SlideShare a Scribd company logo
HR Square - Costas Markides & Frederik Anseel
What if we decided to take employee-
driven innovation seriously?
HR Square masterclass 13-05-2014
Frederik Anseel
Ghent University
Contact
frederik.anseel@ugent.be
Twitter: @fanseel
Web: fanseel.be
“Discussing the importance of
innovation would be a waste of
your time”
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
“The most valuable resource for innovation
remains largely untapped – the people-side of
innovation”
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
“40 years of psychological research provides us
with a good scientific understanding of the
psychology of innovation and how to encourage it”
Objectives of my talk today
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
• Share scientific insights on 4 key resources that drive employee-driven
innovativion
• Formulate principles that can shape an innovative work environment and
daily work experiences of employees
• Translate these principles in actionable practices and HR-tools for
stimulating innovation
Employee innovation is determined by 4 resources
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
MOTIVATIO
N
ENVIRONMENT
MOOD
EMPLOYEE
INNOVATIO
N
KNOWLEDGE
(1) The motivational resource
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
• Being passionate about work fuels innovation
Passionate? Feeling competent and in control
Intrinsic motivation =ρ .24, variation 25%
Creative self-efficacy =ρ .33
• External incentives can foster or hinder one’s innovation
It depends!
Extrinsic motivation =ρ .14, variation 151%
It is not only about whether people like their job, it is also
about whether they like to help others.
I enjoy the work
itself!
I want to help others
through my work!
Generates novel, but
operable work-related
ideas
“My co-workers will think
worse of me if I often try
out
new approaches on my
job”
“If I were to do something
innovative, my image in
the
organization would be
enhanced”
“Coming up with creative
ideas helps me do well on
my job”
“Investigates and secures
funds needed to
implement
new ideas”
Caring about your image does not help innovation
trying new ideas to do a better job does!
“I consider diverse sources
of information in
generating
new ideas”
“My manager will publicly
recognize those who are
Creative”
“I can decide on my own
how to go about doing my
Work”
Empowered employees engage more often in
creative processes when this is encouraged
and valued by their supervisor.
I am not interested in making
sure that you are here, that
you are giving us so many
hours a day. We need people
who will deliver a final
result.”
“If we do not let people do
things the way they do, we
will never know what they
are really capable of and
they will just follow our
boarding school rules.”
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
Principle 1
“Focus on intrinsic motivation, by fostering feelings of
control and competence, and channel this motivation
towards innovation by setting the right cues”
(2) Environmental resources
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
• Perceptions of one’s job
e.g. autonomy = .ρ 32
• Perceptions of one’s co-workers
e.g. co-worker support =ρ .36
• Perceptions of one’s leader
e.g. leader-member relationship =ρ .29
• Perceptions of one’s organization
e.g. Supportive resources =ρ .27
“In my organization, creative
work receives appropriate
recognition
and praise”
“opportunities for personal growth
and development are important to
me”
Also for people in routine jobs, recognition of creative work leads to more
creative performance
“Desire to elicit high
performance from
me.”
“Expresses anger at me when
he/she is mad for another reason”
“Desire to make me
feel bad about
myself.”
Abusive leadership hinders creativity, but
less when individuals believe their leader
just wants them to perform better.
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
Principle 2
“Structure employees’ work environment in such a way
that employees believe to be free and psychologically
safe in their job, and supported by their co-workers,
leaders and organization to innovate”
(3) Emotions as resources
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
• Both positive and negative moods can facilitate innovation
• Whether the mood is activating makes the difference
=
Dual-pathway of innovation
HR Square - Costas Markides & Frederik Anseel
Do not solely focus on
fostering positive moods.
Creativity stems from a
subtle interplay between
positive and negative
feelings.
Do not solely focus on fostering positive moods. Creativity
stems from a subtle interplay between positive and negative
feelings coupled to supervisor support
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
Principle 3
“Positive activating vibes energize employees to innovate,
but do not avoid a sense of crisis or urgency”
(4) Knowledge as resource
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
• Knowledge and information are key
component of creativity
• Emphasis on knowledge gathering,
development & sharing
e.g. openess =ρ .19 – Intrinsic motivation
to learn =ρ .21
“The manager
encourages members to
share ideas with each
other”
“Interact with my colleagues
in this organization to
discuss
suggestions and ideas”
“Available for sharing
experiences with people
outside this organization”
Internal and external knowledge sharing can spur creativity
and innovation. However, leaders have an important role in
encouraging and facilitating these processes.
“I feel that using the Web
2.0 application is fun”
“When using the Web 2.0
application, I am absorbed
intensely in the activity”
Knowledge seeking and sharing through Web 2.0 tools
contributes to employee creativity as employees experience
more flow from these new tools than classic knowledge
management tools
“How frequently do you
directly ask your supervisor
for feedback about your
work?”
By asking feedback directly on
problems and ideas employees use a
valuable source for creative solutions
“How frequently do you pay
attention to how your boss acts
toward you in order to understand
how he/she perceives and
evaluates your work?
In competitive climates hiding your knowledge for others
ultimately backfires on your own creativity
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
Principle 4
“No matter how much you motivate, energize and support
your employees, knowledge and information are the
currency of innovation. Organize for easy acces to
information and fluent sharing of knowledge”
“HR* can apply these 4 principals through its control over: ”
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
WORK DESIGN
LEARNING &
DEVELOPMENT
PERFORMANCE
MANAGEMENT
COMPENSATION &
BENEFITS
INNOVATIVE
MINDSET
INNOVATIVE
PERFORMANCE
MOTIVATION
ENVIRONMENT
MOOD
KNOWLEDGE
*Today is about how to manage not about who to hire
HOW CAN HR INCREASE RESOURCES FOR EMPLOYEE
INNOVATION THROUGH WORK DESIGN?
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
FOCUS ON THE MOTIVATION AND KNOWLEDGE PRINCIPLE
Customize challenging jobs that target employees passion:
-Negotiate I-deals
-Create an internal project market for which employees can volunteer
-Allow employees freetime to work on innovative projects and set goals
-Spur a prosocial climate by creating interdependency and impact
-Team interdependency leads to knowledge-sharing
HOW CAN HR INCREASE RESOURCES FOR EMPLOYEE
INNOVATION THROUGH WORK DESIGN?
HR Square - Costas Markides & Frederik Anseel
HOW CAN HR INCREASE THE FOUR RESOURCES
THROUGH TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT?
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
HR Square - Costas Markides & Frederik Anseel
HOW CAN HR INCREASE THE FOUR RESOURCES
THROUGH TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT?
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
FOCUS ON THE KNOWLEDGE PRINCIPLE
•Integrate challenges in people’s jobs in a strategic way in order to increase
on-the-job learning
•Systematically integrate after-event reviews in work as to employees can
learn from their successes and failures
•Integrate new professional social media in employees’ daily handling with
each other www.yammer.com www.work.com www.cognistreamer.com
•Train supervisors in encouraging and facilitating internal & external
knowledge sharing and feedback-seeking in their team
HOW CAN HR INCREASE THE FOUR RESOURCES
THROUGH PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT?
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
HR Square - Costas Markides & Frederik Anseel
HR Square - Costas Markides & Frederik Anseel
HOW CAN HR INCREASE THE FOUR RESOURCES
THROUGH PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT?
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
FOCUS ON THE CONTEXT AND THE MOOD PRINCIPLE
Facilitate progress instead of evaluating performance
•Replace annual performance reviews by performance check-ins (Adobe)
•Stimulate supervisors to reflect daily (checklist) on how they helped their
team to make progress www.progressprinciple.com
•Set creativity goals and focus both on the outcome and the process.
•Psychological safety and support
•Learn to capitalize on mood swings
HOW CAN HR APPLY THE PRINCIPLES THROUGH
COMPENSATION & BENEFITS?
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
FOCUS ON THE MOTIVATION PRINCIPLE:
I. HOW SHOULD WE REWARD TOP MANAGEMENT TO FOSTER
INNOVATION?
II. HOW SHOULD WE REWARD EMPLOYEES TO FOSTER INNOVATION?
Individually or team-wise?
HOW SHOULD WE REWARD TOP MANAGEMENT TO
FOSTER INNOVATION?
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
• Pay related to short-term goals: cost-cutting and less investments in R&D
• Long-term benefits do not overcome this tendency
• High-tech companies reward top management’s behavior and decisions,
e.g. R&D expenses, new patents or product launches, milestones in
innovative projects, innovation-audit
HOW SHOULD WE REWARD EMPLOYEES TO FOSTER
INNOVATION? Individually or team-wise?
Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
Team rewarding:
•Creates outcome interdependency
•Stimulates information sharing
•Facilitates cohesion
•Enhances learning
•Diminishes subgroup salience
Caution:
•Social loafing – alternative hybrid rewarding
So, what have we
learned here?
Benefit from the psychological science of innovation
– Analyse your organization for motivation, work
environment, mood and knowledge
– Seek how to adress those in HR-practices
1. Job design
2. Learning and development
3. Performance management
4. Compensation and benefits
And what about recruitment and
selection?
Stay tuned….
Your management really values taking
into account the customer’s opinion on
the company's products and services,
and spends a large amount of money
every year on consumer research. One
of the products that your company sells is
toilet paper. You report in a meeting that
consumer research revealed that
customers complain about the packaging
of the toilet paper. They say it is too big
and not convenient to carry around. You
believe a solution is needed and could
create a competitive advantage. How
would you proceed to find an innovative
solution?
Questions?
Frederik.anseel@ugent.be
www.fanseel.be
www.vigorinnovation.com
www.innduce.me
@fanseel
@vigorinnovation
HR Square - Costas Markides & Frederik Anseel
Promoting Innovation in Our
Organisations
Professor Costas Markides
London Business School
Possible Answer #1
Consider this simple exercise:
• Add all the numbers from
1 to 100 and tell me the
sum total (in one minute).
My first question to you:
• How many of you gave up?
My second question to you:
• Who came up with the answer?
Who got the answer?
• Gauss, the best mathematician
that Germany ever produced
got the answer in 60 seconds in
1787 (when he was only 10
years old)!
• How did he do it?
The difference:
• Most people say: “My God,
this is impossible to solve in
one minute”
The difference:
• Most people say: “My God,
this is impossible to solve in
one minute”
• Gauss said: “My God, this is
impossible to solve in one
minute like that.”
The difference:
• Most people blame the task
we gave them. This leads
them to give up.
• Gauss blamed the way he
was trying to solve the task.
(that is, his methodology).
This led him to questioning.
Please Note:
• He did not innovate because
we asked him to “be
innovative” or to “think
outside the box”!
• He innovated because he
questioned his methodology
Unconventional Idea:
• Innovation is NOT an end in
itself;
• It is the by-product of something
else = the questioning of how to
achieve a really stretch
objective that people bought
into)
Another way of Saying this:
• Give your people a really
stretch goal; AND
• Sell it to them to win their
emotional commitment to this
goal
In General:
• If you give your people a really
stretch goal; AND
• Sell it to them to win their emotional
commitment to the goal; THEN
• They will begin questioning the way
they are trying to achieve this goal.
• This questioning may lead to
Innovation.
What determines success:
• Is not the sexiness of the
stretch goal!
• It is whether you succeeded
in “selling it” to your people.
Example:
• President Kennedy (or Steve
Jobs) versus Costas
Markides.
HOW TO WIN EMOTIONAL COMMITMENT
I KNOW
I UNDERSTAND
YES, I THINK I CAN
I WILL
This sounds difficult!
• Any other ways in which we
can promote innovation in
our organisations?
Possible Answer #2
Example:
• “Eat Healthy” Campaign in
the USA…
The Results:
• Six months later, the
campaign proved to be a
total failure.
• Why?
Why?
• Because (believe it or not) the
statement: “Eat healthy” is NOT
clear enough!
• The options are limitless and
this leads to decision paralysis.
Same principle for many things!
• We need to “cut our costs”
• We need to become more
customer-centric
• We need to change
• We need to become more
innovative
First Principle to Know
• Principle #1: What often looks
like resistance to change is
actually lack of clarity
Therefore:
• Don’t tell your people: “We
need to be innovative” or
“we need to think outside
the box”!
Instead:Focus on Behaviors:
• Certain behaviors are
associated with innovation.
• Therefore, encourage
everybody in your
organisation to behave like
this on a daily basis…
What Behaviors Promote Innovation?
• Jean Paul Gaillard at Nespresso
in 1992-1993.
The moral of the story:
• Innovation requires that someone
takes ownership of the idea;
• Innovation requires that you stick
your neck out.
Other Behaviors:
• Jean Paul Gaillard at Nespresso
in 1992-1993.
• Selling shoe polish at Sara Lee
The moral of the story:
• Innovation requires that you get
out of your office and observe
the customer personally.
Other Behaviors:
• Jean Paul Gaillard at Nespresso
in 1992-1993.
• Selling shoe polish at Sara Lee
• Arthur Fry’s discovery of the
Post-It note at 3M
The moral of the story:
• Innovation requires that you
bypass the constraints that the
