-created from reference system.
Stage: Boot RAM image and write image to disk(s)
Deploy: Reboot and run
Reference
System
Image
Target System
RAM BOOT
Target System
RUNNING
Write
Run
Read V
Reboot
Initialize!customize
49
Build Pipeline
Deploy Pipeline
Immutable Demo
Hopefully (!!): You're pushing your images through a
rigorous CI/CD pipeline before you Deploy !!
Reference
System
Image
Read
customize
50
Build Pipeline
Deploy Pipeline
Immutable Demo
Hopefully (!!): You're pushing your images through a
rigorous CI/CD pipeline before you Deploy !!
Reference
System
Image
Read
CI/CD Pipeline
TEST !!
51
Build Pipeline
Deploy Pipeline
Immutable Demo
Hopefully (!!): You're pushing your images through a
rigorous CI/CD pipeline before you Deploy !!
Reference
System
Image
Read
CI/CD Pipeline
TEST !!
FAIL
???
52
Build Pipeline
Deploy Pipeline
Immutable Demo
Hopefully (!!): You're pushing your images through a
rigorous CI/CD pipeline before you Deploy !!
Reference
System
Image
Target System
RAM BOOT
Write
Read
CI/CD Pipeline
TEST !!
Pass!
53
Build Pipeline
Deploy Pipeline
Immutable Demo
Hopefully (!!): You're pushing your images through a
rigorous CI/CD pipeline before you Deploy !!
Reference
System
Image
Target System
RAM BOOT
Target System
RUNNING
Write
Run
Read V
Reboot
Initialize!
CI/CD Pipeline
TEST !!
Pass!
Thank you!
Questions?
Interested in IMMUTABLE METAL?
It’s complicated, but we can get you there.
Start at http://portal.rackn.io
• Quickstart takes about 30 minutes
• Use your own hardware, VirtualBox or Packet.net account
– use “RACKN100” on Packet.net for credit

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Immutable Infrastructure & Rethinking Configuration - Interop 2019

  • 1. Immutable Infrastructure Rethinking Configuration in the Age of Easy Redeployment RackN, Inc May, 2019 Note: Graphics mainly from http://pexels.com <<< Shift Left <<< https://u.rackn.io/interop2019
  • 2. 2 RackN, Inc. and Digital Rebar Provision Your Presenter …. Software for Dell “CloudEdge” Hyperscale Hardware effort Learned many DevOps lessons in the field then created first OpenStack installer: “Crowbar” 1) Operations is inconsistent, manual and heterogenous 2) Foundational automation makes many problems go away 3) “Apply, Rinse, Repeat” (aka Immutable Infrastructure) Founding Member, Chief Solutions Architect, and Community Evangelist Shane Gibson
  • 3. 3 RackN, Inc. and Digital Rebar Provision Your Presenter …. Software for Dell “CloudEdge” Hyperscale Hardware effort Learned many DevOps lessons in the field then created first OpenStack installer: “Crowbar” 1) Operations is inconsistent, manual and heterogenous 2) Foundational automation makes many problems go away 3) “Apply, Rinse, Repeat” (aka Immutable Infrastructure) Founding Member, Chief Solutions Architect, and Community Evangelist Shane Gibson But … really, who cares? Let's get to the fun stuff …
  • 4. 4 @rackngo #immutable Storytime! “Self-Bootstrapping Kubernetes” Kubecon in Nov 2017 we created this demo Simple “immutable” Idea: 1) In Memory Boot Machines 2) Install Docker 3) Elect Leader 4) Run Kubeadm on Leader 5) Run Kubeadm on Remainder But….it’s shockingly hard to maintain. Dependencies breaks the installation And they are constantly changing.
  • 5. 5 @rackngo #immutable Storytime! “Self-Bootstrapping Kubernetes” So, while it’s pretty cool, it’s not “real” immutability Presentation & Demo https://youtu.be/OowxF6GqK4I sad!
  • 7. Why is configuration fragile? mutation V
  • 8. 8 @rackngo #immutable But… I 💜 Infrastructure as Code?! Sorry. Mutability adds complexity Traditional “build-in place” approaches ● Have hidden dependency graphs ● Create variation between environments ● Are harder to “lock down” due to config AND OMG… updates and patches are even harder ● Idempotent operations are difficult ● Roll backward is next to impossible! ● Creating indeterminate state
  • 9. 9 @rackngo #immutable Traditional “build-in place” approaches ● Have hidden dependency graphs ● Create variation between environments ● Are harder to “lock down” due to config AND OMG… updates and patches are even harder ● Idempotent operations are difficult ● Roll backward is impossible ● Creating indeterminate state But… I 💜 Infrastructure as code?! Sorry. Mutability adds complexity Let’s lock it down!
  • 10. What is Immutable Infrastructure?
