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This handbook is invaluable
to unfold the chemical value
chain in case you were a
process designing chemical
engineer, or an entrepreneur
pursuing an opportunity in
the chemical market.
Hint : chemical price
analysis requires
comprehensive
understanding of the
production process,
precursors and products
along the value chain.
The “Handbook for Chemical Engineers and
Entrepreneurs” is part of Chemiprobe project that aims to
visualize the chemical value chain and turn chemical
engineers into «chempreneurs» pursuing clear
opportunities in commodities and fine chemicals.
Order Now : (paperback) → https://amz.run/5A69
https://www.chemiprobe.com
How To Use This Handbook
This handbook does not requires you to start at the top of
the table of contents and linearly work your way through
to the end; although that may be essential to gain
perspective about commodity chemicals including
petrochemicals, inorganics, and bio-refinery chemicals.
The chemical finder can be used to find a specific
chemical, very much like most indexes in which chemicals
are listed in alphabetical order. On the other hand, the
table of contents lists chemicals with reference to position
along the chemical value chain that is further illustrated
using diagrams. For each chemical in this handbook, you
will find :
- common name, synonyms, chemical structure
- phrases describing appearance and odor (25 °C , atm)
- relative density, melting point, and boiling point
- safety diamond (NFPA 704 for additional notes)
- applications, submarkets, color code
- industrial synthetic route (reaction)
- process description and simplified flow diagrams
commodity chemical production
direct use (no reaction)
formulation and mixing use (no reaction)
fuel, energy , flue gas treatment , heat transfer fluids
plastics and resins
synthetic rubber
polymeric foam , ploymeric fiber
fine chemical synthesis (general)
fine chemical synthesis (pharmaceuticals)
fine chemical synthesis (agrochemicals-pesticides)
production (agrochemicals-fertilizer)
Process Description
Production is based on catalytic hydrogenation of
anthraquinones such as 2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone over
heterogenous catalyst composed of nickel and palladium
oxides on support material, thus forming the corresponding
hydroquinone that undergoes oxidation forming hydrogen
peroxide.
The hydrogenation reaction is carried out in the liquid phase -
using ether as solvent- inside packed bed reactor. Optimum
temperature range (40 ºC – 70 ºC) and pressure in the range of
(2 bar – 5 bar). Excess hydrogen is vented and recycled. After
leaving the reactor, the effluent is further cooled, filtered, and
sent to holding tank.
The oxidation reaction is also carried out in the liquid phase -
using the holding tank effluent- inside packed bed reactor.
Optimum temperature range (30 ºC – 60 ºC) and pressure in
the atmospheric range. Excess oxygen is vented and recycled.
After leaving the reactor, crude hydrogen peroxide is captured
using water wash and sent to phase separator.
hydrogen peroxide
Appearance 25 °C , atm
colorless corrosive liquid
-- -- odorless
Relative Density 1.44 * (H2O = 1)
Melting Point - 004
Boiling Point - 149
Flash Point - 0--
Synonyms --
intermediate organic peroxides
bleaching agent textiles
initiator (catalyst) plastics and resins
anti-septic pharmaceuticals
water treatment industrial operations
The organic phase -containing anthraquinone and solvent- is
further dehydrated and recycled to the hydrogenation reactor.
The aqueous phase is then separated through distillation, not
difficult because of the comparatively distinctive boiling
points between water and hydrogen peroxide.
*decomposes after melting
Process Description
Production is based on peroxidizng of benzoyl chloride. the
reaction is carried out in the liquid phase -using ether as
solvent- inside stirred tank reactor in which aqueous sodium
hydroxide -used as catalyst- and hydrogen peroxide are mixed
inside the reactor, while benzoyl chloride is proportioned to
maintain temperature control within range (4 ºC – 7 ºC) and
pressure in the atmospheric range.
After leaving the reactor, the crude product is further separated
through extraction stages and mixed with solvent for safe
handling.
benzoyl peroxide
Appearance 25 °C , atm
white crystalline solid
-- flammable odorless
Relative Density 1.30 * (H2O = 1)
Melting Point* - 103
Boiling Point - 0--
Flash Point - 080
Synonyms dibenzoyl peroxide
initiator (catalyst) plastics and resins
active-ingredient pharmaceuticals
Process Description
Production is based on thermal decomposition of tert-butyl
hydroperoxide. The reaction is carried out inside tubular
reactor or packed bed reactor. Optimum temperature range
(130 ºC – 140 ºC) and pressure in the range of (4 bar – 9 bar).
Additional thermal decomposition forms tert-butyl alcohol that
converts further into i-butylene.
