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AERIAL IMAGERY 
SERVICE OVERVIEW 
PRECISE INFORMATION ADVANCING PRECISION AGRICULTURE
Current Market Sectors 
• Agriculture: Information for crop analysis 
• Defense: IED detection/counter narcotics 
Near-Term Additional Markets 
• Geology 
• Natural recourses 
• Environmental assessment 
• Forestry 
• Aquaculture/mariculture 
2
ARC’S TECHNOLOGY 
• Visible / near infrared 
& thermal 
• 151 spectral bands 
• Uses full spectrum of 
information
Why Hyperspectral 
4
Imagery Today - Multispectral 
5 
1 
0.45 
to 
0.52 
0.8 
0.7 
0.6 
0.5 
0.4 
0.3 
0.2 
0.1 
0 
0.40 
0.47 
0.53 
0.59 
0.64 
0.71 
0.78 
0.99 
1.15 
1.30 
1.45 
1.62 
1.87 
2.17 
longitud de onda (micrones) 
reflectancia 
Visible Reflected infrared 
Near infrared Short wave 
infrared 
Leaf 
pigments 
Leaf cell 
structure 
Water 
content 
Region of 
Spectrum 
Wavelength (microns) 
Reflectance 
2 
0.52 
To 
0.60 
3 
0.63 
To 
0.69 
4 
0.79 
To 
0.90 
5 
1.55 
to 
1.75 
7 
2.08 
To 
2.35 
Band 3 Band 1 Band 2 Band 4 
• Current analysis based on only 4 bands 
• Data is normalized 
• Variability Limited 
• Ratio of 2 bands to create NDVI 
• Relative Index 
Collection to Analysis
Hyperspectral Imagery “The Next Generation” 
6 
In real life, plants are much more complicated, 
and every soil difference or farming decision 
shows up in the spectral details 
Collection to Analysis 
Every color in the AgVu image 
shows real information: 
• Crop Health 
• Effect of Nitrogen/ Sulfur 
• Invasive Species 
• From 151 Spectral Bands 
We pick this up 
100s of bands in hyperspectral images show more detail 
by splitting the spectrum into smaller pieces than multispectral 
The Next Generation is Now
MMOORREE IINNFFOORRMMAATTIIOONN,, BBEETTTTEERR DDEECCIISSIIOONNSS 
44 bbaannddss:: WWhhaatt ddoo yyoouu sseeee?? 
7
MMOORREE IINNFFOORRMMAATTIIOONN,, BBEETTTTEERR DDEECCIISSIIOONNSS 
77 bbaannddss:: WWhhaatt ddoo yyoouu sseeee?? 
8
MORE INFORMATION, BETTER DECISIONS 
115511 bbaannddss:: WWhhaatt ddoo yyoouu sseeee?? 
9
10 
How the Techniques Compare 
Multispectral 
NDVI RGB
11 
How the Techniques Compare 
Hyperspectral Imaging—How to See It Early 
The most subtle distinctions are 
picked out over the entire 
vegetative region—allowing images 
to show farmers crop health and 
stress earlier than ever before
More Information, Better Decisions 
50X as much information means 
subtle issues are evident earlier 
12 
True Color NDVI AgVu 
Decisions are limited by the amount of information available 
ARC’s hyperspectral sensor removes this limitation
More Information, Better Decisions 
Crop Varieties Crop Growth Inhibitors 
13 
SSooyybbeeaannss 
What Hybrid is Planted? 