organisation puts around you in
a creative way.
Other Behaviors:
• Jean Paul Gaillard at Nespresso
in 1992-1993.
• Selling shoe polish at Sara Lee
• Arthur Fry’s discovery of the
Post-It note at 3M
• The introduction of tabloid-sized
newspaper by the Guardian
The moral of the story:
• Innovation requires that we
question the things we take for
granted.
• Such as: why pay all this money
to shave?
The Dollar Shave Club
Other Behaviors:
• Jean Paul Gaillard at Nespresso in 1992-
1993.
• Selling shoe polish at Sara Lee
• Arthur Fry’s discovery of the Post-It note at
3M
• The introduction of tabloid-sized
newspaper by the Guardian
• Unilever’s fiasco with Omo Power
The moral of the story:
• Innovation requires experimentation
• Allow your people to try things
without fear of failure.
And so on:
• Start out by identifying what
behaviors you’d want from every
single employee in your
organisation.
Such As:
• Question the things we take for granted; Question
everything.
• Try things out (without fear of failure)
• Be willing to stick your neck out. Take ownership
of new ideas.
• Look outside your industry for ideas.
• Go to the customer and observe…
• Cooperate beyond your silos.
• Think strategically and be proactive
• Take the initiative
Unfortunately:
• Identifying the behaviors you
want from everybody is important
but not enough!
• People will not behave like this
even when you make it very clear
to them that you expect these
behaviors from them.
Why Not?
• Why is it that people do not
follow the behaviors that will get
us innovation?
• There are two major reasons for
it:
First:
1. An unsupportive Organizational
Environment.
Let’s Try a Simple Exercise
You have a cake and a knife. You are
allowed to cut the cake four times in straight
lines. What is the maximum number of
pieces that you could cut the cake into (in
one minute)?
It is not 8 Pieces!
It is Not Eleven Pieces!
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
7
9
10
11
It is Not Twelve Pieces!
It is Not Sixteen Pieces!
Cut the cake into two pieces.
Put one piece on top of the other and cut in two
again. Put all pieces on top of each other and cut in
two again. Put all pieces on top of each other and
cut in two again.
24
= 16 times
More Importantly:
• Why do most people try
to solve this exercise
individually?
• What explains this
behavior?
What Determines Behaviors?
Solving the exercise individually
Time-pressure
Mindsets, assumptions,
beliefs
Psychological
pressures
Structure
Incentives
A Key Management Principle:
• The Underlying Environment
determines how people behave
(much more than we’d like to
believe).
What happens:
• We keep telling people to “Question
Everything” but the moment anybody
does it, we call them troublemakers…
• We keep telling people to “Try things
out” but the moment they fail, we fire
them
• We keep telling people to “Stick their
neck out” but when they do it, we
chop it off!
Downtown Calcutta
Versus
Downtown Fontainebleau
What Drives Behaviours in
Organizations?
Sumantra Ghoshal
Second Principle to Know:
• Principle #2: What often looks
like a people problem is actually
a situation (environment)
problem.
Specifically:
• At most, our personality can only
explain 30% of our behaviors.
• The remaining 70% is
explained by the “social
context” (or “situation” or
“underlying environment”) in
which we find ourselves.
The Underlying Environment
How we
Behave in
our
company
How we
Behave in
our
company
Structures
and
Processes
People,
(skills, attitudes,
mindsets
Culture and
Values
Measurement
and
Incentives
The Implication of All This is:
• If you want to change how your
people behave, you need to change
the Environment around them.
• That is, create an environment that
supports and promotes the
behaviors you want from everybody.
How?
• How can we create an
Environment that
Promotes Innovative
Behaviors from
everybody?
Children See, Children Do:
In Other Words:
• YOU adopt the behaviors
that you want all the others
to adopt.
In addition:
• Small changes in the Environment
can have a big impact on how
people behave.
• This is known as “The Butterfly
Principle”
The Butterfly Principle:
• It is the basis of the book NUDGE
• And already, countries like the UK
and the US have “Nudge
Departments” in their ministry of
the Interior
For Example:
• How did the UK government
increase its tax revenues by
£1 billion last year?
HR Square - Costas Markides & Frederik Anseel
What does the letter say?
• The deadline for submitting your
taxes is January 30th
. If you fail to
submit on time you will be fined £500.
• The deadline for submitting your
taxes is January 30th
. Last year, 93%
of people submitted their taxes on
time.
In Other Words:
• Advertise the behaviors you
want and encourage people
to conform to these
behaviors.
What You Need to Do
• Tweak the Environment so as
to:
• Make the “right” behaviors a little bit
easier
• Make the “wrong” behaviors a little
bit harder
Summary So Far:
1. Identify the behaviors that
you want everybody in the
company to display every
day.
2. Encourage these behaviors
by creating a Supporting
Environment for them
Unfortunately
• There is a second reason why
our people do not follow the
behaviors that will get us
innovation.
Second Reason:
1. An unsupportive Organizational
Environment.
2. All the behaviors we ask of them
are the exact opposite of their
“automatic” behaviors (that is
their DNA)
Two Types of Behaviors:
• Thinking Behaviors
• Automatic Behaviors
Automatic Behaviors
• We automatically behave like
this without thinking.
Why Automatic:
• Genetic (e.g. lion attacks)
Why Automatic:
• Genetic (e.g. lion attacks)
• Values (e.g. offering your seat in a bus
to an elderly lady)
Why Automatic:
• Genetic (e.g. lion attacks)
• Values (e.g. offering your seat in a bus
to an elderly lady)
• Experience—I have done it so many
times, I can do it with my eyes shut
(e.g. tennis).
And now a test for you:
• I will give you a list of behaviors.
• Your task is to tell me which are our
automatic behaviors (“I have done
this so many times, I can do them
with my eyes shut”).
• Ready?
Which is the automatic behavior?
• Thinking outside the box versus
conforming to what everybody does.
An academic study by Professor George
Land on Divergent Thinking and Schools
• Who has the ability to think in a
divergent way (a pre-requisite for
creativity)?
• Anybody who scores 10/10 is
called a genius in creativity
Divergent Thinking and Schools
• 3-5 year old kids:
Divergent Thinking and Schools
• 3-5 year old kids: 98% score as
genius
Divergent Thinking and Schools
• 3-5 year old kids: 98% score as genius
• 8-10 year olds: 32%
Divergent Thinking and Schools
• 3-5 year old kids: 98% score as genius
• 8-10 year olds: 32%
• 13-15 year olds: 10%
Divergent Thinking and Schools
• 3-5 year old kids: 98% score as genius
• 8-10 year olds: 32%
• 13-15 year olds: 10%
• 2,000 adults 25+ year old: 2%
As Einstein said:
• It’s a miracle that curiosity
survives formal education.
Conformity in
Action:
Which is the automatic behavior?
• Cooperate versus being competitive.
• (example: the arm-wrestling exercise)
Which is the automatic behavior?
• Take the initiative versus social
loafing.
• (consider this video)
It Happened in New York:
Which is the automatic behavior?
• Experiment versus analysing and
searching for the one best solution.
Say versus Do
Automatic Behaviors What we ask you
Conformity Stick your neck out
Competitive Cooperate
Search for best solution Experiment
Social Loaf Take the initiative
Conform Think outside the box
Message:
• Most of the behaviors that we ask our
people to follow (for innovation) are
the exact opposite of what their
automatic behaviors.
What wins out?
• A few hours of our boss (or
teacher) telling us what we
“should” do?
• Versus 40-50 years of experience
teaching us what is “good” for
us?
The sad truth:
• We keep telling you: “these are the
behaviors that we want from you”
• These behaviors all sound “common
sense” and “easy”.
• But the sad truth is that you spent the last
40 years of your life at home, school and
work learning the exact opposite
behaviors!
Third Principle to Know
• Principle #3: What often looks
like laziness to is actually
emotional exhaustion.
What Does This Imply?
• Go Beyond Telling People:
Analytical appeals are not enough!
• It’s tempting to prepare a
powerpoint presentation, listing the
things you want from your people—
it will not work!
What We Need to Do:
• If telling people that these are
the behaviors we want from
them is not enough, how then
can we get the “proper”
behaviors out of our
employees?
Answer:
• To get people to change their
automatic behaviors, you will
need to make the need for
change emotional.
An Analogy
• Psychologists have an analogy
for this: The Rider and the
Elephant
The Rider and the Elephant (Haidt, 2006)
• The Rider:
• Rational, Cool Cognitive
• Knows what we should do
• Holds the reins and seems to be in control
• The Elephant:
• Emotional, Hot
• Larger and more powerful
• Motivated by what we want (comfort, peace and
quiet, ice cream)
How Can you Make the need for
Change Emotional?
1. Things you see are more likely to evoke
emotions than things you read
Make it Emotional
Make it Emotional: Free Hugs
How Can you Make the need for
Change Emotional?
1. Things you see are more likely to evoke
emotions than things you read;
2. Stories (and how you tell them) are
more likely to evoke emotion than a
presentation.
Power of stories
Ignoring the evidence in favour of the story – a medical
example
Source: Freymuth and Ronan, Modeling Patient Decision-Making: The Role of Base-Rate and Anecdotal Information, Journal of Clinical Psychology in
Medical Settings 149
Negative story Positive story
Treatment A
90% effective
Treatment B
30% effective
‘Base rate
information’
Power of stories
Ignoring the evidence in favour of the story – a medical
example
Source: Freymuth and Ronan, Modeling Patient Decision-Making: The Role of Base-Rate and Anecdotal Information, Journal of Clinical Psychology in
Medical Settings 150
Negative story Positive story
88%Treatment A
90% effective
Treatment B
30% effective
‘Base rate
information’
Power of stories
Ignoring the evidence in favour of the story – a medical
example
Source: Freymuth and Ronan, Modeling Patient Decision-Making: The Role of Base-Rate and Anecdotal Information, Journal of Clinical Psychology in
Medical Settings 151
Negative story Positive story
39% 88%Treatment A
90% effective
Treatment B
30% effective
‘Base rate
information’
Power of stories
Ignoring the evidence in favour of the story – a medical
example
Source: Freymuth and Ronan, Modeling Patient Decision-Making: The Role of Base-Rate and Anecdotal Information, Journal of Clinical Psychology in
Medical Settings 152
Negative story Positive story
39% 88%Treatment A
90% effective
Treatment B
30% effective
‘Base rate
information’
7%
Power of stories
Ignoring the evidence in favour of the story – a medical
example
Source: Freymuth and Ronan, Modeling Patient Decision-Making: The Role of Base-Rate and Anecdotal Information, Journal of Clinical Psychology in
Medical Settings 153
Negative story Positive story
39% 88%Treatment A
90% effective
Treatment B
30% effective
‘Base rate
information’
78%7%
The Power of Stories
Prosecution
Facts
Facts
Story
Story
Defense
Source: N. Pennington and R. Hastie:
“Explanation-Based Decision Making”,
Journal of Experimental Psychology:
Learning, Memory and Cognition, 1998
The Power of Stories
63%
59%
Prosecution
Facts
Facts
Story
Story
Defense
Source: N. Pennington and R. Hastie:
“Explanation-Based Decision Making”,
Journal of Experimental Psychology:
Learning, Memory and Cognition, 1998
The Power of Stories
63% 78%
59%
Prosecution
Facts
Facts
Story
Story
Defense
Source: N. Pennington and R. Hastie:
“Explanation-Based Decision Making”,
Journal of Experimental Psychology:
Learning, Memory and Cognition, 1998
The Power of Stories
63% 78%
31% 59%
Prosecution
Facts
Facts
Story
Story
Defense
RESULT: A near 50% swing in the number of people saying
someone is guilty of first-degree murder based on whether a
story was told or not.
How Can you Make the need for
Change Emotional?
1. Things you see are more likely to evoke
emotions than things you read;
2. Stories (and how you tell them) are
more likely to evoke emotion than a
presentation.
3. How do you frame the need for change?
For Example:
Can you think of a word?
-- A N Y
For Example:
Can you think of a word?
MA N Y
For Example:
Can you think of a word?
MA N Y
--ENY
HR Square - Costas Markides & Frederik Anseel
Possible Signs:
• Can you please help a blind man?
• I am blind. Please help me feed
my children
• Is it a sunny day? I am blind
• It is springtime and I am blind
• I am blind and it’s springtime
Possible Signs:
• Can you please help a blind man?
• I am blind. Please help me feed
my children
• Is it a sunny day? I am blind
• It is springtime and I am blind
• I am blind and it’s springtime
Anchoring
• What comes first “anchors” the
mind to it.
• Everything that comes after it is
evaluated relative to what you said
or did before.
• Therefore: Put it in a context so that
whatever you say afterwards
shines.
Agenda
Can you use “symbolic actions” to
reinforce your message?
Can you generate momentum (for the
change you want) through early
victories that you celebrate with your
team?
Can you “advertise” the “right”
behaviors you expect from people?
Can you make them feel “special” for
doing what you want them to do?
Make it Emotional: What else?
Summary: The 3 strategies
• Provide Clarity
• Tweak the Environment
• Make the need for change
emotional
Possible Answer #3
Who wants to be a millionaire:
169
Source: Jeff Howe, Crowdsourcing: How the Power of the Crowd is Driving the Future of Business.
Phone a friend:
Ask the audience:
You don’t have to think of everything
170
Source: Jeff Howe, Crowdsourcing: How the Power of the Crowd is Driving the Future of Business.
Phone a friend: 65%
Ask the audience:
You don’t have to think of everything
171
Source: Jeff Howe, Crowdsourcing: How the Power of the Crowd is Driving the Future of Business.
Phone a friend: 65%
Ask the audience: 91%
Practice Open Innovation:
• You do not have to discover
everything in life!
• Ask others for ideas and solutions to
problems—the world is your oyster.
Putting the idea into practice:
• The strategy of “Connect and
Develop” by P&G.
• P&G Mission (2001): “Fifty percent
of all new discoveries in P&G must
come from outside P&G”
Summary: 3 Ideas
• “Stretch” your people
into active questioning.
• Encourage the behaviors
associated with
innovation;
• Practice Open Innovation
In Conclusion:
• Lots of Things to Think About so let
me finish with one last thought.
The Knowledge - Doing Gap
Time
B
Profits
A
Overall:
 Everybody knows
 Only 1% do…
Therefore:
• Seize the moment!
• The future belongs to those who dare
take chances!
HR Square - Costas Markides & Frederik Anseel

