SlideShare a Scribd company logo
george
Hurricanes blow themselves out as they reach the edge of the first of the three cells that move warm air towards the poles: at the boundary between the Hadley cell and the Ferrel cell.
The universal meteorological term for violent storms that start life over tropical waters is “tropical cyclone”, but they have different names around the world: “typhoon” in the northern Pacific and a “cyclone” in India and Australia are exactly the same phenomenon, and in the Atlantic it has the more familiar name of “hurricane”, which originates from the Central American Taino word  huracan , meaning “god of evil”. Fran 1996
Donna  Camille  Elena  Bob  Andrew 1960  1969  1985  1991  1992
For easy reference, tropical cyclones, or hurricanes, have been given names since the 1950s. Each year an international committee creates an alphabetical list of alternating male and female names for the major hurricane regions. Names can be reused in a subsequent hurricane season, except those of especially damaging hurricanes, which are retired so as to avoid confusion.
Hurricanes are major  atmospheric hazards  in the  low latitudes . They are massive tropical storms with winds exceeding  119 kmh. In an average year, about  80  tropical cyclones are recorded worldwide with two-thirds located in the northern hemisphere.  Fifteen  per cent of the world’s population is at risk. The greatest threats exist for three geographical situations: Densely populated deltas, eg Bangladesh Isolated island groups, eg Philippines, Japanese islands and the Caribbean Highly populated coasts in MEDC areas, eg Florida
Hurricanes can be detected on satellite images and their progression is often well forecast. Given suitable warning time, populations can be evacuated and lives saved. However, even with well-forecast hurricanes a problem arises in less economically developed regions, where due to poverty and the sheer numbers at risk, complete evacuation and natural or engineering solutions are too costly.
Tropical cyclones affect a very large part of the Earth’s surface. They vary in scale from tropical disturbances to hurricanes and are classified according to windspeed. Hurricanes  in the Caribbean and Atlantic Ocean Typhoons  in the western Pacific Cyclones  in the Indian Ocean
Hurricanes develop as intense low-pressure systems over tropical oceans. Winds spiral rapidly around a calm central area known as the eye. The diameter of the whole hurricane may be as much as 800km, although the very strong winds, which cause most damage, are found in a narrower belt up to 300km wide.
In a mature hurricane, pressure may fall to as low as 880-970 millibars. This, and the strong contrast in pressure between the eye and the outer part of the hurricane leads to strong winds.
Since tropical cyclones require heat and moisture, they always form over oceans with warm sea surface temperatures (at least 26 0 C). As a consequences, they originate mainly over the western parts of the main ocean basins, where no cold ocean currents exist. Hurricanes occur only in tropical latitudes, but not in all tropical latitudes. They are absent from the east and south Atlantic and the eastern south Pacific. Why?
As well as requiring high sea temperatures, the low pressure area has to be far enough away from the equator so that the Coriolis force (the force caused by the rotation of the Earth) creates rotation in the rising air mass. If it is too close to the equator there will be insufficient rotation and a hurricane will not develop. Why do hurricanes not develop on the equator itself?
Because of the thermal requirements for formation, hurricanes are a hazard to specific locations at specific times of the year (eg from June to November in the west Atlantic).
A hurricane derives its energy from warm ocean water, but it loses power as it crosses land and quickly dries out. It may regenerate if it passes over the ocean again. Hurricanes may move in straight lines, curves and loops influenced by the large-scale air masses they encounter. Their path is erratic; hence it is not always possible to give more than 12 hours notice. Why do hurricanes die out over land?
This meant coastal areas in several Gulf states had to be evacuated. Then Elena slowed and was pushed eastward by local air masses towards the central Florida coast. It stopped for a while offshore, causing evacuation along the length of coastal Florida. Elena then turned westward and northward again, causing the evacuation again of coastal Gulf states. It finally made landfall near Biloxi in Mississippi and caused US$1.4 billion in damage (1989 dollars).  The erratic nature of hurricanes is well illustrated by Hurricane Elena. This was a category 3 storm that caused considerable damage in the Gulf of Mexico in 1985. It headed west, rounded Florida then turned northward, towards an expected landfall in Mississippi.
Hurricanes threaten people because of the strong winds, heavy rains, and storm surges. Storm surges occur as a result of wind-driven waves and the rise in sea surface due to low atmospheric pressure above. This amounts to a 26cm rise for every 30mb fall in pressure. The Saffir-Simpson scale of hurricane intensity is a useful way of describing hurricanes and identifying characteristics and damage.
 