Waterway - grass 
Farmstead 
Terraces 
Grass Waterway 
Farmstead 
Line 
OOlldd ffeennccee lliinnee 
Corn - 2 Hybrids 
Alternate 16 rows 
Corn - different hybrid 
Beans 
RR 
STS 
Conventional 
Corn 
Soybeans 
Different 
Varieties 
VVaarr II 
VVaarr IIII 
VVaarr IIIIII 
VVaarr IIVV 
VVaarr 33 
VVaarr 22 VVaarr 33 
VVaarr 44 
Corn - different hybrid 
CRP - (10 year reserve) 
grass with areas mowed (dark) 
for thistle control 
30 in row soybeans 
Corn 
Roundup Ready 
STS 
Conventional 
VVaarr 22 
VVaarr 11 
VVaarr 11 
VVaarr 22 
VVaarr 44
Efficient Monitoring 
AgVu identifies weed pressure early in the season, saving the grower lost crop and 
June 25 July 10 Aug 14 Sep 11 Sep 25 
14 
lost yield by allowing them to treat the problem early. 
Provides information for improving yields, reducing costs, and increasing sales
Operations 
15
How We Schedule 
100 
Example Timing of Imagery Capture 
Tasseling 
“Charter” flights 
• Customer monitors for growth stages 
• Increased infrastructure 
• Loss of efficiency 
• Scheduling harder for customers 
“Commercial” flights 
• Automatic monitoring of growth stages 
• Less infrastructure 
• High efficiency 
• Scheduling easy for customers 
0 
Cumulative Temperature/GDDs 
Harvest 
Crop Growth Status (%) 
Bare soil 
V5-V10 
Fertility 
Requirements 
Pre-senescence 
Yield predictions 
Emergence 
16
Order 
Submission 
Back Office Work Flow 
Order 
Validation 
Mission 
Planning 
Flight 
Scheduling 
Flight Plan 
Delivery 
1 2 3 4 5 
 Customer provided 
shp files 
 Online interface 
 Chose acquisition 
window 
 Imagery 
specifications 
 Validate shp files 
 Validate all customer 
information 
 Operations plans 
 Determine Regions 
of Interest (ROI) 
 Compile 
Operations/flight 
plans 
 Provide flight plans 
and timing of flights 
 Ensure pilot 
availability 
Raw Images 
Captured 
Image 
Delivery 
QA/QC 
Image 
Processing 
Customer 
Access 
10 9 8 7 6 
 Via web interface 
 Export/Import to 
precision ag software 
 True Color 
 Analysis map (AgVu) 
 Push to web interface 
 Check for 
inconsistencies 
 Shadows 
 Reprocess 
 ARC process via 
proprietary algorithm 
 Mosaic and 
orthorectification 
 Clipped to boundary 
 Data sent from 
field site to ARC 
server 
24 hours 24 hours 
7 Day Flight Range 
12 hours 48 Hours 
17 
Order Entry to Delivery
Hyperspectral Imagery For Production Agriculture

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Hyperspectral Imagery For Production Agriculture

  • 1. AERIAL IMAGERY SERVICE OVERVIEW PRECISE INFORMATION ADVANCING PRECISION AGRICULTURE
  • 2. Current Market Sectors • Agriculture: Information for crop analysis • Defense: IED detection/counter narcotics Near-Term Additional Markets • Geology • Natural recourses • Environmental assessment • Forestry • Aquaculture/mariculture 2
  • 3. ARC’S TECHNOLOGY • Visible / near infrared & thermal • 151 spectral bands • Uses full spectrum of information
  • 5. Imagery Today - Multispectral 5 1 0.45 to 0.52 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.40 0.47 0.53 0.59 0.64 0.71 0.78 0.99 1.15 1.30 1.45 1.62 1.87 2.17 longitud de onda (micrones) reflectancia Visible Reflected infrared Near infrared Short wave infrared Leaf pigments Leaf cell structure Water content Region of Spectrum Wavelength (microns) Reflectance 2 0.52 To 0.60 3 0.63 To 0.69 4 0.79 To 0.90 5 1.55 to 1.75 7 2.08 To 2.35 Band 3 Band 1 Band 2 Band 4 • Current analysis based on only 4 bands • Data is normalized • Variability Limited • Ratio of 2 bands to create NDVI • Relative Index Collection to Analysis
