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Humanitarian Protection
with Evolution of Modern
Technology and Global Threats
Presentation
by
Maj Gen Nilendra Kumar,
Executive President,
Indian Society of International
Law
National Conference
at
Institute of Law,
Nirma University, Ahmedabad
on
16 February 2024
HUMANITARIAN PROTECTION
These relate to refugee law, protection of
children, sexual and gender based violence, land,
property and housing rights, and landmine issues.
MILITARY TECHNOLOGY
The term relates to range of weapons,
equipment, structures and vehicles used in
armed conflicts.
Protection as a humanitarian concept
categorizes all humanitarian activities
into assistance or protection.
CATEGORY OF TECHNOLOGY
1.Offensive weapons
2.Defensive weapons
3.Transportation options
4.Communication means
5.Sensors
FUNCTIONS
1.Tactics
2.Technology
SEGMENTS
1.Strategy
2.Tactics
3.Logistics
FOCUS AREAS
1. Hypersonic Weapons
2. AI
3. Cyber Space
4. Counter Space
5. Drones
6. Directed Energy Weapons
API ARTICLE 36
Provides for an efficient procedure to
ensure legality of new weapons.
NEW WEAPONS
In the study, development acquisition or
adoption of new means or methods of
combat, it shall be determined whether
these means and methods are compatible
with the rules of international law.
All states have an interest
in assessing the legality of
new weapons, regardless
of whether they are party
to AP 1.
The states must exchange information
about their review procedures, and to the
extent possible, the result of their reviews.
GAME THEORY
It is applied when analyzing
scenarios for understanding
interactive situations among
competing players.
CHALLENGES
1.Article 36 is preventive in nature.
2.Legitimate requirements of secrecy.
3.Internationalized procedure of control is not feasible.
4. Al systems would be able to outperform
humans in the application of game theory.
5. It may not be programmed with a self
preservation instinct.
PROHIBITIONS AND RESTRICTION ON
TYPE OF WEAPONS
1.NBC
2.Incendiary
3.Mines and Booby-traps
4.Blinding Laser Weapons
5.ERW
LATEST WEAPONS USED IN UKRAINECONFLICT
1. Javelin (a shoulder fired, guided A/tk missile used by a single individual).
Fire and Forget weapon.
2. HIMARS (High Mobility Artillery Rocket system)
3. Bayraktar TB 2 Drone Relatively cheap UAV that records its on video.
CONTROVERSIAL WEAPONS WHOSE USE
IN GAZA WAR ATTRACTED CRITICISM
1. Dumb Bombs. Not Guided types. Free to fall and destroy.
2. Bunker Buster Bombs. Penetrate hardened structures before exploding.
3. JDAMs (Joint Direct Attack Munitions). GPS use enables them to act as
precision guided munition.
ON RUSSIAN SIDE
Lancet Kamikaze drones is said to be the
most effective weapon used by Moscow.
DEFENCE INDIGNATION LIST OF
INDIA, AS DECLARED ON 4
OCTOBER 2024 INCLUDES
1. Infantry combat vehicles
2. Unmanned aerial vehicles
3. Medium range precision kill system for artillery
Contd/…
4. Test system for a guided weapon system for tanks
5. Radars
6. MI-7 heptre cabin nose system
7. OSA-AK-M air defence system
8. Flares for P-81 and MIG 29-K aircraft
USE OF SOLAR POWERED VEHICLES
High Altitude Pseudo Satellite Vehicles (HAPS) like
the one successfully tested by India in February 2024
can be gainfully employed for surveillance and
monitoring in military domain.
It is not in public domain if a review
mechanism to assess as envisaged
under AP 1 Art 36 exists in India!
CONCLUSION
The humanitarian protection aspects
connected to the development of new
weapons call for suitable safety measures.

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Humanitarian Protection, Modern Technology amidst Global Threats

  • 1. Humanitarian Protection with Evolution of Modern Technology and Global Threats
  • 2. Presentation by Maj Gen Nilendra Kumar, Executive President, Indian Society of International Law
  • 3. National Conference at Institute of Law, Nirma University, Ahmedabad on 16 February 2024
  • 4. HUMANITARIAN PROTECTION These relate to refugee law, protection of children, sexual and gender based violence, land, property and housing rights, and landmine issues.
  • 5. MILITARY TECHNOLOGY The term relates to range of weapons, equipment, structures and vehicles used in armed conflicts.
  • 6. Protection as a humanitarian concept categorizes all humanitarian activities into assistance or protection.
  • 7. CATEGORY OF TECHNOLOGY 1.Offensive weapons 2.Defensive weapons 3.Transportation options 4.Communication means 5.Sensors
  • 10. FOCUS AREAS 1. Hypersonic Weapons 2. AI 3. Cyber Space 4. Counter Space 5. Drones 6. Directed Energy Weapons
  • 11. API ARTICLE 36 Provides for an efficient procedure to ensure legality of new weapons.
  • 12. NEW WEAPONS In the study, development acquisition or adoption of new means or methods of combat, it shall be determined whether these means and methods are compatible with the rules of international law.
  • 13. All states have an interest in assessing the legality of new weapons, regardless of whether they are party to AP 1.
  • 14. The states must exchange information about their review procedures, and to the extent possible, the result of their reviews.
  • 15. GAME THEORY It is applied when analyzing scenarios for understanding interactive situations among competing players.
  • 16. CHALLENGES 1.Article 36 is preventive in nature. 2.Legitimate requirements of secrecy. 3.Internationalized procedure of control is not feasible.
  • 17. 4. Al systems would be able to outperform humans in the application of game theory. 5. It may not be programmed with a self preservation instinct.
  • 18. PROHIBITIONS AND RESTRICTION ON TYPE OF WEAPONS 1.NBC 2.Incendiary 3.Mines and Booby-traps 4.Blinding Laser Weapons 5.ERW
  • 19. LATEST WEAPONS USED IN UKRAINECONFLICT 1. Javelin (a shoulder fired, guided A/tk missile used by a single individual). Fire and Forget weapon. 2. HIMARS (High Mobility Artillery Rocket system) 3. Bayraktar TB 2 Drone Relatively cheap UAV that records its on video.
  • 20. CONTROVERSIAL WEAPONS WHOSE USE IN GAZA WAR ATTRACTED CRITICISM 1. Dumb Bombs. Not Guided types. Free to fall and destroy. 2. Bunker Buster Bombs. Penetrate hardened structures before exploding. 3. JDAMs (Joint Direct Attack Munitions). GPS use enables them to act as precision guided munition.
  • 21. ON RUSSIAN SIDE Lancet Kamikaze drones is said to be the most effective weapon used by Moscow.
  • 22. DEFENCE INDIGNATION LIST OF INDIA, AS DECLARED ON 4 OCTOBER 2024 INCLUDES 1. Infantry combat vehicles 2. Unmanned aerial vehicles 3. Medium range precision kill system for artillery Contd/…
  • 23. 4. Test system for a guided weapon system for tanks 5. Radars 6. MI-7 heptre cabin nose system 7. OSA-AK-M air defence system 8. Flares for P-81 and MIG 29-K aircraft
  • 24. USE OF SOLAR POWERED VEHICLES High Altitude Pseudo Satellite Vehicles (HAPS) like the one successfully tested by India in February 2024 can be gainfully employed for surveillance and monitoring in military domain.
  • 25. It is not in public domain if a review mechanism to assess as envisaged under AP 1 Art 36 exists in India!
  • 26. CONCLUSION The humanitarian protection aspects connected to the development of new weapons call for suitable safety measures.