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HYDROELECTRIC
       POWER
SUBMITTED BY      SUBMITTED TO
ANURADHA LAKRA    SIR ABHIMANYU MAHAPATRA
0901106087        SIR RANJAN KUMAR JENA
ELECTRICAL ENGG
HYDROELECTRIC POWER
WHAT IS HYDROELECTRIC POWER?

• Hydro means “water”.So hydro power is water power and
  hydroelectric power is electricity generated using water power.
• Potential energy converted to kinectic energy which is changed to
  mechanical energy in a power plant and then turned into electrical
  energy.
• In an impoundment facility, water is stored in dam.In a dam is a water
  intake.This is a narrow opening to a tunnel called penstock.
HISTORY OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER
• - Nearly 2000 years ago the Greeks used water wheels to grind wheat into flour
• - In the 1700's, hydropower was broadly used for milling of lumber and grain and
  for pumping irrigation water
• - Appleton, Wisconsin became the first operational hydroelectric generating
  station in the United States, in 1882, producing 12.5 kilowatts (kW) of power
• - The total electrical capacity generated was equivalent to 250 lights
• - Within the next 20 years roughly 300 hydroelectric plants were operational
  around the world
• - The invention of the hydraulic reaction turbine created the sudden expansion of
  hydropower
• - 40% of the United States' electricity was provided by hydroelectric power in the
  early 1900's
- The largest and last masonry dam built by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation was the
Roosevelt Dam in Arizona between 1905-1911; its power output has increased from
4,500 kW to 36,000 kW

- In 1933, the Tennessee Valley Authority Act was enacted into law

- The Hoover Dam first generated power in 1937, producing 130,000 kW

- By the 1940's, hydroelectric power supplied roughly 75% of the electricity used in the
western United States and approximately one-third of the United States' total electric
energy

- Still in use today, Niagra Falls was the first hydropower site developed for a vast
quantity of electricity

- Nearly 10% of the United States' electricity came from hydroelectric power in 1997
Hydro electric power
IMPOUNDMENT


            TYPES OF
          HYDRO POWER
             PLANTS


PUMPED STORAGE      DIVERSION
IMPOUNDMENT
 An impoundment
facility, typically a
large hydropower
system, uses a dam to
store river water in a
reservoir
DIVERSION
A diversion,
sometimes called run-
of-river, facility
channels a portion of a
river through a canal
or penstock. It may
not require the use of a
dam.
PUMP STORAGE
When the demand for
electricity is low, a pumped
storage facility stores energy
by pumping water from a
lower reservoir to an upper
reservoir. During periods of
high electrical demand, the
water is released back to the
lower reservoir to generate
electricity.
SMALL




           SIZES OF
        HYDROELECTRIC
        POWER PLANTS

                        MICRO
LARGE
TRAVELLING CRANE
             ACCESS GALLERY
               LIGHTNING ARRESTER
                         BUSHING
            AFTER TUBE
                 DRAFT WAY
                 CIRCUIT BREAKER
           GENERATOR UNIT
                  TRANSFORMER
                     SCROLL CASE
                   GANTRY CRANE
                         GATE of
                      TAILto spiral staircase
                        BUSBAR
      Device that RESERVOIR theRACE
                         allowsalter
 Duct Conduit usedturbine that
          shapedat a aINTAKEalong
                        like
                                 the
                 ofPENSTOCK
                   MACHINE HALL
          Devicethe the base that
                  WATER travels
       Device formed watercourse of
        Area deviceprotects that controls
  Underground passageway electric
   Movable with by the construction is
  Hoisting verticalautomaticallya
                           that
                      SCREEN the
           Large aluminum conductor
       Device that pass through the
                             panel
      conductorvoltage; directs
                       to that voltage
         Channelto various parts used
          Mechanismthatis water
             used transmits afterbay
 that istransmits water front it is
         electricholds distribute ofvolume
         the that toplacedawater’s the
             Basin
           Structure back in rails;
 provides turbinethe powerthe
               accessofthatveryelectric
    Assemblywhere water largesurges
  aboveground transformersupply
             dam; itbarsparallel to
                of
         discharge from currentbe
           facilities the power
   thecutting off that the flow rate and
      wallof water from the headbay
              of the as the
 uniformly around runner’scanit to
    water water so the the can be
         increasesfrom the turbine
          increased to it to the
    of mechanical afterreturnthat
        the order that lightning.
         in thethe from passing
        discharged energy loads.
            intake to so back any thing
               dam holdheavy alternator
  to separatesevent ofthewater
      liftcurrentitoperation of the turbine.
            andcausedcarries latter.
                   carry by overload.
   tailrace.thethatpower to power
      Channel the
    could in turnby reducing the so
 makethroughsmoothly. form of a
            it to rotor the
             controlled
            hinder penstock plant
           to device turbines.
         leaves and maintained. it
         output the transformer.
                 …