After leaving the reactor, the crude product is further separated
through extraction stages and mixed with solvent for safe
handling.
di-tert-butyl peroxide
Appearance 25 °C , atm
colorless flammable liquid
faint ethereal odor
Relative Density 0.80 * (H2O = 1)
Melting Point - 029
Boiling Point - 111
Flash Point - 018
Synonyms tert-butyl peroxide
initiator (catalyst) plastics and resins
fuel oxygenate additive fuels and additives
Hydrogen Peroxide and Organic Peroxides : industrial synthetic routes

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Hydrogen Peroxide and Organic Peroxides : industrial synthetic routes

  • 1. This handbook is invaluable to unfold the chemical value chain in case you were a process designing chemical engineer, or an entrepreneur pursuing an opportunity in the chemical market. Hint : chemical price analysis requires comprehensive understanding of the production process, precursors and products along the value chain. The “Handbook for Chemical Engineers and Entrepreneurs” is part of Chemiprobe project that aims to visualize the chemical value chain and turn chemical engineers into «chempreneurs» pursuing clear opportunities in commodities and fine chemicals. Order Now : (paperback) → https://amz.run/5A69 https://www.chemiprobe.com
  • 2. How To Use This Handbook This handbook does not requires you to start at the top of the table of contents and linearly work your way through to the end; although that may be essential to gain perspective about commodity chemicals including petrochemicals, inorganics, and bio-refinery chemicals. The chemical finder can be used to find a specific chemical, very much like most indexes in which chemicals are listed in alphabetical order. On the other hand, the table of contents lists chemicals with reference to position along the chemical value chain that is further illustrated using diagrams. For each chemical in this handbook, you will find : - common name, synonyms, chemical structure - phrases describing appearance and odor (25 °C , atm) - relative density, melting point, and boiling point - safety diamond (NFPA 704 for additional notes) - applications, submarkets, color code - industrial synthetic route (reaction) - process description and simplified flow diagrams commodity chemical production direct use (no reaction) formulation and mixing use (no reaction) fuel, energy , flue gas treatment , heat transfer fluids plastics and resins synthetic rubber polymeric foam , ploymeric fiber fine chemical synthesis (general) fine chemical synthesis (pharmaceuticals) fine chemical synthesis (agrochemicals-pesticides) production (agrochemicals-fertilizer)
  • 3. Process Description Production is based on catalytic hydrogenation of anthraquinones such as 2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone over heterogenous catalyst composed of nickel and palladium oxides on support material, thus forming the corresponding hydroquinone that undergoes oxidation forming hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogenation reaction is carried out in the liquid phase - using ether as solvent- inside packed bed reactor. Optimum temperature range (40 ºC – 70 ºC) and pressure in the range of (2 bar – 5 bar). Excess hydrogen is vented and recycled. After leaving the reactor, the effluent is further cooled, filtered, and sent to holding tank. The oxidation reaction is also carried out in the liquid phase - using the holding tank effluent- inside packed bed reactor. Optimum temperature range (30 ºC – 60 ºC) and pressure in the atmospheric range. Excess oxygen is vented and recycled. After leaving the reactor, crude hydrogen peroxide is captured using water wash and sent to phase separator. hydrogen peroxide Appearance 25 °C , atm colorless corrosive liquid -- -- odorless Relative Density 1.44 * (H2O = 1) Melting Point - 004 Boiling Point - 149 Flash Point - 0-- Synonyms -- intermediate organic peroxides bleaching agent textiles initiator (catalyst) plastics and resins anti-septic pharmaceuticals water treatment industrial operations
  • 4. The organic phase -containing anthraquinone and solvent- is further dehydrated and recycled to the hydrogenation reactor. The aqueous phase is then separated through distillation, not difficult because of the comparatively distinctive boiling points between water and hydrogen peroxide.
  • 5.
  • 6. *decomposes after melting Process Description Production is based on peroxidizng of benzoyl chloride. the reaction is carried out in the liquid phase -using ether as solvent- inside stirred tank reactor in which aqueous sodium hydroxide -used as catalyst- and hydrogen peroxide are mixed inside the reactor, while benzoyl chloride is proportioned to maintain temperature control within range (4 ºC – 7 ºC) and pressure in the atmospheric range. After leaving the reactor, the crude product is further separated through extraction stages and mixed with solvent for safe handling. benzoyl peroxide Appearance 25 °C , atm white crystalline solid -- flammable odorless Relative Density 1.30 * (H2O = 1) Melting Point* - 103 Boiling Point - 0-- Flash Point - 080 Synonyms dibenzoyl peroxide initiator (catalyst) plastics and resins active-ingredient pharmaceuticals
  • 7. Process Description Production is based on thermal decomposition of tert-butyl hydroperoxide. The reaction is carried out inside tubular reactor or packed bed reactor. Optimum temperature range (130 ºC – 140 ºC) and pressure in the range of (4 bar – 9 bar). Additional thermal decomposition forms tert-butyl alcohol that converts further into i-butylene. After leaving the reactor, the crude product is further separated through extraction stages and mixed with solvent for safe handling. di-tert-butyl peroxide Appearance 25 °C , atm colorless flammable liquid faint ethereal odor Relative Density 0.80 * (H2O = 1) Melting Point - 029 Boiling Point - 111 Flash Point - 018 Synonyms tert-butyl peroxide initiator (catalyst) plastics and resins fuel oxygenate additive fuels and additives