More Related Content

Viewers also liked

Hr minde zorg 24-06-2014 (workshops)
Hr minde zorg 24-06-2014 (workshops)Hr minde zorg 24-06-2014 (workshops)
Hr minde zorg 24-06-2014 (workshops)
HR_Square
 
Webinar: resultaten studie 'Absenteïsme in 2014'
Webinar: resultaten studie 'Absenteïsme in 2014'Webinar: resultaten studie 'Absenteïsme in 2014'
Webinar: resultaten studie 'Absenteïsme in 2014'
Securex
 
20140227 stress burnout
20140227 stress burnout20140227 stress burnout
20140227 stress burnout
HR_Square
 
Hr square november conference dag 2
Hr square november conference dag 2Hr square november conference dag 2
Hr square november conference dag 2
HR_Square
 
Hr minde zorg24-06-2014 (plenair)
Hr minde zorg24-06-2014 (plenair)Hr minde zorg24-06-2014 (plenair)
Hr minde zorg24-06-2014 (plenair)
HR_Square
 
Mutualisation centre de services partagés alerte à l'h. 24042015
Mutualisation   centre de services partagés  alerte à l'h. 24042015Mutualisation   centre de services partagés  alerte à l'h. 24042015
Mutualisation centre de services partagés alerte à l'h. 24042015
HR_Square
 
Hr square november conference dag 3
Hr square november conference dag 3Hr square november conference dag 3
Hr square november conference dag 3
HR_Square
 
Hr square november conference workshops
Hr square november conference   workshopsHr square november conference   workshops
Hr square november conference workshops
HR_Square
 
Aanwezigheids en gezondheidsbeleid voor hrm in de zorg
Aanwezigheids  en gezondheidsbeleid voor hrm in de zorgAanwezigheids  en gezondheidsbeleid voor hrm in de zorg
Aanwezigheids en gezondheidsbeleid voor hrm in de zorg
HR_Square
 
Hypes&hopes26 08
Hypes&hopes26 08Hypes&hopes26 08
Hypes&hopes26 08
HR_Square
 
Hr square november conference dag 1
Hr square november conference dag 1Hr square november conference dag 1
Hr square november conference dag 1
HR_Square
 
Leiderschapsontwikk07 11
Leiderschapsontwikk07 11Leiderschapsontwikk07 11
Leiderschapsontwikk07 11
HR_Square
 
Alle presentaties zorg
Alle presentaties zorgAlle presentaties zorg
Alle presentaties zorg
HR_Square
 
Projectie ow
Projectie owProjectie ow
Projectie ow
HR_Square
 
HRM KMO: alle presentaties
HRM KMO: alle presentatiesHRM KMO: alle presentaties
HRM KMO: alle presentaties
HR_Square
 
Hrm kmo 27-03-2014
Hrm   kmo 27-03-2014Hrm   kmo 27-03-2014
Hrm kmo 27-03-2014
HR_Square
 
Slideshow pfeffer 24 09
Slideshow pfeffer 24 09Slideshow pfeffer 24 09
Slideshow pfeffer 24 09
HR_Square
 

Viewers also liked (17)

Hr minde zorg 24-06-2014 (workshops)
Hr minde zorg 24-06-2014 (workshops)Hr minde zorg 24-06-2014 (workshops)
Hr minde zorg 24-06-2014 (workshops)
 
Webinar: resultaten studie 'Absenteïsme in 2014'
Webinar: resultaten studie 'Absenteïsme in 2014'Webinar: resultaten studie 'Absenteïsme in 2014'
Webinar: resultaten studie 'Absenteïsme in 2014'
 
20140227 stress burnout
20140227 stress burnout20140227 stress burnout
20140227 stress burnout
 
Hr square november conference dag 2
Hr square november conference dag 2Hr square november conference dag 2
Hr square november conference dag 2
 
Hr minde zorg24-06-2014 (plenair)
Hr minde zorg24-06-2014 (plenair)Hr minde zorg24-06-2014 (plenair)
Hr minde zorg24-06-2014 (plenair)
 
Mutualisation centre de services partagés alerte à l'h. 24042015
Mutualisation   centre de services partagés  alerte à l'h. 24042015Mutualisation   centre de services partagés  alerte à l'h. 24042015
Mutualisation centre de services partagés alerte à l'h. 24042015
 
Hr square november conference dag 3
Hr square november conference dag 3Hr square november conference dag 3
Hr square november conference dag 3
 
Hr square november conference workshops
Hr square november conference   workshopsHr square november conference   workshops
Hr square november conference workshops
 