Hoistingthe watercourse.
     inspected the in to make
      generator’s
         to pressure carriedpower
      under it can bethewaterover units
  Areathat moves along rails.
          that plant.
           the houses         to the as
                                 generator
         pressure of theelectricity.
bridge; it turbines.
      turn to produce
      plant’s long distances.
  usedit exits.
          to produce electricity.
WORKING OF
HYDROELECTRIC
POWER
In hydroelectric power
plants the potential energy
of water due to its high
location is converted into
electrical energy. The total
power generation capacity
of the hydroelectric power
plants depends on the head
of water and volume of
water flowing towards the
water turbine.
P=POWER
PRODUCED IN WATT
r=rate of flow of
water in cubic/msec
h=height of water
which is measured
in meter
g=gravity constant is
9.81m/sec square
Hydro electric power
WATER TURBINE
Their generators are usually salient-type rotor with many poles.
To maintain the generator
voltage frequency constant, the turbine must spin the
generator at a constant speed
given by
n =120f/p

where f is the generated voltage frequency and p is the
number of poles of the
generator
TYPES OF TURBINE



REACTION           IMPULSE
 TURBINE           TURBINE
REACTION TURBINE
Reaction turbines are acted on by water, which changes pressure as it
moves through the turbine and gives up its energy. They must be encased
to contain the water pressure (or suction), or they must be fully submerged
in the water flow.

Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines.

Most water turbines in use are reaction turbines and are used in low
(<30m/98 ft) and medium (30-300m/98–984 ft) head applications. In
reaction turbine pressure drop occurs in both fixed and moving blades.
IMPULSE TURBINE
Impulse turbines change the velocity of a water jet. The jet pushes on the
turbine's curved blades which changes the direction of the flow. The resulting
change in momentum (impulse) causes a force on the turbine blades. Since
the turbine is spinning, the force acts through a distance (work) and the
diverted water flow is left with diminished energy.


Newton's second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines.

Impulse turbines are often used in very high (>300m/984 ft) head applications
.
Hydro electric power
• Hydraulic wheel turbine     0.2 < H < 4 (H = head in m)

• Archimedes' screw turbine   1 < H < 10

• Kaplan                      2 < H < 40

• Francis                     10 < H < 350

• Pelton                      50<H<1300

• Turgo                       50<H<250
Hydro electric power
Hydro electric power
Hydro electric power
• A project with capacity of 130 kW installed at Sidrapong (Darjeeling) in
  the year 1897 was the first hydropower installation in India.
• A few old installations, e.g., Shiva Samundram in Mysore (2,000 kW)
• Chamba (40 kW) in 1902, Gagoi in Mussoorie (3,000 kW) in 1907 etc
• The Gagoi Power House that Lt. Col. W.W. Bell had built near Mussoorie
  was to provide electricity and to pump water upward to Mussoorie
  town. It was for the first time that water was pumped to a height of 516
  m (the highest in Asia at that time).
• Hirakhud dam produces power of 307.5MW
CONCLUSION