In the USA deaths have dropped dramatically due to the advance warnings that can be broadcast before a hurricane makes landfall. However, damages in the USA continue to rise as Americans move to the coast,  building larger and more expensive houses filled with costlier possessions.  Minimising impacts: Prediction Warning Evacuation Better construction of buildings Sea wall construction or flood barrier Raising of buildings, rail and road Maintenance of a wide beach with high dunes Zoning laws to prevent building on low-lying land subject to storm surge flooding
Robin: Hurricanes are the tropical cyclones of the Atlantic.  They tend to develop: 1. over warm tropical oceans with sea surface temperatures above 26 °C. 2. in autumn when sea surface temperatures are at  their highest 3. in the trade wind belt where the surface winds as  they blow towards the equator 4. between latitudes 5 ° and 20° north or south of  the  equator (the Coriolis force is weaker and  insufficient to ‘spin’ the hurricane nearer to the  equator)  The formation of hurricanes is not yet fully  understood but they appear to originate when  strong vertical movement of air draws with it water vapour from the ocean below. As the air rises, in a spiral movement, it cools and  condenses - a process that releases vast amounts  of latent energy and produces heavy rainfall. Once formed they move westwards often on erratic and difficult to predict courses.  The hurricane rapidly declines once the source of  heat and moisture is removed, i.e. when it moves  over colder water or a land surface. The average lifespan of a hurricane is 7-14 days. Hurricanes can cause damage in four main ways: 1. High winds which often exceed 160 kph. 2. Storm (tidal) surges formed by the high winds and low pressure may inundate low lying  coastal regions. 3. Flooding can result from torrential rain or a storm surge. 4. Landslides can occur from heavy rain where  buildings have been erected on steep unstable slopes. Hurricanes have the advantage of predictability. There are distinct ‘hurricane seasons’ within  which more precautions can be taken. Hurricanes can be easily spotted using satellite imagery which allows several days’ warning.

More Related Content

What's hot

Hurricanes ppt
Hurricanes pptHurricanes ppt
Hurricanes ppt
Hammad Ahmad Sheikh
 
Understanding Typhoons
Understanding TyphoonsUnderstanding Typhoons
Understanding Typhoons
Jan Del Rosario
 
what is Typhoon
what is Typhoonwhat is Typhoon
what is Typhoon
Jake Pocz
 
Weather
WeatherWeather
Weather
ceangail
 
Understanding Typhoon g8
Understanding Typhoon g8Understanding Typhoon g8
Understanding Typhoon g8
Anabelle Montevirgen
 
Typhoon
TyphoonTyphoon
Typhoon
shsmoga
 
Hurricanes & Typhoons
Hurricanes & TyphoonsHurricanes & Typhoons
Hurricanes & Typhoons
miley925
 
Hurricane
HurricaneHurricane
What is a Hurricane?
What is a Hurricane?What is a Hurricane?
What is a Hurricane?
Genia Smith
 
Typhoons in The Philippines
Typhoons in The PhilippinesTyphoons in The Philippines
Typhoons in The Philippines
jaymz0949
 
TYPHOON GRADE 8
TYPHOON GRADE 8TYPHOON GRADE 8
TYPHOON GRADE 8
Lei Calidro Gerardo
 
Hurricanes powerpoint
Hurricanes powerpointHurricanes powerpoint
Hurricanes powerpoint
Smithtown High School West
 
Understanding Typhoons
Understanding TyphoonsUnderstanding Typhoons
Understanding Typhoons
Shania Cotiangco
 
Hurricane information
Hurricane informationHurricane information
Hurricane information
dwinter1
 
Hurricanes
HurricanesHurricanes
Hurricanes
bibliotekaursus
 
The Phenomenon Of Tropical Cyclone
The Phenomenon Of Tropical CycloneThe Phenomenon Of Tropical Cyclone
The Phenomenon Of Tropical Cyclone
Armstrong Sompotan
 
Causes of hurricanes and storms in u.s.a
Causes of hurricanes and storms in u.s.aCauses of hurricanes and storms in u.s.a
Causes of hurricanes and storms in u.s.a
andleebyaseen
 
Understanding Typhoons
Understanding TyphoonsUnderstanding Typhoons
Understanding Typhoons
Lew Marie Rara
 
Hurricanes
HurricanesHurricanes
Hurricanes
John Lanser
 
Typhoon
Typhoon Typhoon

What's hot (20)

Hurricanes ppt
Hurricanes pptHurricanes ppt
Hurricanes ppt
 
Understanding Typhoons
Understanding TyphoonsUnderstanding Typhoons
Understanding Typhoons
 
what is Typhoon
what is Typhoonwhat is Typhoon
what is Typhoon
 
Weather
WeatherWeather
Weather
 
Understanding Typhoon g8
Understanding Typhoon g8Understanding Typhoon g8
Understanding Typhoon g8
 
Typhoon
TyphoonTyphoon
Typhoon
 
Hurricanes & Typhoons
Hurricanes & TyphoonsHurricanes & Typhoons
Hurricanes & Typhoons
 
Hurricane
HurricaneHurricane
Hurricane
 
What is a Hurricane?
What is a Hurricane?What is a Hurricane?
What is a Hurricane?
 