Aanwezigheids en gezondheidsbeleid voor hrm in de zorg
Aanwezigheids  en gezondheidsbeleid voor hrm in de zorgAanwezigheids  en gezondheidsbeleid voor hrm in de zorg
Aanwezigheids en gezondheidsbeleid voor hrm in de zorg
 
Hypes&hopes26 08
Hypes&hopes26 08Hypes&hopes26 08
Hypes&hopes26 08
 
Hr square november conference dag 1
Hr square november conference dag 1Hr square november conference dag 1
Hr square november conference dag 1
 
Leiderschapsontwikk07 11
Leiderschapsontwikk07 11Leiderschapsontwikk07 11
Leiderschapsontwikk07 11
 
Alle presentaties zorg
Alle presentaties zorgAlle presentaties zorg
Alle presentaties zorg
 
Projectie ow
Projectie owProjectie ow
Projectie ow
 
HRM KMO: alle presentaties
HRM KMO: alle presentatiesHRM KMO: alle presentaties
HRM KMO: alle presentaties
 
Hrm kmo 27-03-2014
Hrm   kmo 27-03-2014Hrm   kmo 27-03-2014
Hrm kmo 27-03-2014
 
Slideshow pfeffer 24 09
Slideshow pfeffer 24 09Slideshow pfeffer 24 09
Slideshow pfeffer 24 09
 

Similar to HR Square - Costas Markides & Frederik Anseel

human resources challenges for startup organisations
human resources  challenges for  startup  organisations human resources  challenges for  startup  organisations
human resources challenges for startup organisations
INDRANIL AICH
 
motivation 7 strategies
motivation 7 strategiesmotivation 7 strategies
motivation 7 strategies
Lars Vonheim
 
Nacada 2009 Workshop 2(Harmony)
Nacada 2009  Workshop 2(Harmony)Nacada 2009  Workshop 2(Harmony)
Nacada 2009 Workshop 2(Harmony)
Joshua Barron
 
Ignite your ... success through your employees Julia Barnett
Ignite your ... success through your employees Julia BarnettIgnite your ... success through your employees Julia Barnett
Ignite your ... success through your employees Julia Barnett
Alan Scrase
 
case study of Nestle comapny
case study of Nestle comapny case study of Nestle comapny
case study of Nestle comapny
Sumeet Patel
 
Developing Innovative Ideas for Companies: The First Step in Entrepreneurship
Developing Innovative Ideas for Companies: The First Step in EntrepreneurshipDeveloping Innovative Ideas for Companies: The First Step in Entrepreneurship
Developing Innovative Ideas for Companies: The First Step in Entrepreneurship
Career Communications Group
 
9 key ways to turn an employee to an intrapreneur
9 key ways to turn an employee to an intrapreneur9 key ways to turn an employee to an intrapreneur
9 key ways to turn an employee to an intrapreneur
eTailing India
 
Coaching
CoachingCoaching
Coaching
Dalene Mactier
 
Motivation at Workplace
Motivation at WorkplaceMotivation at Workplace
Motivation at Workplace
sagacious1982
 
hfayolftayor-maryjoynazaro
hfayolftayor-maryjoynazarohfayolftayor-maryjoynazaro
hfayolftayor-maryjoynazaro
Maryjoy Nazaro
 
Optimizing employee learning on the job (Advertising Account Management)
Optimizing employee learning on the job (Advertising Account Management)Optimizing employee learning on the job (Advertising Account Management)
Optimizing employee learning on the job (Advertising Account Management)
Claude Giroux
 
Science-of-Learning.pdf
Science-of-Learning.pdfScience-of-Learning.pdf
Science-of-Learning.pdf
TonyCruz83
 
Super Simple Success Tips Employee Motivation
Super Simple Success Tips   Employee MotivationSuper Simple Success Tips   Employee Motivation
Super Simple Success Tips Employee Motivation
MARTIN HAWORTH PCC
 
Agile Development
Agile DevelopmentAgile Development
Agile Development
nikos batsios
 
What is pearl culture?
What is pearl culture?What is pearl culture?
What is pearl culture?
Bart Minsaer
 
Social Business @ Continental - Lessons Learned
Social Business @ Continental - Lessons LearnedSocial Business @ Continental - Lessons Learned
Social Business @ Continental - Lessons Learned
Harald Schirmer
 
HR PowerPoint
HR PowerPointHR PowerPoint
HR PowerPoint
paulwhite1983
 
Introduction - Intrepidus Human Resource Consulting
Introduction -  Intrepidus Human Resource ConsultingIntroduction -  Intrepidus Human Resource Consulting
Introduction - Intrepidus Human Resource Consulting
Simon Campbell
 
Keep Employees Productive
Keep Employees ProductiveKeep Employees Productive
Keep Employees Productive
Cigs4us
 
Voka kempen innovatieacademie 2015 session 5
Voka kempen innovatieacademie 2015 session 5Voka kempen innovatieacademie 2015 session 5
Voka kempen innovatieacademie 2015 session 5
Frank Dethier
 

Similar to HR Square - Costas Markides & Frederik Anseel (20)

human resources challenges for startup organisations
human resources  challenges for  startup  organisations human resources  challenges for  startup  organisations
human resources challenges for startup organisations
 
motivation 7 strategies
motivation 7 strategiesmotivation 7 strategies
motivation 7 strategies
 
Nacada 2009 Workshop 2(Harmony)
Nacada 2009  Workshop 2(Harmony)Nacada 2009  Workshop 2(Harmony)
Nacada 2009 Workshop 2(Harmony)
 
Ignite your ... success through your employees Julia Barnett
Ignite your ... success through your employees Julia BarnettIgnite your ... success through your employees Julia Barnett
Ignite your ... success through your employees Julia Barnett
 
case study of Nestle comapny
case study of Nestle comapny case study of Nestle comapny
case study of Nestle comapny
 
Developing Innovative Ideas for Companies: The First Step in Entrepreneurship
Developing Innovative Ideas for Companies: The First Step in EntrepreneurshipDeveloping Innovative Ideas for Companies: The First Step in Entrepreneurship
Developing Innovative Ideas for Companies: The First Step in Entrepreneurship
 
9 key ways to turn an employee to an intrapreneur
9 key ways to turn an employee to an intrapreneur9 key ways to turn an employee to an intrapreneur
9 key ways to turn an employee to an intrapreneur
 
Coaching
CoachingCoaching
Coaching
 
Motivation at Workplace
Motivation at WorkplaceMotivation at Workplace
Motivation at Workplace
 
hfayolftayor-maryjoynazaro
hfayolftayor-maryjoynazarohfayolftayor-maryjoynazaro
hfayolftayor-maryjoynazaro
 
Optimizing employee learning on the job (Advertising Account Management)
Optimizing employee learning on the job (Advertising Account Management)Optimizing employee learning on the job (Advertising Account Management)
Optimizing employee learning on the job (Advertising Account Management)
 
Science-of-Learning.pdf
Science-of-Learning.pdfScience-of-Learning.pdf
Science-of-Learning.pdf
 
Super Simple Success Tips Employee Motivation
Super Simple Success Tips   Employee MotivationSuper Simple Success Tips   Employee Motivation
Super Simple Success Tips Employee Motivation
 
Agile Development
Agile DevelopmentAgile Development
Agile Development
 
What is pearl culture?
What is pearl culture?What is pearl culture?
What is pearl culture?
 
Social Business @ Continental - Lessons Learned
Social Business @ Continental - Lessons LearnedSocial Business @ Continental - Lessons Learned
Social Business @ Continental - Lessons Learned
 
HR PowerPoint
HR PowerPointHR PowerPoint
HR PowerPoint
 
Introduction - Intrepidus Human Resource Consulting
Introduction -  Intrepidus Human Resource ConsultingIntroduction -  Intrepidus Human Resource Consulting
Introduction - Intrepidus Human Resource Consulting
 
Keep Employees Productive
Keep Employees ProductiveKeep Employees Productive
Keep Employees Productive
 
Voka kempen innovatieacademie 2015 session 5
Voka kempen innovatieacademie 2015 session 5Voka kempen innovatieacademie 2015 session 5
Voka kempen innovatieacademie 2015 session 5
 

Recently uploaded

Girls call Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls call Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls call Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls call Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
bhumivarma35300
 
Kanpur Girls Call Kanpur 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium Genu...
Kanpur Girls Call Kanpur 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium Genu...Kanpur Girls Call Kanpur 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium Genu...
Kanpur Girls Call Kanpur 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium Genu...
parichopra4
 
HRMS Archaeology: Digging Through Legacy Systems for Hidden HR Treasures.pdf
HRMS Archaeology: Digging Through Legacy Systems for Hidden HR Treasures.pdfHRMS Archaeology: Digging Through Legacy Systems for Hidden HR Treasures.pdf
HRMS Archaeology: Digging Through Legacy Systems for Hidden HR Treasures.pdf
HRMantra Software Pvt. Ltd
 
Oracle Absence Management Fast Formulas (Oracle HCM Cloud).pdf
Oracle  Absence Management Fast Formulas (Oracle HCM Cloud).pdfOracle  Absence Management Fast Formulas (Oracle HCM Cloud).pdf
Oracle Absence Management Fast Formulas (Oracle HCM Cloud).pdf
rtlonlinetrainingdem
 
Liverpool University diploma
Liverpool University diplomaLiverpool University diploma
Liverpool University diploma
myndzoq
 
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER-12_GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER-12_GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT.pdfGUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER-12_GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER-12_GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT.pdf
ProexportColombia1
 
Girls Call Hiranandani Gardens 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service A...
Girls Call Hiranandani Gardens 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service A...Girls Call Hiranandani Gardens 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service A...
Girls Call Hiranandani Gardens 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service A...
maigasapphire
 
5 Key Questions for Your Internal Communication Audit
5 Key Questions for Your Internal Communication Audit5 Key Questions for Your Internal Communication Audit
5 Key Questions for Your Internal Communication Audit
experienceprosarah
 
Market Signals – Global Job Market Trends – June 2024 summarized!
Market Signals – Global Job Market Trends – June 2024 summarized!Market Signals – Global Job Market Trends – June 2024 summarized!
Market Signals – Global Job Market Trends – June 2024 summarized!
Career Angels
 
Lucknow Girls Call Malhaur 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Lucknow Girls Call Malhaur 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...Lucknow Girls Call Malhaur 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Lucknow Girls Call Malhaur 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
eshikajshani
 
Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium ...
Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium ...Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium ...
Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium ...
rashmikasinghdelhiro
 
Unskilled Jobs In USA With Visa Sponsorship 2024 - Apply Now.pdf
Unskilled Jobs In USA With Visa Sponsorship 2024 - Apply Now.pdfUnskilled Jobs In USA With Visa Sponsorship 2024 - Apply Now.pdf
Unskilled Jobs In USA With Visa Sponsorship 2024 - Apply Now.pdf
Christopher Jordan
 