At the time of independence (1947), the IC of hydropower projects was 508
MW, which was about 37% of the total IC at that time. But with the taking
up of five-year plans, work began on many multi-purpose river valley
projects, the so called ‘temples of modern India’. Bhakra dam was the
notable showcase for a long time to come. At the end of 1998, the installed
hydropower capacity was about 22,000 MW which was 24.85 % (lowest %
so far) of the total IC of 88,543 MW. In the year 1962-63, the hydro:
thermal ratio was the maximum at 50.62 However, over the years, the
share of hydropower has continuously come down. It may be noted that a
thermal-hydro mix in the ratio of 60:40 is considered as ideal.
THANK YOU

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Hydro electric power

  • 1. HYDROELECTRIC POWER SUBMITTED BY SUBMITTED TO ANURADHA LAKRA SIR ABHIMANYU MAHAPATRA 0901106087 SIR RANJAN KUMAR JENA ELECTRICAL ENGG
  • 3. WHAT IS HYDROELECTRIC POWER? • Hydro means “water”.So hydro power is water power and hydroelectric power is electricity generated using water power. • Potential energy converted to kinectic energy which is changed to mechanical energy in a power plant and then turned into electrical energy. • In an impoundment facility, water is stored in dam.In a dam is a water intake.This is a narrow opening to a tunnel called penstock.
  • 4. HISTORY OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER • - Nearly 2000 years ago the Greeks used water wheels to grind wheat into flour • - In the 1700's, hydropower was broadly used for milling of lumber and grain and for pumping irrigation water • - Appleton, Wisconsin became the first operational hydroelectric generating station in the United States, in 1882, producing 12.5 kilowatts (kW) of power • - The total electrical capacity generated was equivalent to 250 lights • - Within the next 20 years roughly 300 hydroelectric plants were operational around the world • - The invention of the hydraulic reaction turbine created the sudden expansion of hydropower • - 40% of the United States' electricity was provided by hydroelectric power in the early 1900's
  • 5. - The largest and last masonry dam built by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation was the Roosevelt Dam in Arizona between 1905-1911; its power output has increased from 4,500 kW to 36,000 kW - In 1933, the Tennessee Valley Authority Act was enacted into law - The Hoover Dam first generated power in 1937, producing 130,000 kW - By the 1940's, hydroelectric power supplied roughly 75% of the electricity used in the western United States and approximately one-third of the United States' total electric energy - Still in use today, Niagra Falls was the first hydropower site developed for a vast quantity of electricity - Nearly 10% of the United States' electricity came from hydroelectric power in 1997
  • 7. IMPOUNDMENT TYPES OF HYDRO POWER PLANTS PUMPED STORAGE DIVERSION
  • 8. IMPOUNDMENT An impoundment facility, typically a large hydropower system, uses a dam to store river water in a reservoir
  • 9. DIVERSION A diversion, sometimes called run- of-river, facility channels a portion of a river through a canal or penstock. It may not require the use of a dam.
  • 10. PUMP STORAGE When the demand for electricity is low, a pumped storage facility stores energy by pumping water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. During periods of high electrical demand, the water is released back to the lower reservoir to generate electricity.
  • 11. SMALL SIZES OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS MICRO LARGE
  • 12. TRAVELLING CRANE ACCESS GALLERY LIGHTNING ARRESTER BUSHING AFTER TUBE DRAFT WAY CIRCUIT BREAKER GENERATOR UNIT TRANSFORMER SCROLL CASE GANTRY CRANE GATE of TAILto spiral staircase BUSBAR Device that RESERVOIR theRACE allowsalter Duct Conduit usedturbine that shapedat a aINTAKEalong like the ofPENSTOCK MACHINE HALL Devicethe the base that WATER travels Device formed watercourse of Area deviceprotects that controls Underground passageway electric Movable with by the construction is Hoisting verticalautomaticallya that SCREEN the Large aluminum conductor Device that pass through the panel conductorvoltage; directs to that voltage Channelto various parts used Mechanismthatis water used transmits afterbay that istransmits water front it is electricholds distribute ofvolume the that toplacedawater’s the Basin Structure back in rails; provides turbinethe powerthe accessofthatveryelectric