  • 11. What is Immutable Infrastructure? Pre-deploy configured V
  • 12. 12 @rackngo #immutable Traditional Deploy and Configure System is configured in situ from a least common denominator baseline. This can be “immutable-like” under the right conditions. We’ll come back to that... Delivery Pipeline Deployment Code Build Integrate Run Configure
  • 13. 13 @rackngo #immutable Shifting Configuration BEFORE Deployment In our ideal delivery pipeline, configuration is before deployment. Running systems are delivered as a complete runnable unit for deployment. Delivery Pipeline Deployment Code Build Integrate Run Configure
  • 14. 14 @rackngo #immutable Shifting Configuration BEFORE Deployment In reality, it’s very hard to create a distinct artifact for every running instance; instead, we create incremental versions. So we do some initialization of the reusable versioned instance. Cloud init is the most commonly known pattern for this. Delivery Pipeline Deployment Code Build Integrate Run Configure Initialize! V
  • 15. Cloud Native Infrastructure CNIbook.info Justin Garrison & Kris Nova “Infrastructure as software” “Intent-Based Platform”
  • 16. 16 @rackngo #immutable Which Enables… Delegating Operations If you can make your artifacts immutable then you can delegate management of them to a platform like Kubernetes. Kubernetes does not configure infrastructure. It maintains state based on a manifest. StateManager (e.g.Kubernetes) Code Build Integrate Run Configure Delivery Pipeline
  • 17. 17 @rackngo #immutable Which Enables… Delegating Operations If you can make your artifacts immutable then you can delegate management of them to a platform like Kubernetes. Kubernetes does not configure infrastructure. It maintains state based on a manifest. StateManager (e.g.Kubernetes) Code Build Integrate Run Configure Delivery Pipeline Kubernetes? WTF! Is Immutable > K8s?
  • 18. Immutable is a DevOps Pattern <<< Shift Left & Create/Delete
  • 19. 19 @rackngo #immutable The Problem Immutability <<< Shifting Left package server image provision server initial config
  • 20. 20 @rackngo #immutable The Problem Immutability <<< Shifting Left patch 1 package server image provision server initial config
  • 21. 21 @rackngo #immutable The Problem Immutability <<< Shifting Left patch 1 patch 2 package server image provision server initial config
  • 22. 22 @rackngo #immutable The Problem Immutability <<< Shifting Left patch 1 patch 2 the madness doesn't stop at patch 2! package server image provision server initial config
  • 23. 23 @rackngo #immutable The Problem Immutability <<< Shifting Left patch 1 patch 2 the madness doesn't stop at patch 2! What Madness? ● We have to maintain root access ● Patches assume system state ● Patches create dependency graphs ● Coordination? Should we halt work? ● Drift is inevitable! package server image provision server initial config
  • 24. 24 @rackngo #immutable The Problem Immutability <<< Shifting Left patch 1 patch 2 SAD !!package server image provision server initial config
  • 25. 25 @rackngo #immutable Apply cloud and container lessons to our Bare Metal … Immutability <<< Shifting Left package server image provision server initial config destroy!!
  • 26. 26 @rackngo #immutable Apply cloud and container lessons to our Bare Metal … Immutability <<< Shifting Left destroy!! destroy!!patch 1 package server image provision server initial config package server image provision server initial config
  • 27. 27 @rackngo #immutable Apply cloud and container lessons to our Bare Metal … Immutability <<< Shifting Left destroy!! destroy!!patch 1 depatch 2 package server image provision server initial config package server image provision server initial config package server image provision server initial config
  • 28. 28 @rackngo #immutable Apply cloud and container lessons to our Bare Metal … Immutability <<< Shifting Left destroy!! destroy!!patch 1 patch N depatch 2 package server image provision server initial config package server image provision server initial config package server image provision server initial config package server image provision server initial config
  • 30. 30 Immutable Provisioning systems treat infrastructure as a black box Cloud-like Integration and Staged Workflow Provisioning System Requested State Returned State REST API Event Hook
  • 31. 31 Cloud-like Integration and Staged Workflow Immutable Provisioning systems treat infrastructure as a black box Provision requests are for a system state with optional parameters. The intermediate changes to achieve the state are not exposed to the requester. Provisioning System Reset Join Install Config Test Requested State Returned State REST API Event Hook
  • 32. 32 Cloud-like Integration and Staged Workflow Immutable Provisioning systems treat infrastructure as a black box Provision requests are for a system state with optional parameters. The intermediate changes to achieve the state are not exposed to the requester. REMEMBER: Operators of the provisioning system require high transparency, stages and control. Provisioning System Reset Join Install Config Test Requested State Returned State REST API Event Hook No hidden operations!
  • 33. Immutable Patterns 1) Baseline + Configuration 2) Live Boot + Configuration 3) Image Deploy
  • 34. 34 Provision 1: Baseline + Configuration Benefit: Easiest to achieve with current tools, Safer than Patching Challenge: Lots of Post-Configuration, Not Really “Immutable”, Slow Instead of relying on patches, rely on starting from a pristine image ResetBaseline Configure Run Additional Reference https://thenewstack.io/immutable-hardware-ops-hygiene-security-efficiency/
  • 35. 35 Provision 1: Baseline + Configuration Benefit: Easiest to achieve with current tools, Safer than Patching Challenge: Lots of Post-Configuration, Not Really “Immutable”, Slow Instead of relying on patches, rely on starting from a pristine image ResetBaseline Configure Run Additional Reference https://thenewstack.io/immutable-hardware-ops-hygiene-security-efficiency/ You must control ALL of your dependency chain !!!