Typhoons in The Philippines
Typhoons in The PhilippinesTyphoons in The Philippines
Typhoons in The Philippines
 
TYPHOON GRADE 8
TYPHOON GRADE 8TYPHOON GRADE 8
TYPHOON GRADE 8
 
Hurricanes powerpoint
Hurricanes powerpointHurricanes powerpoint
Hurricanes powerpoint
 
Understanding Typhoons
Understanding TyphoonsUnderstanding Typhoons
Understanding Typhoons
 
Hurricane information
Hurricane informationHurricane information
Hurricane information
 
Hurricanes
HurricanesHurricanes
Hurricanes
 
The Phenomenon Of Tropical Cyclone
The Phenomenon Of Tropical CycloneThe Phenomenon Of Tropical Cyclone
The Phenomenon Of Tropical Cyclone
 
Causes of hurricanes and storms in u.s.a
Causes of hurricanes and storms in u.s.aCauses of hurricanes and storms in u.s.a
Causes of hurricanes and storms in u.s.a
 
Understanding Typhoons
Understanding TyphoonsUnderstanding Typhoons
Understanding Typhoons
 
Hurricanes
HurricanesHurricanes
Hurricanes
 
Typhoon
Typhoon Typhoon
Typhoon
 

Viewers also liked

History of New York
History of New YorkHistory of New York
History of New York
Lavennder M
 
Sea level CO2
Sea level CO2Sea level CO2
Sea level CO2
Loretta Roberson
 
12. causes of hurricanes
12. causes of hurricanes12. causes of hurricanes
12. causes of hurricanes
Ed Brodhurst
 
IPCC Report on Extreme Weather in Warming World
IPCC Report on Extreme Weather in Warming WorldIPCC Report on Extreme Weather in Warming World
IPCC Report on Extreme Weather in Warming World
Earth Institute of Columbia University
 
Sea Leve Rise: An Overview
Sea Leve Rise:  An OverviewSea Leve Rise:  An Overview
Sea Leve Rise: An Overview
ljasperse
 
Population policy in singapore
Population policy in singaporePopulation policy in singapore
Population policy in singapore
Ms Geoflake
 
Os maps pack
Os maps packOs maps pack
Os maps pack
rainingallthetime
 
Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane KatrinaHurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
kaltham
 
Year 11 Revision Of Skills
Year 11 Revision Of SkillsYear 11 Revision Of Skills
Year 11 Revision Of Skills
msrichards
 
Natural disasters
Natural disasters Natural disasters
Natural disasters
avy123
 

Viewers also liked (10)

History of New York
History of New YorkHistory of New York
History of New York
 
Sea level CO2
Sea level CO2Sea level CO2
Sea level CO2
 
12. causes of hurricanes
12. causes of hurricanes12. causes of hurricanes
12. causes of hurricanes
 
IPCC Report on Extreme Weather in Warming World
IPCC Report on Extreme Weather in Warming WorldIPCC Report on Extreme Weather in Warming World
IPCC Report on Extreme Weather in Warming World
 
Sea Leve Rise: An Overview
Sea Leve Rise:  An OverviewSea Leve Rise:  An Overview
Sea Leve Rise: An Overview
 
Population policy in singapore
Population policy in singaporePopulation policy in singapore
Population policy in singapore
 
Os maps pack
Os maps packOs maps pack
Os maps pack
 
Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane KatrinaHurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
 
Year 11 Revision Of Skills
Year 11 Revision Of SkillsYear 11 Revision Of Skills
Year 11 Revision Of Skills
 
Natural disasters
Natural disasters Natural disasters
Natural disasters
 

Similar to Hurricane Theory

Cyclones as natural hazards
Cyclones as natural hazardsCyclones as natural hazards
Cyclones as natural hazards
Prof. A.Balasubramanian
 
All about hurricanes
All about hurricanesAll about hurricanes
All about hurricanes
Tammy Wilson Russo
 
Howdo tropicalrevolvingstormsform
Howdo tropicalrevolvingstormsformHowdo tropicalrevolvingstormsform
Howdo tropicalrevolvingstormsform
jacksonthree
 
unit3.pdf
unit3.pdfunit3.pdf
unit3.pdf
pauldedal
 
Hurricanes aqa revision
Hurricanes aqa revisionHurricanes aqa revision
Hurricanes aqa revision
pjjacko
 
natural disters
natural distersnatural disters
natural disters
eddy
 
Nayibe Sabag
Nayibe SabagNayibe Sabag
Nayibe Sabag
nayibesabag
 
Nd
NdNd
Natural Disasters
Natural DisastersNatural Disasters
Natural Disasters
naziira
 