Lucknow Girls Call Takrohi 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Lucknow Girls Call Takrohi 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...Lucknow Girls Call Takrohi 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Lucknow Girls Call Takrohi 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
hemakumarinn
 
BEst Payroll Outsourcing in Mumbai - Widespread HR
BEst Payroll Outsourcing in Mumbai - Widespread HRBEst Payroll Outsourcing in Mumbai - Widespread HR
BEst Payroll Outsourcing in Mumbai - Widespread HR
Widespread HR
 
A Good Recruiter must Have that skill.pptx
A Good Recruiter must Have that skill.pptxA Good Recruiter must Have that skill.pptx
A Good Recruiter must Have that skill.pptx
hrexpressltd
 
AIS degree offer diploma Transcript
AIS degree offer diploma TranscriptAIS degree offer diploma Transcript
AIS degree offer diploma Transcript
wmydug
 
Top Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Top Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...Top Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Top Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
44annissa
 
The Ethical AI Dilemma: Ensuring Fairness in HR Tech Implementations.pdf
The Ethical AI Dilemma: Ensuring Fairness in HR Tech Implementations.pdfThe Ethical AI Dilemma: Ensuring Fairness in HR Tech Implementations.pdf
The Ethical AI Dilemma: Ensuring Fairness in HR Tech Implementations.pdf
HRMantra Software Pvt. Ltd
 
Prada's CEO on Staying Independent in a Consolidating ...
Prada's CEO on Staying Independent in a Consolidating ...Prada's CEO on Staying Independent in a Consolidating ...
Prada's CEO on Staying Independent in a Consolidating ...
908dutch
 
Pay Transparency Legislation Series Ep 12 Navigate Global Developments
Pay Transparency Legislation Series Ep 12 Navigate Global DevelopmentsPay Transparency Legislation Series Ep 12 Navigate Global Developments
Pay Transparency Legislation Series Ep 12 Navigate Global Developments
PayScale, Inc.
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Girls call Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls call Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls call Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls call Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
 
Kanpur Girls Call Kanpur 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium Genu...
Kanpur Girls Call Kanpur 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium Genu...Kanpur Girls Call Kanpur 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium Genu...
Kanpur Girls Call Kanpur 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium Genu...
 
HRMS Archaeology: Digging Through Legacy Systems for Hidden HR Treasures.pdf
HRMS Archaeology: Digging Through Legacy Systems for Hidden HR Treasures.pdfHRMS Archaeology: Digging Through Legacy Systems for Hidden HR Treasures.pdf
HRMS Archaeology: Digging Through Legacy Systems for Hidden HR Treasures.pdf
 
Oracle Absence Management Fast Formulas (Oracle HCM Cloud).pdf
Oracle  Absence Management Fast Formulas (Oracle HCM Cloud).pdfOracle  Absence Management Fast Formulas (Oracle HCM Cloud).pdf
Oracle Absence Management Fast Formulas (Oracle HCM Cloud).pdf
 
Liverpool University diploma
Liverpool University diplomaLiverpool University diploma
Liverpool University diploma
 
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER-12_GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER-12_GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT.pdfGUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER-12_GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT.pdf
GUIA_LEGAL_CHAPTER-12_GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT.pdf
 
Girls Call Hiranandani Gardens 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service A...
Girls Call Hiranandani Gardens 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service A...Girls Call Hiranandani Gardens 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service A...
Girls Call Hiranandani Gardens 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service A...
 
5 Key Questions for Your Internal Communication Audit
5 Key Questions for Your Internal Communication Audit5 Key Questions for Your Internal Communication Audit
5 Key Questions for Your Internal Communication Audit
 
Market Signals – Global Job Market Trends – June 2024 summarized!
Market Signals – Global Job Market Trends – June 2024 summarized!Market Signals – Global Job Market Trends – June 2024 summarized!
Market Signals – Global Job Market Trends – June 2024 summarized!
 
Lucknow Girls Call Malhaur 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Lucknow Girls Call Malhaur 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...Lucknow Girls Call Malhaur 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Lucknow Girls Call Malhaur 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
 
Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium ...
Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium ...Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium ...
Dehradun Girls Call Dehradun 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium ...
 
Unskilled Jobs In USA With Visa Sponsorship 2024 - Apply Now.pdf
Unskilled Jobs In USA With Visa Sponsorship 2024 - Apply Now.pdfUnskilled Jobs In USA With Visa Sponsorship 2024 - Apply Now.pdf
Unskilled Jobs In USA With Visa Sponsorship 2024 - Apply Now.pdf
 
Lucknow Girls Call Takrohi 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Lucknow Girls Call Takrohi 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...Lucknow Girls Call Takrohi 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
Lucknow Girls Call Takrohi 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And ...
 
BEst Payroll Outsourcing in Mumbai - Widespread HR
BEst Payroll Outsourcing in Mumbai - Widespread HRBEst Payroll Outsourcing in Mumbai - Widespread HR
BEst Payroll Outsourcing in Mumbai - Widespread HR
 
A Good Recruiter must Have that skill.pptx
A Good Recruiter must Have that skill.pptxA Good Recruiter must Have that skill.pptx
A Good Recruiter must Have that skill.pptx
 
AIS degree offer diploma Transcript
AIS degree offer diploma TranscriptAIS degree offer diploma Transcript
AIS degree offer diploma Transcript
 
Top Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Top Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...Top Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Top Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
 
The Ethical AI Dilemma: Ensuring Fairness in HR Tech Implementations.pdf
The Ethical AI Dilemma: Ensuring Fairness in HR Tech Implementations.pdfThe Ethical AI Dilemma: Ensuring Fairness in HR Tech Implementations.pdf
The Ethical AI Dilemma: Ensuring Fairness in HR Tech Implementations.pdf
 
Prada's CEO on Staying Independent in a Consolidating ...
Prada's CEO on Staying Independent in a Consolidating ...Prada's CEO on Staying Independent in a Consolidating ...
Prada's CEO on Staying Independent in a Consolidating ...
 
Pay Transparency Legislation Series Ep 12 Navigate Global Developments
Pay Transparency Legislation Series Ep 12 Navigate Global DevelopmentsPay Transparency Legislation Series Ep 12 Navigate Global Developments
Pay Transparency Legislation Series Ep 12 Navigate Global Developments
 

