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How Can A Non-Resident-Indian Avoid Double
Taxation
Submitted to- Submitted by-
Advocate Alok Verma Shobhit Tiwari
LLB 3years, Sec-A
Semester- 5th
INDEX
 Introduction
 DoubleTaxation Avoidance Agreements
 Implication of Prevalent Tax Laws In India
 How To Avoid Doubletaxation
 Bibliography
Introduction-
'Non-resident Indian' is an individual who is a citizen of India or a person of Indian origin and who is not a
resident of India. Thus, in order to determine whether an Individual is a non-resident Indian or not, his
residential status is required to be determined under Section 6. As per section 6 of the Income-tax Act, an
individual is said to be non-resident in India if he is not a resident in India and an individual is deemed to be
resident in India in any previous year if he satisfies any of the following conditions:
1. If he is in India for a period of 182 days or more during the previous year; or
2. If he is in India for a period of 60 days or more during the previous year and 365 days or more during 4
years immediately preceding the previous year.
However, condition No. 2 does not apply where an individual being citizen of India or a person of Indian
origin, who being outside India, comes on a visit to India during the previous year.
A person shall be deemed to be of Indian origin if he, or either of his parents or any of his Grand-parents, was
born in undivided India1. Some examples are as following:
1. Ajay leaves India for the first time on 1st August, 2006 and remains out of India in the remaining part
of the financial year. His period of stay in India in the previous year 2006-07, being less than 182 days,
he is not a resident for that year.
2. Divya leaves India in December 2006 and continues to remain abroad in the remaining part of the
financial year. Her period of stay in India being more than 182 days, she will be a ‘resident’ in the
previous year 2006-07.
Those who are migrating to other countries to earn a living have to pay taxes in their country of residence as
per taxes laws of the country and these people have certain investments in their home country and they are
liable to pay taxes on gains made from such investment in India (Home Country). The problem arises when
they are told that as per the globally accepted norms, if a taxpayer is resident in one country but has a source
of income situated in another country, there is a situation at hand where his income is taxed in both countries,
or Double Taxation occurs.
Example: -Indira lived in the U.S. for a substantial period of time during the last five years but in 2010 she
moves back to India and works on a contractual basis with a U.S. based company. Her payment is wired to her
in India. Sandra stays in the U.S. and writes for a technology magazine in India. Her payment is wired to her
from India to U.S. Since she stays in the U.S., she has to file her tax returns in the U.S.
And to avoid paying tax on same income twice one can use the provision of Double Taxation Avoidance
Agreement (DTAA), a tax treaty signed by The Government of India with many countries.
1 http://www.incometaxindia.gov.in/Pages/non-resident-indian.aspx
Double TaxationAvoidance Agreements (DTAA)
In order to prevent this hardship and to avoid the double taxation of the same income, relief is provided to the
tax-payer. Such Relief is provided by Two Ways:
 Bilateral Relief: Countries are entering in to Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement(DTAA) with
each other.(Section 90 and 90A)
 Unilateral Relief: When there is no agreement between two countries, country of residence itself
provide relief.(Section 91)
Section 90- Agreement With Foreign Countries or Specified Territories2
(1) The Central Government may enter into an agreement with the Government of any country outside India
or specified territory outside India,—
(a) For the granting of relief in respect of—
(i) Income on which have been paid both income-tax under this Act and income-tax in that country or
specified territory, as the case may be, or
(ii) Income-tax chargeable under this Act and under the corresponding law in force in that country or specified
territory, as the case may be, to promote mutual economic relations, trade and investment, or
(b) For the avoidance of double taxation of income under this Act and under the corresponding law in force in
that country or specified territory, as the case may be, or
(c) For exchange of information for the prevention of evasion or avoidance of income-tax chargeable under
this Act or under the corresponding law in force in that country or specified territory, as the case may be, or
investigation of cases of such evasion or avoidance, or
(d) For recovery of income-tax under this Act and under the corresponding law in force in that country or
specified territory, as the case may be,
and may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make such provisions as may be necessary for implementing
the agreement.
