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♥Deformation – the breaking, tilting, and
folding of crustal rock due to crustal
movement.
Alfred Wegener (1880-1930)
• He claimed that
Earth used to have
only one supergiant
and land mass where
all continents came
from.
• He called this massive land
mass Pangaea
• surrounded by an ocean
mass called Panthalassa
2 giant continents
1. Laurasia - comprised the northern
continents of today’s times.
2. Gondwanaland - comprised the
continents in the present southern
hemisphere.
Eduard Suess (1831-1914)
• Recognized the existence of
Gondwanaland
• Known to have proposed the
existence of Tethys Sea, the only
recognized body of water during
those ancient times.
Evidence to
Continental Drift
theory
a.Glossopteris
• A Late Paleozoic plant found in rocks on all five
continents.
b.Mesosaurus
• A freshwater carnivorous reptile;
• Fossils found in Permian-aged rocks in Brazil and Africa
c.Lystrosaurus
• Early Triassic terrestrial mammal-like reptile
• About 1 meter long with two long teeth protruding from the upper jaw
• Fossils found in Africa, India, and Antarctica
d.Cynognathus
• Early Triassic terrestrial mammal-like reptile
• About 1 meter in length
• Fossils found in Brazil and Africa
Tillites
♥are glacial deposits from rock
strata in areas that were once
covered with snow.
♥These deposits found in
South America, Africa,
Madagascar, Arabia, India,
Antarctica and Australia.
COAL
♥Is a fossil fuel that
originated from the
chemically altered remains
of prehistoric vegetation.
COAL
♥Usually found in tropical
areas because the climate
is warm and ideal for
propagation of organism.
♥Glossopteris proliferated in
certain areas of each
continent.
♥North Pole and Antarctica
♥The similarity of rock layers found in
mountains that are on the opposite
sides of the Atlantic Ocean.
♥The Appalachian Mountains, Scandes
Mountains of Norway and Caledonian
Mountains of Scotland were thought
to be one mountain rage in Pangaea.
♥The rock types found in Brazil,
India, South Africa and
Antarctica seem to have
similar layers and sequence
♥Glossopteris fossils were
found in the rock of each
continent.
“
Objectives
 Find clues to solve a problem; and
 Recognize how the continental Drift
Theory is developed
1. Do this activity in a group of
five/six.
2. Obtain a set of torn
newspaper/printed page from your
teacher.
3. Try to fit the pieces together.
Questions
1. What features of newspaper/printed page
helped you to connect the pieces perfectly?
2. How do lines of prints or text in the
newspaper/printed page help you to confirm
that you have reassembled the
newspaper/printed page?
Arthur Holmes (1890-1965)
• Suggested the idea of thermal convection
as the driving force for the movement of
the continents.
• Suggested that the thermal convection
works like a “conveyor belt” where the
pressure that goes up could break apart a
continent.
• While the basis for the movement
of continents progresses,
geologists started to use a more
precise term to refer the moving
piece of crust as “plate” because
it is believed that continents are
not the only ones moving.
7 major plates
1. Pacific Plate
2. Eurasian Plate
3. North American
Plate
4. South American
Plate
5. Indo-Australian
Plate
6. Antarctic Plate
7. African Plate
3 Major Types of Plate
Boundaries:
a.Divergent Plate Boundaries
b.Convergent Plate Boundaries
c.Transform Plate Boundaries
Tectonic movement of the
crust
Folding/faulting of the Earth’s
A. FOLDING
Is a type of earth movement
resulting from the compression
of rock strata (rock layers).
A. FOLDING
Bending, curving, crumpling,
or buckling of rocks into folds
is usually visible on rock
strata.
B. FAULTING
Type of earth movement that
forms cracks or fractures on
the rocks.
B. FAULTING
The movements is caused by
low temperatures that make
rocks brittle.
Instead of folding, rocks break
into large chunks.
PARTS OF FAULT
Hanging Wall
Which is a block of rock
above the fault line or
above the crack of the
rock.
PARTS OF FAULT
Footwall
Which is the block of rock
below the fault line.
TYPES OF FAULT
NORMAL FAULT
REVERSE FAULT or THRUST
FAULT
1. Normal Fault – fault caused by tension
stress that moves the hanging wall down
relative to the foot wall.
2. Reverse Fault – fault caused by
compression forces where the hanging
wall will move up relative to the foot wall.
Thrust Fault – is formed when compression
causes the hanging wall to slide over the
foot wall. (almost horizontal movement)
3. Strike-slip Fault - the two blocks move either to
the left or to the right relative to one another.
Strike-slip faults are associated with crustal
shear.
subduction
Rift valley
Harold Hess (1895-1982)
and
Robert Dietz (1914-1995)
They coined the term
“seafloor spreading”
Seafloor Spreading
Is a continuous process where
tensional forces on both sides of
the plates cause them to constantly
move apart.
Happens along Mid-oceanic ridges.
Ii. d. deformation of the crust
Ii. d. deformation of the crust

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Ii. d. deformation of the crust

  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3. ♥Deformation – the breaking, tilting, and folding of crustal rock due to crustal movement.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7. Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) • He claimed that Earth used to have only one supergiant and land mass where all continents came from.