HR Square - Costas Markides & Frederik Anseel

  • 2. What if we decided to take employee- driven innovation seriously? HR Square masterclass 13-05-2014 Frederik Anseel Ghent University Contact frederik.anseel@ugent.be Twitter: @fanseel Web: fanseel.be
  • 3. “Discussing the importance of innovation would be a waste of your time” Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
  • 4. “The most valuable resource for innovation remains largely untapped – the people-side of innovation” Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 “40 years of psychological research provides us with a good scientific understanding of the psychology of innovation and how to encourage it”
  • 5. Objectives of my talk today Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 • Share scientific insights on 4 key resources that drive employee-driven innovativion • Formulate principles that can shape an innovative work environment and daily work experiences of employees • Translate these principles in actionable practices and HR-tools for stimulating innovation
  • 6. Employee innovation is determined by 4 resources Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 MOTIVATIO N ENVIRONMENT MOOD EMPLOYEE INNOVATIO N KNOWLEDGE
  • 7. (1) The motivational resource Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 • Being passionate about work fuels innovation Passionate? Feeling competent and in control Intrinsic motivation =ρ .24, variation 25% Creative self-efficacy =ρ .33 • External incentives can foster or hinder one’s innovation It depends! Extrinsic motivation =ρ .14, variation 151%
  • 8. It is not only about whether people like their job, it is also about whether they like to help others. I enjoy the work itself! I want to help others through my work! Generates novel, but operable work-related ideas
  • 9. “My co-workers will think worse of me if I often try out new approaches on my job” “If I were to do something innovative, my image in the organization would be enhanced” “Coming up with creative ideas helps me do well on my job” “Investigates and secures funds needed to implement new ideas” Caring about your image does not help innovation trying new ideas to do a better job does!
  • 10. “I consider diverse sources of information in generating new ideas” “My manager will publicly recognize those who are Creative” “I can decide on my own how to go about doing my Work” Empowered employees engage more often in creative processes when this is encouraged and valued by their supervisor.
  • 11. I am not interested in making sure that you are here, that you are giving us so many hours a day. We need people who will deliver a final result.” “If we do not let people do things the way they do, we will never know what they are really capable of and they will just follow our boarding school rules.”
  • 12. Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 Principle 1 “Focus on intrinsic motivation, by fostering feelings of control and competence, and channel this motivation towards innovation by setting the right cues”
  • 13. (2) Environmental resources Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 • Perceptions of one’s job e.g. autonomy = .ρ 32 • Perceptions of one’s co-workers e.g. co-worker support =ρ .36 • Perceptions of one’s leader e.g. leader-member relationship =ρ .29 • Perceptions of one’s organization e.g. Supportive resources =ρ .27
  • 14. “In my organization, creative work receives appropriate recognition and praise” “opportunities for personal growth and development are important to me” Also for people in routine jobs, recognition of creative work leads to more creative performance
  • 15. “Desire to elicit high performance from me.” “Expresses anger at me when he/she is mad for another reason” “Desire to make me feel bad about myself.” Abusive leadership hinders creativity, but less when individuals believe their leader just wants them to perform better.
  • 16. Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 Principle 2 “Structure employees’ work environment in such a way that employees believe to be free and psychologically safe in their job, and supported by their co-workers, leaders and organization to innovate”
  • 17. (3) Emotions as resources Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 • Both positive and negative moods can facilitate innovation • Whether the mood is activating makes the difference = Dual-pathway of innovation
  • 19. Do not solely focus on fostering positive moods. Creativity stems from a subtle interplay between positive and negative feelings.
  • 20. Do not solely focus on fostering positive moods. Creativity stems from a subtle interplay between positive and negative feelings coupled to supervisor support
  • 21. Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 Principle 3 “Positive activating vibes energize employees to innovate, but do not avoid a sense of crisis or urgency”
  • 22. (4) Knowledge as resource Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 • Knowledge and information are key component of creativity • Emphasis on knowledge gathering, development & sharing e.g. openess =ρ .19 – Intrinsic motivation to learn =ρ .21
  • 23. “The manager encourages members to share ideas with each other” “Interact with my colleagues in this organization to discuss suggestions and ideas” “Available for sharing experiences with people outside this organization” Internal and external knowledge sharing can spur creativity and innovation. However, leaders have an important role in encouraging and facilitating these processes.
  • 24. “I feel that using the Web 2.0 application is fun” “When using the Web 2.0 application, I am absorbed intensely in the activity” Knowledge seeking and sharing through Web 2.0 tools contributes to employee creativity as employees experience more flow from these new tools than classic knowledge management tools
  • 25. “How frequently do you directly ask your supervisor for feedback about your work?” By asking feedback directly on problems and ideas employees use a valuable source for creative solutions “How frequently do you pay attention to how your boss acts toward you in order to understand how he/she perceives and evaluates your work?
  • 26. In competitive climates hiding your knowledge for others ultimately backfires on your own creativity
  • 27. Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 Principle 4 “No matter how much you motivate, energize and support your employees, knowledge and information are the currency of innovation. Organize for easy acces to information and fluent sharing of knowledge”
  • 28. “HR* can apply these 4 principals through its control over: ” Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 WORK DESIGN LEARNING & DEVELOPMENT PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT COMPENSATION & BENEFITS INNOVATIVE MINDSET INNOVATIVE PERFORMANCE MOTIVATION ENVIRONMENT MOOD KNOWLEDGE *Today is about how to manage not about who to hire
  • 29. HOW CAN HR INCREASE RESOURCES FOR EMPLOYEE INNOVATION THROUGH WORK DESIGN? Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
  • 30. Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 FOCUS ON THE MOTIVATION AND KNOWLEDGE PRINCIPLE Customize challenging jobs that target employees passion: -Negotiate I-deals -Create an internal project market for which employees can volunteer -Allow employees freetime to work on innovative projects and set goals -Spur a prosocial climate by creating interdependency and impact -Team interdependency leads to knowledge-sharing HOW CAN HR INCREASE RESOURCES FOR EMPLOYEE INNOVATION THROUGH WORK DESIGN?
  • 32. HOW CAN HR INCREASE THE FOUR RESOURCES THROUGH TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT? Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
  • 34. HOW CAN HR INCREASE THE FOUR RESOURCES THROUGH TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT? Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 FOCUS ON THE KNOWLEDGE PRINCIPLE •Integrate challenges in people’s jobs in a strategic way in order to increase on-the-job learning •Systematically integrate after-event reviews in work as to employees can learn from their successes and failures •Integrate new professional social media in employees’ daily handling with each other www.yammer.com www.work.com www.cognistreamer.com •Train supervisors in encouraging and facilitating internal & external knowledge sharing and feedback-seeking in their team
  • 35. HOW CAN HR INCREASE THE FOUR RESOURCES THROUGH PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT? Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014
  • 38. HOW CAN HR INCREASE THE FOUR RESOURCES THROUGH PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT? Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 FOCUS ON THE CONTEXT AND THE MOOD PRINCIPLE Facilitate progress instead of evaluating performance •Replace annual performance reviews by performance check-ins (Adobe) •Stimulate supervisors to reflect daily (checklist) on how they helped their team to make progress www.progressprinciple.com •Set creativity goals and focus both on the outcome and the process. •Psychological safety and support •Learn to capitalize on mood swings
  • 39. HOW CAN HR APPLY THE PRINCIPLES THROUGH COMPENSATION & BENEFITS? Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 FOCUS ON THE MOTIVATION PRINCIPLE: I. HOW SHOULD WE REWARD TOP MANAGEMENT TO FOSTER INNOVATION? II. HOW SHOULD WE REWARD EMPLOYEES TO FOSTER INNOVATION? Individually or team-wise?
  • 40. HOW SHOULD WE REWARD TOP MANAGEMENT TO FOSTER INNOVATION? Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 • Pay related to short-term goals: cost-cutting and less investments in R&D • Long-term benefits do not overcome this tendency • High-tech companies reward top management’s behavior and decisions, e.g. R&D expenses, new patents or product launches, milestones in innovative projects, innovation-audit
  • 41. HOW SHOULD WE REWARD EMPLOYEES TO FOSTER INNOVATION? Individually or team-wise? Frederik Anseel HR & Innovation – 13-05-2014 Team rewarding: •Creates outcome interdependency •Stimulates information sharing •Facilitates cohesion •Enhances learning •Diminishes subgroup salience Caution: •Social loafing – alternative hybrid rewarding
  • 42. So, what have we learned here?
  • 43. Benefit from the psychological science of innovation – Analyse your organization for motivation, work environment, mood and knowledge – Seek how to adress those in HR-practices 1. Job design 2. Learning and development 3. Performance management 4. Compensation and benefits
  • 44. And what about recruitment and selection? Stay tuned….
  • 45. Your management really values taking into account the customer’s opinion on the company's products and services, and spends a large amount of money every year on consumer research. One of the products that your company sells is toilet paper. You report in a meeting that consumer research revealed that customers complain about the packaging of the toilet paper. They say it is too big and not convenient to carry around. You believe a solution is needed and could create a competitive advantage. How would you proceed to find an innovative solution?
  • 48. Promoting Innovation in Our Organisations Professor Costas Markides London Business School
  • 50. Consider this simple exercise: • Add all the numbers from 1 to 100 and tell me the sum total (in one minute).
  • 51. My first question to you: • How many of you gave up?
  • 52. My second question to you: • Who came up with the answer?
  • 53. Who got the answer? • Gauss, the best mathematician that Germany ever produced got the answer in 60 seconds in 1787 (when he was only 10 years old)! • How did he do it?
  • 54. The difference: • Most people say: “My God, this is impossible to solve in one minute”
  • 55. The difference: • Most people say: “My God, this is impossible to solve in one minute” • Gauss said: “My God, this is impossible to solve in one minute like that.”
  • 56. The difference: • Most people blame the task we gave them. This leads them to give up. • Gauss blamed the way he was trying to solve the task. (that is, his methodology). This led him to questioning.
  • 57. Please Note: • He did not innovate because we asked him to “be innovative” or to “think outside the box”! • He innovated because he questioned his methodology
  • 58. Unconventional Idea: • Innovation is NOT an end in itself; • It is the by-product of something else = the questioning of how to achieve a really stretch objective that people bought into)
  • 59. Another way of Saying this: • Give your people a really stretch goal; AND • Sell it to them to win their emotional commitment to this goal
  • 60. In General: • If you give your people a really stretch goal; AND • Sell it to them to win their emotional commitment to the goal; THEN • They will begin questioning the way they are trying to achieve this goal. • This questioning may lead to Innovation.
  • 61. What determines success: • Is not the sexiness of the stretch goal! • It is whether you succeeded in “selling it” to your people.
  • 62. Example: • President Kennedy (or Steve Jobs) versus Costas Markides.
  • 63. HOW TO WIN EMOTIONAL COMMITMENT I KNOW I UNDERSTAND YES, I THINK I CAN I WILL
  • 64. This sounds difficult! • Any other ways in which we can promote innovation in our organisations?
  • 66. Example: • “Eat Healthy” Campaign in the USA…
  • 67. The Results: • Six months later, the campaign proved to be a total failure. • Why?
  • 68. Why? • Because (believe it or not) the statement: “Eat healthy” is NOT clear enough! • The options are limitless and this leads to decision paralysis.
  • 69. Same principle for many things! • We need to “cut our costs” • We need to become more customer-centric • We need to change • We need to become more innovative
  • 70. First Principle to Know • Principle #1: What often looks like resistance to change is actually lack of clarity
  • 71. Therefore: • Don’t tell your people: “We need to be innovative” or “we need to think outside the box”!
  • 72. Instead:Focus on Behaviors: • Certain behaviors are associated with innovation. • Therefore, encourage everybody in your organisation to behave like this on a daily basis…
  • 73. What Behaviors Promote Innovation? • Jean Paul Gaillard at Nespresso in 1992-1993.
  • 74. The moral of the story: • Innovation requires that someone takes ownership of the idea; • Innovation requires that you stick your neck out.
  • 75. Other Behaviors: • Jean Paul Gaillard at Nespresso in 1992-1993. • Selling shoe polish at Sara Lee
  • 76. The moral of the story: • Innovation requires that you get out of your office and observe the customer personally.
  • 77. Other Behaviors: • Jean Paul Gaillard at Nespresso in 1992-1993. • Selling shoe polish at Sara Lee • Arthur Fry’s discovery of the Post-It note at 3M
  • 78. The moral of the story: • Innovation requires that you bypass the constraints that the organisation puts around you in a creative way.
  • 79. Other Behaviors: • Jean Paul Gaillard at Nespresso in 1992-1993. • Selling shoe polish at Sara Lee • Arthur Fry’s discovery of the Post-It note at 3M • The introduction of tabloid-sized newspaper by the Guardian