Presentacion Sin Titulo
Presentacion Sin TituloPresentacion Sin Titulo
Presentacion Sin Titulo
aleatz7
 
hurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppt.pptx
hurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppt.pptxhurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppt.pptx
hurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppt.pptx
Gavin Malala
 
hurrhurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespph...
hurrhurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespph...hurrhurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespph...
hurrhurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespph...
Gavin Malala
 
Climatic extremes
Climatic extremesClimatic extremes
Climatic extremes
Prof. A.Balasubramanian
 
Climate: Hurricane Basic Detail
Climate: Hurricane Basic DetailClimate: Hurricane Basic Detail
Climate: Hurricane Basic Detail
geomillie
 
hurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppt.pptx
hurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppt.pptxhurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppt.pptx
hurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppt.pptx
Gavin Malala
 
Weather Phenomena by Ali Hussain
Weather Phenomena by Ali HussainWeather Phenomena by Ali Hussain
Weather Phenomena by Ali Hussain
Dafydd Humphreys
 
cyclone hazards pdf
cyclone hazards pdfcyclone hazards pdf
cyclone hazards pdf
Rishu Mishra
 
Atmospheric Disturbances, Storms and Natural Hazards.pptx
Atmospheric Disturbances, Storms and Natural Hazards.pptxAtmospheric Disturbances, Storms and Natural Hazards.pptx
Atmospheric Disturbances, Storms and Natural Hazards.pptx
RalphNavelino3
 
cyclone.pptx............................
cyclone.pptx............................cyclone.pptx............................
cyclone.pptx............................
pauloalegria3
 
Natural disasters by Malcolm Sant, 3.01
Natural disasters by Malcolm Sant, 3.01Natural disasters by Malcolm Sant, 3.01
Natural disasters by Malcolm Sant, 3.01
geographystudents
 

Similar to Hurricane Theory (20)

Cyclones as natural hazards
Cyclones as natural hazardsCyclones as natural hazards
Cyclones as natural hazards
 
All about hurricanes
All about hurricanesAll about hurricanes
All about hurricanes
 
Howdo tropicalrevolvingstormsform
Howdo tropicalrevolvingstormsformHowdo tropicalrevolvingstormsform
Howdo tropicalrevolvingstormsform
 
unit3.pdf
unit3.pdfunit3.pdf
unit3.pdf
 
Hurricanes aqa revision
Hurricanes aqa revisionHurricanes aqa revision
Hurricanes aqa revision
 
natural disters
natural distersnatural disters
natural disters
 
Nayibe Sabag
Nayibe SabagNayibe Sabag
Nayibe Sabag
 
Nd
NdNd
Nd
 
Natural Disasters
Natural DisastersNatural Disasters
Natural Disasters
 
Presentacion Sin Titulo
Presentacion Sin TituloPresentacion Sin Titulo
Presentacion Sin Titulo
 
hurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppt.pptx
hurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppt.pptxhurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppt.pptx
hurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppt.pptx
 
hurrhurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespph...
hurrhurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespph...hurrhurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespph...
hurrhurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespphurricanespph...
 
Climatic extremes
Climatic extremesClimatic extremes
Climatic extremes
 
Climate: Hurricane Basic Detail
Climate: Hurricane Basic DetailClimate: Hurricane Basic Detail
Climate: Hurricane Basic Detail
 
hurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppt.pptx
hurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppt.pptxhurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppt.pptx
hurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppthurricanesppt.pptx
 
Weather Phenomena by Ali Hussain
Weather Phenomena by Ali HussainWeather Phenomena by Ali Hussain
Weather Phenomena by Ali Hussain
 
cyclone hazards pdf
cyclone hazards pdfcyclone hazards pdf
cyclone hazards pdf
 
Atmospheric Disturbances, Storms and Natural Hazards.pptx
Atmospheric Disturbances, Storms and Natural Hazards.pptxAtmospheric Disturbances, Storms and Natural Hazards.pptx
Atmospheric Disturbances, Storms and Natural Hazards.pptx
 
cyclone.pptx............................
cyclone.pptx............................cyclone.pptx............................
cyclone.pptx............................
 