(2) Where the Central Government has entered into an agreement with the Government of any country outside
India or specified territory outside India, as the case may be, under sub-section (1) for granting relief of tax, or
as the case may be, avoidance of double taxation, then, in relation to the assesse to whom such agreement
applies, the provisions of this Act shall apply to the extent they are more beneficial to that assesse.
(2A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2), the provisions of Chapter X-A of the Act shall
apply to the assesse even if such provisions are not beneficial to him.
(3) Any term used but not defined in this Act or in the agreement referred to in sub-section (1) shall, unless the
context otherwise requires, and is not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act or the agreement, have the
same meaning as assigned to it in the notification issued by the Central Government in the Official Gazette in
this behalf.
(4) An assesse, not being a resident, to whom an agreement referred to in sub-section (1) applies, shall not be
entitled to claim any relief under such agreement unless [a certificate of his being a resident] in any country
outside India or specified territory outside India, as the case may be, is obtained by him from the Government
of that country or specified territory.
(5) The assesse referred to in sub-section (4) shall also provide such other documents and information, as may
be prescribed.
2 Foreign Taxation and Assessments By CA Vinod Gupta
Section 91-Countries With Which No Agreement Exists3
If any person who is resident in India in any previous year proves the, in respect of his income which accrued
or arose during that previous year outside India (and which is not deemed to accrue or arise in India), he has
paid in any country with which there is no agreement under section 90 for the relief or avoidance of double
taxation, income tax, by deduction or otherwise, under the law in force in that country he shall be entitled to
the deduction from the Indian income tax payable by him of a sum calculated on such double taxed income at
the Indian rate of tax or the rate of ta of the said country, whichever is lower, or at the Indian rate of tax if both
the rates are equal
3 Foreign Taxation and Assessments By CA Vinod Gupta
Implications of PrevalentTax Laws in India-
Every person who is a lawful resident of India is liable to pay taxes in India on his or her global income.
However, non-residents have to pay tax only on the income earned in India or from a source or activity carried
out in India. A resident of India is defined as a person who has been in India for a period of 182 days or more
in the financial year or who has been in India for 60 days or more in a financial year and 365 days or more in
the 4 years before that financial year (section 6).
Non-Resident’s definition under the Income Tax Act, 1961 (IT Act) is tied to number of days of an
individual’s stay in India during a particular financial year. A person is Non-Resident under IT Act if his stay
in India does not exceed 181 days in a financial year (1st April to 31st March of next year). Since Indira has
been residing in India since 2010, she is a resident India as per India’s tax laws and hence liable to pay taxes
on her earnings for the financial year 2012-13. Sandra is a non-resident but she earns income form a source in
India, hence she has to pay taxes on that income. Now let us take a look at the tax laws in the U.S. and what
they specify. US tax laws specify that any person who is a resident of US must pay taxes in the US. The IRS
defines resident as one who qualifies for either of the following two criterion:
• Green card criteria: If at any time during the calendar year one is considered to be a lawful permanent
resident of the United States as per the immigration laws then he is considered to have met the Green Card
status.
• The substantial presence criteria: When one is physically present in the United States on at least 31 days
during the current year, and 183 days during the 3 year period that includes the current year and the 2 years
immediately before, he or she qualifies for this criteria.
• A non-resident alien, is a person who is not a citizen or resident of the US but earns from a US source on
which tax has not been fully withheld at source. In such cases taxes need to be filed in the US. Sandra has
lived in the US, so she must file her taxes in the US.
Indira is a non-resident alien so she must file her taxes in the US since her source of income is in the US.
Both Indira and Sandra are now liable to pay taxes in both countries – India and the US. A case of double
taxation.
A situation where a person is taxed in two countries for the same income is known as double taxation. A
mandate called the Double Tax Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) is entered between two countries, in this case
it is between India and another foreign state. The purpose is to promote and foster economic trade and
investments between two countries. The treaty can apply to two or more countries and can therefore termed to
be either unilateral or bi-lateral4.
