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Human  Digestive System
What you will be learning... ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Recall. . . ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
5 Digestion Processes (IDAAE) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Digestion ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],amylase
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Mouth (Ahhh....) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Salivary amylase
 
Swallowing
What Happens During Breathing and Swallowing? trachea (windpipe) glottis During breathing, the  larynx  is lowered and the  glottis  is open. pharynx oesophagus larynx (voice-box) air Normally, air passes into the  trachea  ( windpipe )   while food passes into the  oesophagus .
What Happens During Breathing and Swallowing? During swallowing, the larynx is raised and the glottis is covered by the  epiglottis . This prevents food particles from entering the trachea.   pharynx trachea (windpipe) oesophagus glottis epiglottis food particles larynx (voice-box)
What Happens During Breathing and Swallowing? Occasionally, small  particles of food  or water may get into the larynx or trachea. trachea (windpipe) larynx (voice-box) food particles
What Happens During Breathing and Swallowing? This automatically induces  violent coughing  to force the food particles or water out and to  prevent choking. trachea (windpipe) larynx (voice-box) food particles
Oesophagus ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Peristalsis ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Part of the gut wall circular muscles longitudinal muscles
Wall here constricts. Circular muslces contract; longitudinal muscles relax Wall here dilates Direction of movement of food Circular muscles relax Longitudinal muscles  contract
Peristalsis  –  Move the food down! ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Stomach ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
HCl converts inactive pepsinogen and prorennin  to their active forms
[object Object]
Small Intestine ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
bile intestinal juice pancreatic duct pancreatic juice bile duct 1 3 2 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Duodenum ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Note that the small intestine is the main site of  digestion of food and absorption of nutrients. pancreatic amylase proteases lipase maltase protease lipase lactase sucrase
 
 
Large Intestine (colon) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Organs associated with the alimentary canal ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Gall bladder ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Pancreas ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Absorption  Adaptations of the small intestine ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
Lacteal  – fatty acids and glycerol  recombine   in the epithelium to form  fat  which then  enters the lacteal as  fine fat droplets Blood capillaries  –  transport  sugars and amino acids  away from the small  intestine One cell thick epithelium  –  for  efficient  absorption of  food particles This continual transport of digested food substances  maintains the concentration gradient  for the absorption  of digested food substances.
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What happens to amino acids and glucose after absorption? Products released from liver into  general blood circulation Molecules pass into the  epithelial cells Through walls of  capillaries  in the villus and into bloodstream The capillaries join up to form  veins Veins unite to form 1 large vein:  Hepatic Portal Vein Hepatic portal vein carries blood to  liver Liver  stores or alters  products of digestion
 
Glucose   Amino Acids ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What happens to fatty acids and glycerol after absorption? Molecules pass into the  epithelial cells Recombine  into fats again in the epithelial cells Fats enter the  lacteals Lymph (fluid in lacteals) + fat =  chyle Lymphatic vessels discharge chyle into bloodstream
Fats ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Villi – absorption by diffusion Diffusion From intestine To  To liver
Assimilation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Functions of the Liver ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Functions of the liver ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Functions of the liver ,[object Object],[object Object]
Functions of the liver ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]

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Human digestion teacher

  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.  
  • 10. What Happens During Breathing and Swallowing? trachea (windpipe) glottis During breathing, the larynx is lowered and the glottis is open. pharynx oesophagus larynx (voice-box) air Normally, air passes into the trachea ( windpipe ) while food passes into the oesophagus .
  • 11. What Happens During Breathing and Swallowing? During swallowing, the larynx is raised and the glottis is covered by the epiglottis . This prevents food particles from entering the trachea. pharynx trachea (windpipe) oesophagus glottis epiglottis food particles larynx (voice-box)
  • 12. What Happens During Breathing and Swallowing? Occasionally, small particles of food or water may get into the larynx or trachea. trachea (windpipe) larynx (voice-box) food particles
  • 13. What Happens During Breathing and Swallowing? This automatically induces violent coughing to force the food particles or water out and to prevent choking. trachea (windpipe) larynx (voice-box) food particles
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. Wall here constricts. Circular muslces contract; longitudinal muscles relax Wall here dilates Direction of movement of food Circular muscles relax Longitudinal muscles contract
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19. HCl converts inactive pepsinogen and prorennin to their active forms
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.  
  • 33. Lacteal – fatty acids and glycerol recombine in the epithelium to form fat which then enters the lacteal as fine fat droplets Blood capillaries – transport sugars and amino acids away from the small intestine One cell thick epithelium – for efficient absorption of food particles This continual transport of digested food substances maintains the concentration gradient for the absorption of digested food substances.
  • 34.
  • 35. What happens to amino acids and glucose after absorption? Products released from liver into general blood circulation Molecules pass into the epithelial cells Through walls of capillaries in the villus and into bloodstream The capillaries join up to form veins Veins unite to form 1 large vein: Hepatic Portal Vein Hepatic portal vein carries blood to liver Liver stores or alters products of digestion
  • 36.  
  • 37.
  • 38. What happens to fatty acids and glycerol after absorption? Molecules pass into the epithelial cells Recombine into fats again in the epithelial cells Fats enter the lacteals Lymph (fluid in lacteals) + fat = chyle Lymphatic vessels discharge chyle into bloodstream
  • 39.
  • 40. Villi – absorption by diffusion Diffusion From intestine To To liver
  • 41.
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45.

Editor's Notes

  1. (1)The initial stages of eating and swallowing are under voluntary control. (2)Once food enters the mouth the teeth break it down into smaller and smaller pieces. This has the dual function of making the food easier to swallow and increasing the surface area of food on which the saliva can act. The tongue, lips and cheeks assist the teeth in the process by allowing the food to be "rolled" around the oral cavity. The mechanical action described above produces a softened bolus of food which is now ready to be swallowed. The correct biological term for swallowing is deglutition. (3) shows the voluntary stage of deglutition. Here the bolus is pushed into the upper part of the pharynx (known as the oropharynx ) by the action of the tongue.  The pharyngeal stage of deglutiton is stimulated when the bolus enters the oropharynx. This stage of swallowing is mainly due to a reflex response. Various nerve receptors send messages to the deglutition centre of the brain stem. (see medulla and pons in your notes on the central nervous system). (4)This sets off muscular contractions in the pharynx. The soft palate closes off the nasopharynx. The vocal cords in the larynx are moved up and towards the front of the throat thus closing it off to the passage of food. This is extremely important in preventing food from entering the airway.I am sure we have all experienced the unpleasant feeling of food or drink going the "wrong way"!! Another effect of the process is to widen the opening of the oesophagus thus making the passage of the bolus along the alimentary canal easier. (5) As the bolus pushes it's way into the oesophagus it automatically pushes the epiglottis downwards further closing off the airway. (6) The bolus then enters the oesophagus and the final stage of swallowing begins. This final stage is known as the oesophageal stage of deglutiton. http://greenfield.fortunecity.com/rattler/46/upali4.htm
  2. Figure 6.4 page 92
  3. Figure 6.4 page 92
  4. Figure 6.4 page 92
  5. Figure 6.4 page 92
  6. Figure 6.6 page 93
  7. Compare the stomach wall n oesophagus wall? Which is thinker? Why? ( pro