Natural disasters by Malcolm Sant, 3.01
Natural disasters by Malcolm Sant, 3.01Natural disasters by Malcolm Sant, 3.01
Natural disasters by Malcolm Sant, 3.01
 

More from missm

Birmingham Cbd Pres
Birmingham Cbd PresBirmingham Cbd Pres
Birmingham Cbd Pres
missm
 
Population Revision
Population RevisionPopulation Revision
Population Revision
missm
 
Global Warming Revision
Global Warming RevisionGlobal Warming Revision
Global Warming Revision
missm
 
Oxford Revision
Oxford RevisionOxford Revision
Oxford Revision
missm
 
Stevenage Revision
Stevenage RevisionStevenage Revision
Stevenage Revision
missm
 
Kenya Revision
Kenya RevisionKenya Revision
Kenya Revision
missm
 
Waste Revision
Waste RevisionWaste Revision
Waste Revision
missm
 
Lake District Revision
Lake District RevisionLake District Revision
Lake District Revision
missm
 
Lake District Revision
Lake District RevisionLake District Revision
Lake District Revision
missm
 
Acid Rain Revision
Acid Rain RevisionAcid Rain Revision
Acid Rain Revision
missm
 
Kenya Revision
Kenya RevisionKenya Revision
Kenya Revision
missm
 
Barton Revision
Barton RevisionBarton Revision
Barton Revision
missm
 
Ledc Cities Rapid Growth
Ledc Cities   Rapid GrowthLedc Cities   Rapid Growth
Ledc Cities Rapid Growth
missm
 
Mozambique Floods 2000
Mozambique Floods 2000Mozambique Floods 2000
Mozambique Floods 2000
missm
 
Montserrat[1]
Montserrat[1]Montserrat[1]
Montserrat[1]
missm
 
Year 11 Revision List & Exam Questions
Year 11 Revision List & Exam QuestionsYear 11 Revision List & Exam Questions
Year 11 Revision List & Exam Questions
missm
 
Flooding Presentation
Flooding PresentationFlooding Presentation
Flooding Presentation
missm
 
Coasts Booklet
Coasts BookletCoasts Booklet
Coasts Booklet
missm
 
Iceland
IcelandIceland
Iceland
missm
 
Past Questions
Past QuestionsPast Questions
Past Questions
missm
 

More from missm (20)

Birmingham Cbd Pres
Birmingham Cbd PresBirmingham Cbd Pres
Birmingham Cbd Pres
 
Population Revision
Population RevisionPopulation Revision
Population Revision
 
Global Warming Revision
Global Warming RevisionGlobal Warming Revision
Global Warming Revision
 
Oxford Revision
Oxford RevisionOxford Revision
Oxford Revision
 
Stevenage Revision
Stevenage RevisionStevenage Revision
Stevenage Revision
 
Kenya Revision
Kenya RevisionKenya Revision
Kenya Revision
 
Waste Revision
Waste RevisionWaste Revision
Waste Revision
 
Lake District Revision
Lake District RevisionLake District Revision
Lake District Revision
 
Lake District Revision
Lake District RevisionLake District Revision
Lake District Revision
 
Acid Rain Revision
Acid Rain RevisionAcid Rain Revision
Acid Rain Revision
 
Kenya Revision
Kenya RevisionKenya Revision
Kenya Revision
 
Barton Revision
Barton RevisionBarton Revision
Barton Revision
 
Ledc Cities Rapid Growth
Ledc Cities   Rapid GrowthLedc Cities   Rapid Growth
Ledc Cities Rapid Growth
 
Mozambique Floods 2000
Mozambique Floods 2000Mozambique Floods 2000
Mozambique Floods 2000
 
Montserrat[1]
Montserrat[1]Montserrat[1]
Montserrat[1]
 
Year 11 Revision List & Exam Questions
Year 11 Revision List & Exam QuestionsYear 11 Revision List & Exam Questions
Year 11 Revision List & Exam Questions
 
Flooding Presentation
Flooding PresentationFlooding Presentation
Flooding Presentation
 
Coasts Booklet
Coasts BookletCoasts Booklet
Coasts Booklet
 
Iceland
IcelandIceland
Iceland
 
Past Questions
Past QuestionsPast Questions
Past Questions
 

Recently uploaded

Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
shanihomely
 
Computer HARDWARE presenattion by CWD students class 10
Computer HARDWARE presenattion by CWD students class 10Computer HARDWARE presenattion by CWD students class 10
Computer HARDWARE presenattion by CWD students class 10
ankush9927
 
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Orientation by CISO Platform_ Using CISO P...
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Orientation by CISO Platform_ Using CISO P...(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Orientation by CISO Platform_ Using CISO P...
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Orientation by CISO Platform_ Using CISO P...
Priyanka Aash
 
Semantic-Aware Code Model: Elevating the Future of Software Development
Semantic-Aware Code Model: Elevating the Future of Software DevelopmentSemantic-Aware Code Model: Elevating the Future of Software Development
Semantic-Aware Code Model: Elevating the Future of Software Development
Baishakhi Ray
 