4 http://www.moneycontrol.com/news/nris/how-can-nris-avoid-double-taxation_1174191.html
How to Avoid Double Taxation-(How to Avail DTAA Benefits)
There are various methods of availing tax benefits under DTAA(Double Tax Avoidance Agreement).
• Exemption method: Under this method, income is taxed in only one of the two countries. As per the terms of
the treaty with countries like Greece, Libya and United Arab Republic, income from dividend, Interest, royalty
and fees for technical services are applicable. So for a citizen of these 3 countries, any income accruing in the
form of dividend, interest, royalty or fees for technical services arising in India, will be solely taxable in India
and if for a resident if such income is arising in any of these 3 countries then the income will solely be taxed in
these 3 countries and it will not be at taxed in India.
Different Agreements of Tax Rates between the various countries are:-5
Country TDS Rates Applicable
Australia 15%
USA 15%
China 10%
UK 15%
UAE 12.5%
• Deduction method: Tax paid in the country of source is deducted from the Global income and then on
residual amount income tax is paid, as per this method.
• Credit method: The country of residence includes income from the country of source (India) in the total
taxable income of the tax payer and tax on the basis of such taxpayer’s total income (including income from
country where income was earned) is then computed. A deduction is allowed from its own taxes for taxes paid
in country where income was earned.
There are a few variations of the Credit method:
>> Ordinary credit method
>> Underlying Tax Credit method
>> Tax Sparing Credit
5 http://www.smartmoneygoal.in/blog/dtaa-rates-nris-double-taxation-avoidance-agreement-
calculation/
Steps for claiming DTAA6:
The following are the few basic steps for availing benefit under DTAA:
6 http://www.moneycontrol.com/news/nris/how-can-nris-avoid-double-taxation_1174191.html
1. Check the DTAA between the countries in question after determining the country of residence.
2. The person concerned has to submit relevant documents to claim the tax exemption or tax credit as
applicable. The basic documents generally include the DTAA application form, tax residency certificate and a
self-attested copy of the Permanent Account Number (PAN). There are other sets of documents which are also
required based on the specific necessity.
Some Important points must be taken into consideration by the Tax Payer are as followings:
>> Form 15 G/15 H is not acceptable for waiver of tax on for example NRO Term Deposits.
>> If no certificate under DTAA is submitted by the client, then Income Tax at a rate of 30.90% will be
deducted at source on interest earned in the NRO accounts/deposits irrespective of the amount of interest.
>> If PAN Number is not updated with the Bank, then the DTAA rate or 30% whichever is higher will be
applicable. It is expected that tax-payers, residents, non-residents will gain from the above discussion and will
have a fair idea of what DTAA is all about.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 Income Tax By CA Girish Ahuja
 Foreign Taxation and Assessments By CA Vinod Gupta
 http://www.incometaxindia.gov.in/Pages/non-resident-indian.aspx
 http://www.moneycontrol.com/news/nris/how-can-nris-avoid-double-taxation_1174191.html
 http://www.smartmoneygoal.in/blog/dtaa-rates-nris-double-taxation-avoidance-agreement-calculation/
 http://www.smartpaisa.in/non-resident-indian-nri-definition-income-tax-act-implication-residency/

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How To Avoid Double Taxation

  • 1. How Can A Non-Resident-Indian Avoid Double Taxation Submitted to- Submitted by- Advocate Alok Verma Shobhit Tiwari LLB 3years, Sec-A Semester- 5th
  • 2. INDEX  Introduction  DoubleTaxation Avoidance Agreements  Implication of Prevalent Tax Laws In India  How To Avoid Doubletaxation  Bibliography
  • 3. Introduction- 'Non-resident Indian' is an individual who is a citizen of India or a person of Indian origin and who is not a resident of India. Thus, in order to determine whether an Individual is a non-resident Indian or not, his residential status is required to be determined under Section 6. As per section 6 of the Income-tax Act, an individual is said to be non-resident in India if he is not a resident in India and an individual is deemed to be resident in India in any previous year if he satisfies any of the following conditions: 1. If he is in India for a period of 182 days or more during the previous year; or 2. If he is in India for a period of 60 days or more during the previous year and 365 days or more during 4 years immediately preceding the previous year. However, condition No. 2 does not apply where an individual being citizen of India or a person of Indian origin, who being outside India, comes on a visit