  • 8. • He called this massive land mass Pangaea • surrounded by an ocean mass called Panthalassa
  • 9.
  • 10. 2 giant continents 1. Laurasia - comprised the northern continents of today’s times. 2. Gondwanaland - comprised the continents in the present southern hemisphere.
  • 11. Eduard Suess (1831-1914) • Recognized the existence of Gondwanaland • Known to have proposed the existence of Tethys Sea, the only recognized body of water during those ancient times.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15. a.Glossopteris • A Late Paleozoic plant found in rocks on all five continents.
  • 16. b.Mesosaurus • A freshwater carnivorous reptile; • Fossils found in Permian-aged rocks in Brazil and Africa
  • 17. c.Lystrosaurus • Early Triassic terrestrial mammal-like reptile • About 1 meter long with two long teeth protruding from the upper jaw • Fossils found in Africa, India, and Antarctica
  • 18. d.Cynognathus • Early Triassic terrestrial mammal-like reptile • About 1 meter in length • Fossils found in Brazil and Africa
  • 19.
  • 20. Tillites ♥are glacial deposits from rock strata in areas that were once covered with snow.
  • 21.
  • 22. ♥These deposits found in South America, Africa, Madagascar, Arabia, India, Antarctica and Australia.
  • 23.
  • 24. COAL ♥Is a fossil fuel that originated from the chemically altered remains of prehistoric vegetation.
  • 25. COAL ♥Usually found in tropical areas because the climate is warm and ideal for propagation of organism.
  • 26. ♥Glossopteris proliferated in certain areas of each continent. ♥North Pole and Antarctica
  • 27.
  • 28. ♥The similarity of rock layers found in mountains that are on the opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean. ♥The Appalachian Mountains, Scandes Mountains of Norway and Caledonian Mountains of Scotland were thought to be one mountain rage in Pangaea.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31. ♥The rock types found in Brazil, India, South Africa and Antarctica seem to have similar layers and sequence ♥Glossopteris fossils were found in the rock of each continent.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34. “ Objectives  Find clues to solve a problem; and  Recognize how the continental Drift Theory is developed
  • 35.
  • 36. 1. Do this activity in a group of five/six. 2. Obtain a set of torn newspaper/printed page from your teacher. 3. Try to fit the pieces together.
  • 37. Questions 1. What features of newspaper/printed page helped you to connect the pieces perfectly? 2. How do lines of prints or text in the newspaper/printed page help you to confirm that you have reassembled the newspaper/printed page?
  • 38.
  • 39. Arthur Holmes (1890-1965) • Suggested the idea of thermal convection as the driving force for the movement of the continents. • Suggested that the thermal convection works like a “conveyor belt” where the pressure that goes up could break apart a continent.
  • 40. • While the basis for the movement of continents progresses, geologists started to use a more precise term to refer the moving piece of crust as “plate” because it is believed that continents are not the only ones moving.
  • 41. 7 major plates 1. Pacific Plate 2. Eurasian Plate 3. North American Plate 4. South American Plate 5. Indo-Australian Plate 6. Antarctic Plate 7. African Plate
  • 42.
  • 43. 3 Major Types of Plate Boundaries: a.Divergent Plate Boundaries b.Convergent Plate Boundaries c.Transform Plate Boundaries
  • 44.
  • 45. Tectonic movement of the crust Folding/faulting of the Earth’s
  • 46. A. FOLDING Is a type of earth movement resulting from the compression of rock strata (rock layers).
  • 47. A. FOLDING Bending, curving, crumpling, or buckling of rocks into folds is usually visible on rock strata.
  • 48.
  • 49. B. FAULTING Type of earth movement that forms cracks or fractures on the rocks.
  • 50. B. FAULTING The movements is caused by low temperatures that make rocks brittle. Instead of folding, rocks break into large chunks.
  • 51. PARTS OF FAULT Hanging Wall Which is a block of rock above the fault line or above the crack of the rock.
  • 52. PARTS OF FAULT Footwall Which is the block of rock below the fault line.
  • 53. TYPES OF FAULT NORMAL FAULT REVERSE FAULT or THRUST FAULT
  • 54. 1. Normal Fault – fault caused by tension stress that moves the hanging wall down relative to the foot wall.
  • 55. 2. Reverse Fault – fault caused by compression forces where the hanging wall will move up relative to the foot wall.
  • 56. Thrust Fault – is formed when compression causes the hanging wall to slide over the foot wall. (almost horizontal movement)
  • 57. 3. Strike-slip Fault - the two blocks move either to the left or to the right relative to one another. Strike-slip faults are associated with crustal shear.
  • 59.
  • 60.
  • 61.
  • 62. Harold Hess (1895-1982) and Robert Dietz (1914-1995) They coined the term “seafloor spreading”
  • 63. Seafloor Spreading Is a continuous process where tensional forces on both sides of the plates cause them to constantly move apart. Happens along Mid-oceanic ridges.