  • 80. The moral of the story: • Innovation requires that we question the things we take for granted. • Such as: why pay all this money to shave?
  • 82. Other Behaviors: • Jean Paul Gaillard at Nespresso in 1992- 1993. • Selling shoe polish at Sara Lee • Arthur Fry’s discovery of the Post-It note at 3M • The introduction of tabloid-sized newspaper by the Guardian • Unilever’s fiasco with Omo Power
  • 83. The moral of the story: • Innovation requires experimentation • Allow your people to try things without fear of failure.
  • 84. And so on: • Start out by identifying what behaviors you’d want from every single employee in your organisation.
  • 85. Such As: • Question the things we take for granted; Question everything. • Try things out (without fear of failure) • Be willing to stick your neck out. Take ownership of new ideas. • Look outside your industry for ideas. • Go to the customer and observe… • Cooperate beyond your silos. • Think strategically and be proactive • Take the initiative
  • 86. Unfortunately: • Identifying the behaviors you want from everybody is important but not enough! • People will not behave like this even when you make it very clear to them that you expect these behaviors from them.
  • 87. Why Not? • Why is it that people do not follow the behaviors that will get us innovation? • There are two major reasons for it:
  • 88. First: 1. An unsupportive Organizational Environment.
  • 89. Let’s Try a Simple Exercise You have a cake and a knife. You are allowed to cut the cake four times in straight lines. What is the maximum number of pieces that you could cut the cake into (in one minute)?
  • 90. It is not 8 Pieces!
  • 91. It is Not Eleven Pieces! 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 7 9 10 11
  • 92. It is Not Twelve Pieces!
  • 93. It is Not Sixteen Pieces! Cut the cake into two pieces. Put one piece on top of the other and cut in two again. Put all pieces on top of each other and cut in two again. Put all pieces on top of each other and cut in two again. 24 = 16 times
  • 94. More Importantly: • Why do most people try to solve this exercise individually? • What explains this behavior?
  • 95. What Determines Behaviors? Solving the exercise individually Time-pressure Mindsets, assumptions, beliefs Psychological pressures Structure Incentives
  • 96. A Key Management Principle: • The Underlying Environment determines how people behave (much more than we’d like to believe).
  • 97. What happens: • We keep telling people to “Question Everything” but the moment anybody does it, we call them troublemakers… • We keep telling people to “Try things out” but the moment they fail, we fire them • We keep telling people to “Stick their neck out” but when they do it, we chop it off!
  • 98. Downtown Calcutta Versus Downtown Fontainebleau What Drives Behaviours in Organizations? Sumantra Ghoshal
  • 99. Second Principle to Know: • Principle #2: What often looks like a people problem is actually a situation (environment) problem.
  • 100. Specifically: • At most, our personality can only explain 30% of our behaviors. • The remaining 70% is explained by the “social context” (or “situation” or “underlying environment”) in which we find ourselves.
  • 101. The Underlying Environment How we Behave in our company How we Behave in our company Structures and Processes People, (skills, attitudes, mindsets Culture and Values Measurement and Incentives
  • 102. The Implication of All This is: • If you want to change how your people behave, you need to change the Environment around them. • That is, create an environment that supports and promotes the behaviors you want from everybody.
  • 103. How? • How can we create an Environment that Promotes Innovative Behaviors from everybody?
  • 105. In Other Words: • YOU adopt the behaviors that you want all the others to adopt.
  • 106. In addition: • Small changes in the Environment can have a big impact on how people behave. • This is known as “The Butterfly Principle”
  • 107. The Butterfly Principle: • It is the basis of the book NUDGE • And already, countries like the UK and the US have “Nudge Departments” in their ministry of the Interior
  • 108. For Example: • How did the UK government increase its tax revenues by £1 billion last year?
  • 110. What does the letter say? • The deadline for submitting your taxes is January 30th . If you fail to submit on time you will be fined £500. • The deadline for submitting your taxes is January 30th . Last year, 93% of people submitted their taxes on time.
  • 111. In Other Words: • Advertise the behaviors you want and encourage people to conform to these behaviors.
  • 112. What You Need to Do • Tweak the Environment so as to: • Make the “right” behaviors a little bit easier • Make the “wrong” behaviors a little bit harder
  • 113. Summary So Far: 1. Identify the behaviors that you want everybody in the company to display every day. 2. Encourage these behaviors by creating a Supporting Environment for them
  • 114. Unfortunately • There is a second reason why our people do not follow the behaviors that will get us innovation.
  • 115. Second Reason: 1. An unsupportive Organizational Environment. 2. All the behaviors we ask of them are the exact opposite of their “automatic” behaviors (that is their DNA)
  • 116. Two Types of Behaviors: • Thinking Behaviors • Automatic Behaviors
  • 117. Automatic Behaviors • We automatically behave like this without thinking.
  • 118. Why Automatic: • Genetic (e.g. lion attacks)
  • 119. Why Automatic: • Genetic (e.g. lion attacks) • Values (e.g. offering your seat in a bus to an elderly lady)
  • 120. Why Automatic: • Genetic (e.g. lion attacks) • Values (e.g. offering your seat in a bus to an elderly lady) • Experience—I have done it so many times, I can do it with my eyes shut (e.g. tennis).
  • 121. And now a test for you: • I will give you a list of behaviors. • Your task is to tell me which are our automatic behaviors (“I have done this so many times, I can do them with my eyes shut”). • Ready?
  • 122. Which is the automatic behavior? • Thinking outside the box versus conforming to what everybody does.
  • 123. An academic study by Professor George Land on Divergent Thinking and Schools • Who has the ability to think in a divergent way (a pre-requisite for creativity)? • Anybody who scores 10/10 is called a genius in creativity
  • 124. Divergent Thinking and Schools • 3-5 year old kids:
  • 125. Divergent Thinking and Schools • 3-5 year old kids: 98% score as genius
  • 126. Divergent Thinking and Schools • 3-5 year old kids: 98% score as genius • 8-10 year olds: 32%
  • 127. Divergent Thinking and Schools • 3-5 year old kids: 98% score as genius • 8-10 year olds: 32% • 13-15 year olds: 10%
  • 128. Divergent Thinking and Schools • 3-5 year old kids: 98% score as genius • 8-10 year olds: 32% • 13-15 year olds: 10% • 2,000 adults 25+ year old: 2%
  • 129. As Einstein said: • It’s a miracle that curiosity survives formal education.
  • 131. Which is the automatic behavior? • Cooperate versus being competitive. • (example: the arm-wrestling exercise)
  • 132. Which is the automatic behavior? • Take the initiative versus social loafing. • (consider this video)
  • 133. It Happened in New York:
  • 134. Which is the automatic behavior? • Experiment versus analysing and searching for the one best solution.
  • 135. Say versus Do Automatic Behaviors What we ask you Conformity Stick your neck out Competitive Cooperate Search for best solution Experiment Social Loaf Take the initiative Conform Think outside the box
  • 136. Message: • Most of the behaviors that we ask our people to follow (for innovation) are the exact opposite of what their automatic behaviors.
  • 137. What wins out? • A few hours of our boss (or teacher) telling us what we “should” do? • Versus 40-50 years of experience teaching us what is “good” for us?
  • 138. The sad truth: • We keep telling you: “these are the behaviors that we want from you” • These behaviors all sound “common sense” and “easy”. • But the sad truth is that you spent the last 40 years of your life at home, school and work learning the exact opposite behaviors!
  • 139. Third Principle to Know • Principle #3: What often looks like laziness to is actually emotional exhaustion.
  • 140. What Does This Imply? • Go Beyond Telling People: Analytical appeals are not enough! • It’s tempting to prepare a powerpoint presentation, listing the things you want from your people— it will not work!
  • 141. What We Need to Do: • If telling people that these are the behaviors we want from them is not enough, how then can we get the “proper” behaviors out of our employees?
  • 142. Answer: • To get people to change their automatic behaviors, you will need to make the need for change emotional.
  • 143. An Analogy • Psychologists have an analogy for this: The Rider and the Elephant
  • 144. The Rider and the Elephant (Haidt, 2006) • The Rider: • Rational, Cool Cognitive • Knows what we should do • Holds the reins and seems to be in control • The Elephant: • Emotional, Hot • Larger and more powerful • Motivated by what we want (comfort, peace and quiet, ice cream)
  • 145. How Can you Make the need for Change Emotional? 1. Things you see are more likely to evoke emotions than things you read
  • 147. Make it Emotional: Free Hugs
  • 148. How Can you Make the need for Change Emotional? 1. Things you see are more likely to evoke emotions than things you read; 2. Stories (and how you tell them) are more likely to evoke emotion than a presentation.
  • 149. Power of stories Ignoring the evidence in favour of the story – a medical example Source: Freymuth and Ronan, Modeling Patient Decision-Making: The Role of Base-Rate and Anecdotal Information, Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 149 Negative story Positive story Treatment A 90% effective Treatment B 30% effective ‘Base rate information’
  • 150. Power of stories Ignoring the evidence in favour of the story – a medical example Source: Freymuth and Ronan, Modeling Patient Decision-Making: The Role of Base-Rate and Anecdotal Information, Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 150 Negative story Positive story 88%Treatment A 90% effective Treatment B 30% effective ‘Base rate information’
  • 151. Power of stories Ignoring the evidence in favour of the story – a medical example Source: Freymuth and Ronan, Modeling Patient Decision-Making: The Role of Base-Rate and Anecdotal Information, Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 151 Negative story Positive story 39% 88%Treatment A 90% effective Treatment B 30% effective ‘Base rate information’
  • 152. Power of stories Ignoring the evidence in favour of the story – a medical example Source: Freymuth and Ronan, Modeling Patient Decision-Making: The Role of Base-Rate and Anecdotal Information, Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 152 Negative story Positive story 39% 88%Treatment A 90% effective Treatment B 30% effective ‘Base rate information’ 7%
  • 153. Power of stories Ignoring the evidence in favour of the story – a medical example Source: Freymuth and Ronan, Modeling Patient Decision-Making: The Role of Base-Rate and Anecdotal Information, Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 153 Negative story Positive story 39% 88%Treatment A 90% effective Treatment B 30% effective ‘Base rate information’ 78%7%
  • 154. The Power of Stories Prosecution Facts Facts Story Story Defense Source: N. Pennington and R. Hastie: “Explanation-Based Decision Making”, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 1998
  • 155. The Power of Stories 63% 59% Prosecution Facts Facts Story Story Defense Source: N. Pennington and R. Hastie: “Explanation-Based Decision Making”, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 1998
  • 156. The Power of Stories 63% 78% 59% Prosecution Facts Facts Story Story Defense Source: N. Pennington and R. Hastie: “Explanation-Based Decision Making”, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 1998
  • 157. The Power of Stories 63% 78% 31% 59% Prosecution Facts Facts Story Story Defense RESULT: A near 50% swing in the number of people saying someone is guilty of first-degree murder based on whether a story was told or not.
  • 158. How Can you Make the need for Change Emotional? 1. Things you see are more likely to evoke emotions than things you read; 2. Stories (and how you tell them) are more likely to evoke emotion than a presentation. 3. How do you frame the need for change?
  • 159. For Example: Can you think of a word? -- A N Y
  • 160. For Example: Can you think of a word? MA N Y
  • 161. For Example: Can you think of a word? MA N Y --ENY
  • 163. Possible Signs: • Can you please help a blind man? • I am blind. Please help me feed my children • Is it a sunny day? I am blind • It is springtime and I am blind • I am blind and it’s springtime
  • 164. Possible Signs: • Can you please help a blind man? • I am blind. Please help me feed my children • Is it a sunny day? I am blind • It is springtime and I am blind • I am blind and it’s springtime
  • 165. Anchoring • What comes first “anchors” the mind to it. • Everything that comes after it is evaluated relative to what you said or did before. • Therefore: Put it in a context so that whatever you say afterwards shines.
  • 166. Agenda Can you use “symbolic actions” to reinforce your message? Can you generate momentum (for the change you want) through early victories that you celebrate with your team? Can you “advertise” the “right” behaviors you expect from people? Can you make them feel “special” for doing what you want them to do? Make it Emotional: What else?
  • 167. Summary: The 3 strategies • Provide Clarity • Tweak the Environment • Make the need for change emotional
  • 169. Who wants to be a millionaire: 169 Source: Jeff Howe, Crowdsourcing: How the Power of the Crowd is Driving the Future of Business. Phone a friend: Ask the audience:
  • 170. You don’t have to think of everything 170 Source: Jeff Howe, Crowdsourcing: How the Power of the Crowd is Driving the Future of Business. Phone a friend: 65% Ask the audience:
  • 171. You don’t have to think of everything 171 Source: Jeff Howe, Crowdsourcing: How the Power of the Crowd is Driving the Future of Business. Phone a friend: 65% Ask the audience: 91%
  • 172. Practice Open Innovation: • You do not have to discover everything in life! • Ask others for ideas and solutions to problems—the world is your oyster.
  • 173. Putting the idea into practice: • The strategy of “Connect and Develop” by P&G. • P&G Mission (2001): “Fifty percent of all new discoveries in P&G must come from outside P&G”
  • 174. Summary: 3 Ideas • “Stretch” your people into active questioning. • Encourage the behaviors associated with innovation; • Practice Open Innovation
  • 175. In Conclusion: • Lots of Things to Think About so let me finish with one last thought.
  • 176. The Knowledge - Doing Gap Time B Profits A
  • 178. Therefore: • Seize the moment! • The future belongs to those who dare take chances!