to India during the previous year. A person shall be deemed to be of Indian origin if he, or either of his parents or any of his Grand-parents, was born in undivided India1. Some examples are as following: 1. Ajay leaves India for the first time on 1st August, 2006 and remains out of India in the remaining part of the financial year. His period of stay in India in the previous year 2006-07, being less than 182 days, he is not a resident for that year. 2. Divya leaves India in December 2006 and continues to remain abroad in the remaining part of the financial year. Her period of stay in India being more than 182 days, she will be a ‘resident’ in the previous year 2006-07. Those who are migrating to other countries to earn a living have to pay taxes in their country of residence as per taxes laws of the country and these people have certain investments in their home country and they are liable to pay taxes on gains made from such investment in India (Home Country). The problem arises when they are told that as per the globally accepted norms, if a taxpayer is resident in one country but has a source of income situated in another country, there is a situation at hand where his income is taxed in both countries, or Double Taxation occurs. Example: -Indira lived in the U.S. for a substantial period of time during the last five years but in 2010 she moves back to India and works on a contractual basis with a U.S. based company. Her payment is wired to her in India. Sandra stays in the U.S. and writes for a technology magazine in India. Her payment is wired to her from India to U.S. Since she stays in the U.S., she has to file her tax returns in the U.S. And to avoid paying tax on same income twice one can use the provision of Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA), a tax treaty signed by The Government of India with many countries. 1 http://www.incometaxindia.gov.in/Pages/non-resident-indian.aspx
  • 4. Double TaxationAvoidance Agreements (DTAA) In order to prevent this hardship and to avoid the double taxation of the same income, relief is provided to the tax-payer. Such Relief is provided by Two Ways:  Bilateral Relief: Countries are entering in to Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement(DTAA) with each other.(Section 90 and 90A)  Unilateral Relief: When there is no agreement between two countries, country of residence itself provide relief.(Section 91) Section 90- Agreement With Foreign Countries or Specified Territories2 (1) The Central Government may enter into an agreement with the Government of any country outside India or specified territory outside India,— (a) For the granting of relief in respect of— (i) Income on which have been paid both income-tax under this Act and income-tax in that country or specified territory, as the case may be, or (ii) Income-tax chargeable under this Act and under the corresponding law in force in that country or specified territory, as the case may be, to promote mutual economic relations, trade and investment, or (b) For the avoidance of double taxation of income under this Act and under the corresponding law in force in that country or specified territory, as the case may be, or (c) For exchange of information for the prevention of evasion or avoidance of income-tax chargeable under this Act or under the corresponding law in force in that country or specified territory, as the case may be, or investigation of cases of such evasion or avoidance, or (d) For recovery of income-tax under this Act and under the corresponding law in force in that country or specified territory, as the case may be, and may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make such provisions as may be necessary for implementing the agreement. (2) Where the Central Government has entered into an agreement with the Government of any country outside India or specified territory outside India, as the case may be, under sub-section (1) for granting relief of tax, or as the case may be, avoidance of double taxation, then, in relation to the assesse to whom such agreement applies, the provisions of this Act shall apply to the extent they are more beneficial to that assesse. (2A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2), the provisions of Chapter X-A of the Act shall apply to the assesse even if such provisions are not beneficial to him. (3) Any term used but not defined in this Act or in the agreement referred to in sub-section (1) shall, unless the context otherwise requires, and is not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act or the agreement, have the same meaning as assigned to it in the notification issued by the Central Government in the Official Gazette in this behalf. (4) An assesse, not being a resident, to whom an agreement referred to in sub-section (1) applies, shall not be entitled to claim any relief under such agreement unless [a certificate of his being a resident] in any country outside India or specified territory outside India, as the case may be, is obtained by him from the Government of that country or specified territory. (5) The assesse referred to in sub-section (4) shall also provide such other documents and information, as may be prescribed. 2 Foreign Taxation and Assessments By CA Vinod Gupta