  • 6. Hyperspectral Imagery “The Next Generation” 6 In real life, plants are much more complicated, and every soil difference or farming decision shows up in the spectral details Collection to Analysis Every color in the AgVu image shows real information: • Crop Health • Effect of Nitrogen/ Sulfur • Invasive Species • From 151 Spectral Bands We pick this up 100s of bands in hyperspectral images show more detail by splitting the spectrum into smaller pieces than multispectral The Next Generation is Now
  • 7. MMOORREE IINNFFOORRMMAATTIIOONN,, BBEETTTTEERR DDEECCIISSIIOONNSS 44 bbaannddss:: WWhhaatt ddoo yyoouu sseeee?? 7
  • 8. MMOORREE IINNFFOORRMMAATTIIOONN,, BBEETTTTEERR DDEECCIISSIIOONNSS 77 bbaannddss:: WWhhaatt ddoo yyoouu sseeee?? 8
  • 9. MORE INFORMATION, BETTER DECISIONS 115511 bbaannddss:: WWhhaatt ddoo yyoouu sseeee?? 9
  • 10. 10 How the Techniques Compare Multispectral NDVI RGB
  • 11. 11 How the Techniques Compare Hyperspectral Imaging—How to See It Early The most subtle distinctions are picked out over the entire vegetative region—allowing images to show farmers crop health and stress earlier than ever before
  • 12. More Information, Better Decisions 50X as much information means subtle issues are evident earlier 12 True Color NDVI AgVu Decisions are limited by the amount of information available ARC’s hyperspectral sensor removes this limitation
  • 13. More Information, Better Decisions Crop Varieties Crop Growth Inhibitors 13 SSooyybbeeaannss What Hybrid is Planted? Waterway - grass Farmstead Terraces Grass Waterway Farmstead Line OOlldd ffeennccee lliinnee Corn - 2 Hybrids Alternate 16 rows Corn - different hybrid Beans RR STS Conventional Corn Soybeans Different Varieties VVaarr II VVaarr IIII VVaarr IIIIII VVaarr IIVV VVaarr 33 VVaarr 22 VVaarr 33 VVaarr 44 Corn - different hybrid CRP - (10 year reserve) grass with areas mowed (dark) for thistle control 30 in row soybeans Corn Roundup Ready STS Conventional VVaarr 22 VVaarr 11 VVaarr 11 VVaarr 22 VVaarr 44
  • 14. Efficient Monitoring AgVu identifies weed pressure early in the season, saving the grower lost crop and June 25 July 10 Aug 14 Sep 11 Sep 25 14 lost yield by allowing them to treat the problem early. Provides information for improving yields, reducing costs, and increasing sales
  • 16. How We Schedule 100 Example Timing of Imagery Capture Tasseling “Charter” flights • Customer monitors for growth stages • Increased infrastructure • Loss of efficiency • Scheduling harder for customers “Commercial” flights • Automatic monitoring of growth stages • Less infrastructure • High efficiency • Scheduling easy for customers 0 Cumulative Temperature/GDDs Harvest Crop Growth Status (%) Bare soil V5-V10 Fertility Requirements Pre-senescence Yield predictions Emergence 16
  • 17. Order Submission Back Office Work Flow Order Validation Mission Planning Flight Scheduling Flight Plan Delivery 1 2 3 4 5  Customer provided shp files  Online interface  Chose acquisition window  Imagery specifications  Validate shp files  Validate all customer information  Operations plans  Determine Regions of Interest (ROI)  Compile Operations/flight plans  Provide flight plans and timing of flights  Ensure pilot availability Raw Images Captured Image Delivery QA/QC Image Processing Customer Access 10 9 8 7 6  Via web interface  Export/Import to precision ag software  True Color  Analysis map (AgVu)  Push to web interface  Check for inconsistencies  Shadows  Reprocess  ARC process via proprietary algorithm  Mosaic and orthorectification  Clipped to boundary  Data sent from field site to ARC server 24 hours 24 hours 7 Day Flight Range 12 hours 48 Hours 17 Order Entry to Delivery