  • 36. 36 Provision 1: Baseline + Configuration Benefit: Easiest to achieve with current tools, Safer than Patching Challenge: Lots of Post-Configuration, Not Really “Immutable”, Slow Instead of relying on patches, rely on starting from a pristine image ResetBaseline Configure Run Additional Reference https://thenewstack.io/immutable-hardware-ops-hygiene-security-efficiency/ ...every single (!!) package from the base OS on up ...
  • 37. 37 Benefit: Fast reset times, forces good behavior Challenge: Provisioning becomes critical path, still have dependency graph Like #1 but clean-up is simply a reboot. Favors smaller footprint O/S. 2: Live Boot + Configuration Provision RebootBaseline Configure Run
  • 38. 38 How much of OS, Packages, and Application stack is in your Live Boot image will determine how much work you have to do on dependency tracking and version lock down. 2: Live Boot + Configuration Provision RebootBaseline Configure Run
  • 39. 39 3: Image Deploy Benefit: Shorter time to ready, highly controlled (“shift left”), rollback Challenge: Harder to create and deploy images Image is deployed from source instead of Baseline + Configure Provision Deploy Image Run Provision Deploy Image Run
  • 40. 40 3: Image Deploy Benefit: Shorter time to ready, highly controlled (“shift left”), rollback Challenge: Harder to create and deploy images Image is deployed from single artifact instead of Baseline + Configure Provision Deploy Image Run Provision Deploy Image Run Initialize! V Initialize! V
  • 41. 41 So… Let’s talk Image Creation Ideally in an automation build process. You DO THE CONFIGURATION on a live system (so you still need configuration tools) and then capture the image into a portable format. Tools like Hashicorp Packer, Image Builder, WBIC or raw images are used to create source files (e.g. Root FS Tarball, Disk Image, AMI, OVS).
  • 42. 42 So… Let’s talk Image Creation Ideally in an automation build process. You DO THE CONFIGURATION on a live system (so you still need configuration tools) and then capture the image into a portable format. Tools like Hashicorp Packer, Image Builder, WBIC or raw images are used to create source files (e.g. Root FS Tarball, Disk Image, AMI, OVS). That sounds like a lot of work & really slow!
  • 43. Yes, But… It’s faster, safer & more scalable.
  • 44. 44 Build Pipeline Immutable Demo Prep: Image is pre-created from reference system. Reference System
  • 45. 45 Build Pipeline Immutable Demo Prep: Image is pre-created from reference system. Reference System customize
  • 46. 46 Build Pipeline Immutable Demo Prep: Image is pre-created from reference system. Reference System Image Read customize
  • 47. 47 Deploy Pipeline Build Pipeline Immutable Demo Prep: Image is pre-created from reference system. Stage: Boot RAM image and write image to disk(s) Reference System Image Target System RAM BOOT Write Read customize
  • 48. 48 Deploy Pipeline Build Pipeline Immutable Demo Prep: Image is pre-created from reference system. Stage: Boot RAM image and write image to disk(s) Deploy: Reboot and run Reference System Image Target System RAM BOOT Target System RUNNING Write Run Read V Reboot Initialize!customize
  • 49. 49 Build Pipeline Deploy Pipeline Immutable Demo Hopefully (!!): You're pushing your images through a rigorous CI/CD pipeline before you Deploy !! Reference System Image Read customize
  • 50. 50 Build Pipeline Deploy Pipeline Immutable Demo Hopefully (!!): You're pushing your images through a rigorous CI/CD pipeline before you Deploy !! Reference System Image Read CI/CD Pipeline TEST !!
  • 51. 51 Build Pipeline Deploy Pipeline Immutable Demo Hopefully (!!): You're pushing your images through a rigorous CI/CD pipeline before you Deploy !! Reference System Image Read CI/CD Pipeline TEST !! FAIL ???
  • 52. 52 Build Pipeline Deploy Pipeline Immutable Demo Hopefully (!!): You're pushing your images through a rigorous CI/CD pipeline before you Deploy !! Reference System Image Target System RAM BOOT Write Read CI/CD Pipeline TEST !! Pass!
  • 53. 53 Build Pipeline Deploy Pipeline Immutable Demo Hopefully (!!): You're pushing your images through a rigorous CI/CD pipeline before you Deploy !! Reference System Image Target System RAM BOOT Target System RUNNING Write Run Read V Reboot Initialize! CI/CD Pipeline TEST !! Pass!
  • 54. Thank you! Questions? Interested in IMMUTABLE METAL? It’s complicated, but we can get you there. Start at http://portal.rackn.io • Quickstart takes about 30 minutes • Use your own hardware, VirtualBox or Packet.net account – use “RACKN100” on Packet.net for credit