What's new in android: jetpack compose 2024
What's new in android: jetpack compose 2024What's new in android: jetpack compose 2024
What's new in android: jetpack compose 2024
Toru Wonyoung Choi
 
Mastering OnlyFans Clone App Development: Key Strategies for Success
Mastering OnlyFans Clone App Development: Key Strategies for SuccessMastering OnlyFans Clone App Development: Key Strategies for Success
Mastering OnlyFans Clone App Development: Key Strategies for Success
David Wilson
 
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Keynote _ Power Digital Identities With AI...
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Keynote _ Power Digital Identities With AI...(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Keynote _ Power Digital Identities With AI...
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Keynote _ Power Digital Identities With AI...
Priyanka Aash
 
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptxAcumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
BrainSell Technologies
 
Vertex AI Agent Builder - GDG Alicante - Julio 2024
Vertex AI Agent Builder - GDG Alicante - Julio 2024Vertex AI Agent Builder - GDG Alicante - Julio 2024
Vertex AI Agent Builder - GDG Alicante - Julio 2024
Nicolás Lopéz
 
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Digital Personal Data Protection Act.pdf
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Digital Personal Data Protection Act.pdf(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Digital Personal Data Protection Act.pdf
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Digital Personal Data Protection Act.pdf
Priyanka Aash
 
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive OverviewVulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
Steven Carlson
 
WhatsApp Spy Online Trackers and Monitoring Apps
WhatsApp Spy Online Trackers and Monitoring AppsWhatsApp Spy Online Trackers and Monitoring Apps
WhatsApp Spy Online Trackers and Monitoring Apps
HackersList
 
Sonkoloniya documentation - ONEprojukti.pdf
Sonkoloniya documentation - ONEprojukti.pdfSonkoloniya documentation - ONEprojukti.pdf
Sonkoloniya documentation - ONEprojukti.pdf
SubhamMandal40
 
Data Integration Basics: Merging & Joining Data
Data Integration Basics: Merging & Joining DataData Integration Basics: Merging & Joining Data
Data Integration Basics: Merging & Joining Data
Safe Software
 
Russian Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Ser...
Russian Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Ser...Russian Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Ser...
Russian Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Ser...
bellared2
 
How to Build a Profitable IoT Product.pptx
How to Build a Profitable IoT Product.pptxHow to Build a Profitable IoT Product.pptx
How to Build a Profitable IoT Product.pptx
Adam Dunkels
 
July Patch Tuesday
July Patch TuesdayJuly Patch Tuesday
July Patch Tuesday
Ivanti
 
Google I/O Extended Harare Merged Slides
Google I/O Extended Harare Merged SlidesGoogle I/O Extended Harare Merged Slides
Google I/O Extended Harare Merged Slides
Google Developer Group - Harare
 
Litestack talk at Brighton 2024 (Unleashing the power of SQLite for Ruby apps)
Litestack talk at Brighton 2024 (Unleashing the power of SQLite for Ruby apps)Litestack talk at Brighton 2024 (Unleashing the power of SQLite for Ruby apps)
Litestack talk at Brighton 2024 (Unleashing the power of SQLite for Ruby apps)
Muhammad Ali
 
Uncharted Together- Navigating AI's New Frontiers in Libraries
Uncharted Together- Navigating AI's New Frontiers in LibrariesUncharted Together- Navigating AI's New Frontiers in Libraries
Uncharted Together- Navigating AI's New Frontiers in Libraries
Brian Pichman
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service ...
 
Computer HARDWARE presenattion by CWD students class 10
Computer HARDWARE presenattion by CWD students class 10Computer HARDWARE presenattion by CWD students class 10
Computer HARDWARE presenattion by CWD students class 10
 
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Orientation by CISO Platform_ Using CISO P...
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Orientation by CISO Platform_ Using CISO P...(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Orientation by CISO Platform_ Using CISO P...
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Orientation by CISO Platform_ Using CISO P...
 
Semantic-Aware Code Model: Elevating the Future of Software Development
Semantic-Aware Code Model: Elevating the Future of Software DevelopmentSemantic-Aware Code Model: Elevating the Future of Software Development
Semantic-Aware Code Model: Elevating the Future of Software Development
 
What's new in android: jetpack compose 2024
What's new in android: jetpack compose 2024What's new in android: jetpack compose 2024
What's new in android: jetpack compose 2024
 
Mastering OnlyFans Clone App Development: Key Strategies for Success
Mastering OnlyFans Clone App Development: Key Strategies for SuccessMastering OnlyFans Clone App Development: Key Strategies for Success
Mastering OnlyFans Clone App Development: Key Strategies for Success
 
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Keynote _ Power Digital Identities With AI...
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Keynote _ Power Digital Identities With AI...(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Keynote _ Power Digital Identities With AI...
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Keynote _ Power Digital Identities With AI...
 