Editor's Notes

  1. Discussing the importance of innovation for organizations and society to survive and prosper would be a waste of your time. Everybody in this room is somehow convinced about the importance of innovation.
  2. As such, governments, institutions and businesses worldwide invest various resources to spur innovation. Governments and investers provide universities, research centers and companies with financial support for research and development. Governments and instituations provide a legislative framework for the protection and commercialization of intellectual property. Et cetera, et cetera. However, we believe that one potential resource for innovation is missing. We believe that innovation could be leveraged by addressing more attention to the people-side of innovation. Fourty years of psychological research provides us with scientific insights on how the mindset of employees determines their creative and innovative performance and how these are leveraged or hindered by their work environment and their daily experiences at work. We believe that by tapping these scientific insights organizations could foster innovation better than they do today.
  3. These correlations are based on meta-analyses aggregating research studying thousands of employees through different methods and in various settings. Employees experiencing intrinsic motivation for their work, or in other words, feeling passionate about their work, enjoying their work for itself and identifying with, are observed to be more innovative. It’s not only about enjoying what you do, people should also feels competent and have a sense of control over what they do in order to succeed in their work. In scientific terms we call this self-efficacy. Employees can also be extrinsically motivated, e.g. by specific goals or rewards they wish to pursue, or by the responsibilities and expectations put upon them by others. This kind of motivation can, when managed correctly, spur the innovative performance of employees as well. But, as you can see, the correlation varies highly over studies. This means that external cues or requirements that people experience in their work can also seriously hinder their motivation to engage in innovative behavior.
  4. Thus, all the research together teaches us the importance of intrinsic motivation, whil external cues can motivate people even more or on the other hand hinder their motivation to be innovative. Recent research tries to get to more insights in the very nature of these motivations and in which circumstances organization leverage or break this motivation. I will discuss three studies to illustrate this. (Grant) Recently Adam Grant conducted the following studies. One study was conducted with security officers. The other study was conducted with the employees of a water treating plant. He asked these people to rate their intrinsic and prosocial motivation. For intrinsic motivation he presented the participants with items like “I am motivated by my work because I enjoy the work itself. They had to indicate on a scale to which degree they agreed with these statements. He also measured prosocial motivation, which is one’s motivation to help others. For this he presented the particpants with items like “I am motivated by my work because I want to help others through my work”. At the same time he asked the supervisors of these employees to rate their creativity in their work. In other words, he asked supervisors to rate to which degree his or her employee generates creative ideas, is a creative role model, or is always on the outlook for novel sollutions. In these studies he found that being passionate about their job indeed spurred the creativity of these employees, but especially when they were also focused on helping others throug their work. This means that the relationship between intrinsic motivation for work and creativity at work is stronger when individuals have a prosocial motivation.
  5. (Yuan & Woodman) Survey study - Variables on the left self-rated, on the right supervisor-rated. Sample: 216 pairs of employees and their supervisor from various organizations, functions, industries… Verstig geen aandacht op expected gains. Dat kwam negatief uit in de plaats van positief, maar de mogelijk verklaring is nogal statistisch (suppressor effects)
  6. (Zang & Bartol) Survey study – self-report (one aspect of a larger study on creative performance) – 367 employees with various functions from a major IT company in China Creative process engagement: employee involvement or engagement in creativity relevant cognitive processes, including (1) problem identification, (2) information searching and encoding, and (3) idea and alternative generation Leader encouragement for creativity: the extent of a leader’s emphasis on being creative and on actively engaging in processes that may lead to creative outcomes. Psychological empowerment: a process or psychological state manifested in four cognitions: meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact. Specifically, meaning concerns a sense of feeling that one’s work is personally important. Competence refers to self-efficacy, or belief in one’s ability to successfully perform tasks. Self-determination indicates perceptions of freedom to choose how to initiate and carry out tasks. Impact represents the degree to which one views one’s behaviors as making a difference in work outcomes.
  7. How employees perceive their job, their co-workers, their leader and their organization as a whole affects how they will behave, and thus, how innovative their performance will be. Here are some example correlations of these 4 different aspects, again based on meta-analytical studies. In the following I will again discuss a few recent studies that give us more specific insights in how differnent aspects of the context nuance these conclusions.
  8. (Shally, Gilson & Blum) – survey study – self-report, job complexity coded based Dictionnary of Occupational Titles – Telephone survey, probability sample, 1465 individuals Growth need strength: an individual’s desire to grow and learn in a job Context = organizational support for creativity: employees’ perception that their organization encourages, rewards, and recognizes creativity. Job complexity: the extent to which a job entails autonomy or less routine and the extent to which it allows for decision latitude People are most creative when each aspect is high. However, what is particular in this study is that even in routine jobs, or jobs low in complexity, people can be creative in their work if they are eager to learn and when their work context supports creativity. In other words, characteristics of the individual or the environment can compensate for less empowering jobs. if an individual seeks growth and learning from work and his/her work context supports creativity, the individual can overcome having a job that is more routine and less autonomous and find ways to essentially build creativity into the job.
  9. (Liu, Liao, Loi) – survey study, self-report and supervisor reports - 762 team member from 108 teams, large automobile parts manufactory in the U.S. Abusive supervision: leaders' engagement in "the sustained display of hostile, verbal and nonverbal behaviors, excluding physical contact Thus, on the one hand, leaders may mistreat their subordinates to enhance subordinate performance (performance promotion motives); on the other hand, leaders may exercise abusive supervision to purposely harm subordinates (injury initiation motives). The negative relationship between team leader abusive supervision and team member creativity was accentuated by team member-attributed injury initiation motives but attenuated by team member—attributed performance promotion motives.
  10. Since shortly, researchers always stated that positive emotions spur creativity and negative emotions hinder creativity. Meanwhile, some studies confirmed the negative link between negative emotions and creativity, while others found that sometimes negative emotions could indeed bring about creativity. Some dutch researchers tried to understand this problem and realized that not the valence of the emotion is importan, but how activating it is. Both positive and negative emotions can be high or low in activation, e.g. joy is positive and high active, while satisfaction is low active, fear is negative and high active, while sadness is low active. Now we found that both negative and positve emotions can facilitate creativity, however in a different way. Positive emotions lead to the typical out-of-the-box thinking, while negative emotions lead to a more systematic/rational creative process. Think of a situtation in which your life is in danger and you are systematically searching for a way out.
  11. (Bledow, Rosing & Frese) – Survey study- self-report, people filled out each day one survey in the morning and one in the evening during one work week - heterogeneous sample of 102 full-time employees high creativity resulted if negative affect in the morning was followed by a decrease in negative affect and an increase in positive affect during the day. A dynamic perspective on the affect-creativity link thus suggests that the regulation of negative affect plays a key role for achieving high levels of creativity. On the one hand, people need to be capable of tolerating episodes of negative affect; on the other hand, the ability to down-regulate negative affect is critical
  12. How employees perceive their job, their co-workers, their leader and their organization as whole affects how they will behave, and thus, how innovative their performance will be
  13. (Carmeli et al.) 350 employees from various organizations, survey study with self-report only leaders who model knowledge sharing and collaborative behaviors and encourage information exchange, openness, and idea sharing are likely to motivate individuals to share and exchange knowledge with others within and outside the organization.
  14. (Yan et al.) Survey with 232 employees from various organizations. All self-report. Web 2.0 = weblogs, microblogs, wikis and the virtual communities, e.g. facebook, yammer, Twitter, wikipedia, instagram, wordpress… online social networks in which people with common interests, goals, or practices interact to share information and knowledge, and engage in social interactions’’ Flow has been conceptualized as an optimal experience while you are doing an activity. Flow is characterized by a match between perceived challenges and perceived skills. ‘‘When in flow, the individual operates at full capacity. The state is one of dynamic equilibrium’. ‘‘The balance is intrinsically fragile. If challenges begin to exceed skills, one first becomes vigilant and then anxious; if skills begin to exceed challenges, one first relaxes and then becomes bored’. Thus, ‘‘over time, the same activity may make a person feel anxious one moment, bored the next, and in a state of flow immediately afterward’’. The premise is that the nature of Web 2.0 (possibility for easily seeking and sharing knowledge) tools facilitate the experience of flow, as there is a good match between challenges and ones skills. Classic knowledge management tools, such as archives, lack these facilities and thus people do not experience flow from looking something up in the archive or add their knowledge to the archive, e.g. because the can less readily perceive whether people consult their information
  15. (De Stobbeleir) 452 supervisor-employee dyads from four consulting firms. Self- and supervisor-ratings Creativity did not benefit from feedback monitoring. Asking people for feedback directly on ideas and problems seems to be a valuable source for obtaining insights and identifying creative solutions.
  16. Survey study, 240 employees from two Slovenian companies, self- and other ratings Knowledge hiding led to recipricated knowledge hiding which finally led to lower creative performance This effect is stronger in performance climates, but attenuated in mastery climates
  17. How employees’ jobs are shaped How employees’ development is managed How employees’ performance is monitored, steared and supported How employees are rewarded Influences their motivation, how they perceive their work context, their mood and the knowledge they develop and share. As such, HR has an impact on employees’ innovative performance.
  18. Over Barzinga: http://wijs.be/nl/trends-inzichten/blog/detail/online-platform-voor-hr-gamification Creativity goals can ask for a creative outcome, but can also focus on the creative process, e.g. find three different point of views to approach this problems, read 10 articles on this topic, have a meeting with three different experts on this topic, generate 5 different solutions for this problem (mostly we just ask for one)
  19. In general there is no relation between CEO pay and organization performance. Which is not surprising, as organizational performance depends on many factors. However, the story changes if we look at the relationship between CEO pay and the decisions CEOs take. We make a distinction between short-term pay (bonus related to year results of the company) and long-term pay (stock options) Well, we see that short-term pay is negatively related with investments in R&D. By cutting on investments in R&D CEO’s can maximize profit and increase their bonus. We see this is especially through when CEOs feel as if they are underpaid, when they are going in pension soon, or when they predict the company will soon be in a financial crisis. Combining short-term and long-term pay does not seem to overcome this effect. Opportunism prevails. We see that high tech companies do not solely relate CEO pay to financial results but also to his management decisions and results, e.g. zie slide Meer uitleg: http://www.cebma.org/wp-content/uploads/Velghe-Wat-moet-de-CEO-krijgen.pdf