Assemblywhere water largesurges aboveground transformersupply dam; itbarsparallel to of discharge from currentbe facilities the power thecutting off that the flow rate and wallof water from the headbay of the as the uniformly around runner’scanit to water water so the the can be increasesfrom the turbine increased to it to the of mechanical afterreturnthat the order that lightning. in thethe from passing discharged energy loads. intake to so back any thing dam holdheavy alternator to separatesevent ofthewater liftcurrentitoperation of the turbine. andcausedcarries latter. carry by overload. tailrace.thethatpower to power Channel the could in turnby reducing the so makethroughsmoothly. form of a it to rotor the controlled hinder penstock plant to device turbines. leaves and maintained. it output the transformer. … Hoistingthe watercourse. inspected the in to make generator’s to pressure carriedpower under it can bethewaterover units Areathat moves along rails. that plant. the houses to the as generator pressure of theelectricity. bridge; it turbines. turn to produce plant’s long distances. usedit exits. to produce electricity.
  • 13. WORKING OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER In hydroelectric power plants the potential energy of water due to its high location is converted into electrical energy. The total power generation capacity of the hydroelectric power plants depends on the head of water and volume of water flowing towards the water turbine.
  • 14. P=POWER PRODUCED IN WATT r=rate of flow of water in cubic/msec h=height of water which is measured in meter g=gravity constant is 9.81m/sec square
  • 17. Their generators are usually salient-type rotor with many poles. To maintain the generator voltage frequency constant, the turbine must spin the generator at a constant speed given by n =120f/p where f is the generated voltage frequency and p is the number of poles of the generator
  • 18. TYPES OF TURBINE REACTION IMPULSE TURBINE TURBINE
  • 19. REACTION TURBINE Reaction turbines are acted on by water, which changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its energy. They must be encased to contain the water pressure (or suction), or they must be fully submerged in the water flow. Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines. Most water turbines in use are reaction turbines and are used in low (<30m/98 ft) and medium (30-300m/98–984 ft) head applications. In reaction turbine pressure drop occurs in both fixed and moving blades.
  • 20. IMPULSE TURBINE Impulse turbines change the velocity of a water jet. The jet pushes on the turbine's curved blades which changes the direction of the flow. The resulting change in momentum (impulse) causes a force on the turbine blades. Since the turbine is spinning, the force acts through a distance (work) and the diverted water flow is left with diminished energy. Newton's second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines. Impulse turbines are often used in very high (>300m/984 ft) head applications .
  • 22. • Hydraulic wheel turbine 0.2 < H < 4 (H = head in m) • Archimedes' screw turbine 1 < H < 10 • Kaplan 2 < H < 40 • Francis 10 < H < 350 • Pelton 50<H<1300 • Turgo 50<H<250
  • 26. • A project with capacity of 130 kW installed at Sidrapong (Darjeeling) in the year 1897 was the first hydropower installation in India. • A few old installations, e.g., Shiva Samundram in Mysore (2,000 kW) • Chamba (40 kW) in 1902, Gagoi in Mussoorie (3,000 kW) in 1907 etc • The Gagoi Power House that Lt. Col. W.W. Bell had built near Mussoorie was to provide electricity and to pump water upward to Mussoorie town. It was for the first time that water was pumped to a height of 516 m (the highest in Asia at that time). • Hirakhud dam produces power of 307.5MW
  • 27. CONCLUSION At the time of independence (1947), the IC of hydropower projects was 508 MW, which was about 37% of the total IC at that time. But with the taking up of five-year plans, work began on many multi-purpose river valley projects, the so called ‘temples of modern India’. Bhakra dam was the notable showcase for a long time to come. At the end of 1998, the installed hydropower capacity was about 22,000 MW which was 24.85 % (lowest % so far) of the total IC of 88,543 MW. In the year 1962-63, the hydro: thermal ratio was the maximum at 50.62 However, over the years, the share of hydropower has continuously come down. It may be noted that a thermal-hydro mix in the ratio of 60:40 is considered as ideal.