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptxAcumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
Acumatica vs. Sage Intacct _Construction_July (1).pptx
 
Vertex AI Agent Builder - GDG Alicante - Julio 2024
Vertex AI Agent Builder - GDG Alicante - Julio 2024Vertex AI Agent Builder - GDG Alicante - Julio 2024
Vertex AI Agent Builder - GDG Alicante - Julio 2024
 
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Digital Personal Data Protection Act.pdf
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Digital Personal Data Protection Act.pdf(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Digital Personal Data Protection Act.pdf
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Digital Personal Data Protection Act.pdf
 
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive OverviewVulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
 
WhatsApp Spy Online Trackers and Monitoring Apps
WhatsApp Spy Online Trackers and Monitoring AppsWhatsApp Spy Online Trackers and Monitoring Apps
WhatsApp Spy Online Trackers and Monitoring Apps
 
Sonkoloniya documentation - ONEprojukti.pdf
Sonkoloniya documentation - ONEprojukti.pdfSonkoloniya documentation - ONEprojukti.pdf
Sonkoloniya documentation - ONEprojukti.pdf
 
Data Integration Basics: Merging & Joining Data
Data Integration Basics: Merging & Joining DataData Integration Basics: Merging & Joining Data
Data Integration Basics: Merging & Joining Data
 
Russian Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Ser...
Russian Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Ser...Russian Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Ser...
Russian Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🎈🔥9920725232 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Ser...
 
How to Build a Profitable IoT Product.pptx
How to Build a Profitable IoT Product.pptxHow to Build a Profitable IoT Product.pptx
How to Build a Profitable IoT Product.pptx
 
July Patch Tuesday
July Patch TuesdayJuly Patch Tuesday
July Patch Tuesday
 
Google I/O Extended Harare Merged Slides
Google I/O Extended Harare Merged SlidesGoogle I/O Extended Harare Merged Slides
Google I/O Extended Harare Merged Slides
 
Litestack talk at Brighton 2024 (Unleashing the power of SQLite for Ruby apps)
Litestack talk at Brighton 2024 (Unleashing the power of SQLite for Ruby apps)Litestack talk at Brighton 2024 (Unleashing the power of SQLite for Ruby apps)
Litestack talk at Brighton 2024 (Unleashing the power of SQLite for Ruby apps)
 
Uncharted Together- Navigating AI's New Frontiers in Libraries
Uncharted Together- Navigating AI's New Frontiers in LibrariesUncharted Together- Navigating AI's New Frontiers in Libraries
Uncharted Together- Navigating AI's New Frontiers in Libraries
 

Hurricane Theory

  • 2. Hurricanes blow themselves out as they reach the edge of the first of the three cells that move warm air towards the poles: at the boundary between the Hadley cell and the Ferrel cell.
  • 3. The universal meteorological term for violent storms that start life over tropical waters is “tropical cyclone”, but they have different names around the world: “typhoon” in the northern Pacific and a “cyclone” in India and Australia are exactly the same phenomenon, and in the Atlantic it has the more familiar name of “hurricane”, which originates from the Central American Taino word huracan , meaning “god of evil”. Fran 1996
  • 4. Donna Camille Elena Bob Andrew 1960 1969 1985 1991 1992
  • 5. For easy reference, tropical cyclones, or hurricanes, have been given names since the 1950s. Each year an international committee creates an alphabetical list of alternating male and female names for the major hurricane regions. Names can be reused in a subsequent hurricane season, except those of especially damaging hurricanes, which are retired so as to avoid confusion.
  • 6. Hurricanes are major atmospheric hazards in the low latitudes . They are massive tropical storms with winds exceeding 119 kmh. In an average year, about 80 tropical cyclones are recorded worldwide with two-thirds located in the northern hemisphere. Fifteen per cent of the world’s population is at risk. The greatest threats exist for three geographical situations: Densely populated deltas, eg Bangladesh Isolated island groups, eg Philippines, Japanese islands and the Caribbean Highly populated coasts in MEDC areas, eg Florida
  • 7. Hurricanes can be detected on satellite images and their progression is often well forecast. Given suitable warning time, populations can be evacuated and lives saved. However, even with well-forecast hurricanes a problem arises in less economically developed regions, where due to poverty and the sheer numbers at risk, complete evacuation and natural or engineering solutions are too costly.
  • 8. Tropical cyclones affect a very large part of the Earth’s surface. They vary in scale from tropical disturbances to hurricanes and are classified according to windspeed. Hurricanes in the Caribbean and Atlantic Ocean Typhoons in the western Pacific Cyclones in the Indian Ocean
  • 9. Hurricanes develop as intense low-pressure systems over tropical oceans. Winds spiral rapidly around a calm central area known as the eye. The diameter of the whole hurricane may be as much as 800km, although the very strong winds, which cause most damage, are found in a narrower belt up to 300km wide.
  • 10. In a mature hurricane, pressure may fall to as low as 880-970 millibars. This, and the strong contrast in pressure between the eye and the outer part of the hurricane leads to strong winds.
  • 11. Since tropical cyclones require heat and moisture, they always form over oceans with warm sea surface temperatures (at least 26 0 C). As a consequences, they originate mainly over the western parts of the main ocean basins, where no cold ocean currents exist. Hurricanes occur only in tropical latitudes, but not in all tropical latitudes. They are absent from the east and south Atlantic and the eastern south Pacific. Why?
  • 12. As well as requiring high sea temperatures, the low pressure area has to be far enough away from the equator so that the Coriolis force (the force caused by the rotation of the Earth) creates rotation in the rising air mass. If it is too close to the equator there will be insufficient rotation and a hurricane will not develop. Why do hurricanes not develop on the equator itself?
  • 13. Because of the thermal requirements for formation, hurricanes are a hazard to specific locations at specific times of the year (eg from June to November in the west Atlantic).
  • 14. A hurricane derives its energy from warm ocean water, but it loses power as it crosses land and quickly dries out. It may regenerate if it passes over the ocean again. Hurricanes may move in straight lines, curves and loops influenced by the large-scale air masses they encounter. Their path is erratic; hence it is not always possible to give more than 12 hours notice. Why do hurricanes die out over land?
  • 15. This meant coastal areas in several Gulf states had to be evacuated. Then Elena slowed and was pushed eastward by local air masses towards the central Florida coast. It stopped for a while offshore, causing evacuation along the length of coastal Florida. Elena then turned westward and northward again, causing the evacuation again of coastal Gulf states. It finally made landfall near Biloxi in Mississippi and caused US$1.4 billion in damage (1989 dollars). The erratic nature of hurricanes is well illustrated by Hurricane Elena. This was a category 3 storm that caused considerable damage in the Gulf of Mexico in 1985. It headed west, rounded Florida then turned northward, towards an expected landfall in Mississippi.
  • 16. Hurricanes threaten people because of the strong winds, heavy rains, and storm surges. Storm surges occur as a result of wind-driven waves and the rise in sea surface due to low atmospheric pressure above. This amounts to a 26cm rise for every 30mb fall in pressure. The Saffir-Simpson scale of hurricane intensity is a useful way of describing hurricanes and identifying characteristics and damage.
  • 17.  
  • 18. In the USA deaths have dropped dramatically due to the advance warnings that can be broadcast before a hurricane makes landfall. However, damages in the USA continue to rise as Americans move to the coast, building larger and more expensive houses filled with costlier possessions. Minimising impacts: Prediction Warning Evacuation Better construction of buildings Sea wall construction or flood barrier Raising of buildings, rail and road Maintenance of a wide beach with high dunes Zoning laws to prevent building on low-lying land subject to storm surge flooding
  • 19. Robin: Hurricanes are the tropical cyclones of the Atlantic. They tend to develop: 1. over warm tropical oceans with sea surface temperatures above 26 °C. 2. in autumn when sea surface temperatures are at their highest 3. in the trade wind belt where the surface winds as they blow towards the equator 4. between latitudes 5 ° and 20° north or south of the equator (the Coriolis force is weaker and insufficient to ‘spin’ the hurricane nearer to the equator) The formation of hurricanes is not yet fully understood but they appear to originate when strong vertical movement of air draws with it water vapour from the ocean below. As the air rises, in a spiral movement, it cools and condenses - a process that releases vast amounts of latent energy and produces heavy rainfall. Once formed they move westwards often on erratic and difficult to predict courses. The hurricane rapidly declines once the source of heat and moisture is removed, i.e. when it moves over colder water or a land surface. The average lifespan of a hurricane is 7-14 days. Hurricanes can cause damage in four main ways: 1. High winds which often exceed 160 kph. 2. Storm (tidal) surges formed by the high winds and low pressure may inundate low lying coastal regions. 3. Flooding can result from torrential rain or a storm surge. 4. Landslides can occur from heavy rain where buildings have been erected on steep unstable slopes. Hurricanes have the advantage of predictability. There are distinct ‘hurricane seasons’ within which more precautions can be taken. Hurricanes can be easily spotted using satellite imagery which allows several days’ warning.