  • 5. Section 91-Countries With Which No Agreement Exists3 If any person who is resident in India in any previous year proves the, in respect of his income which accrued or arose during that previous year outside India (and which is not deemed to accrue or arise in India), he has paid in any country with which there is no agreement under section 90 for the relief or avoidance of double taxation, income tax, by deduction or otherwise, under the law in force in that country he shall be entitled to the deduction from the Indian income tax payable by him of a sum calculated on such double taxed income at the Indian rate of tax or the rate of ta of the said country, whichever is lower, or at the Indian rate of tax if both the rates are equal 3 Foreign Taxation and Assessments By CA Vinod Gupta
  • 6. Implications of PrevalentTax Laws in India- Every person who is a lawful resident of India is liable to pay taxes in India on his or her global income. However, non-residents have to pay tax only on the income earned in India or from a source or activity carried out in India. A resident of India is defined as a person who has been in India for a period of 182 days or more in the financial year or who has been in India for 60 days or more in a financial year and 365 days or more in the 4 years before that financial year (section 6). Non-Resident’s definition under the Income Tax Act, 1961 (IT Act) is tied to number of days of an individual’s stay in India during a particular financial year. A person is Non-Resident under IT Act if his stay in India does not exceed 181 days in a financial year (1st April to 31st March of next year). Since Indira has been residing in India since 2010, she is a resident India as per India’s tax laws and hence liable to pay taxes on her earnings for the financial year 2012-13. Sandra is a non-resident but she earns income form a source in India, hence she has to pay taxes on that income. Now let us take a look at the tax laws in the U.S. and what they specify. US tax laws specify that any person who is a resident of US must pay taxes in the US. The IRS defines resident as one who qualifies for either of the following two criterion: • Green card criteria: If at any time during the calendar year one is considered to be a lawful permanent resident of the United States as per the immigration laws then he is considered to have met the Green Card status. • The substantial presence criteria: When one is physically present in the United States on at least 31 days during the current year, and 183 days during the 3 year period that includes the current year and the 2 years immediately before, he or she qualifies for this criteria. • A non-resident alien, is a person who is not a citizen or resident of the US but earns from a US source on which tax has not been fully withheld at source. In such cases taxes need to be filed in the US. Sandra has lived in the US, so she must file her taxes in the US. Indira is a non-resident alien so she must file her taxes in the US since her source of income is in the US. Both Indira and Sandra are now liable to pay taxes in both countries – India and the US. A case of double taxation. A situation where a person is taxed in two countries for the same income is known as double taxation. A mandate called the Double Tax Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) is entered between two countries, in this case it is between India and another foreign state. The purpose is to promote and foster economic trade and investments between two countries. The treaty can apply to two or more countries and can therefore termed to be either unilateral or bi-lateral4. 4 http://www.moneycontrol.com/news/nris/how-can-nris-avoid-double-taxation_1174191.html
  • 7. How to Avoid Double Taxation-(How to Avail DTAA Benefits) There are various methods of availing tax benefits under DTAA(Double Tax Avoidance Agreement). • Exemption method: Under this method, income is taxed in only one of the two countries. As per the terms of the treaty with countries like Greece, Libya and United Arab Republic, income from dividend, Interest, royalty and fees for technical services are applicable. So for a citizen of these 3 countries, any income accruing in the form of dividend, interest, royalty or fees for technical services arising in India, will be solely taxable in India and if for a resident if such income is arising in any of these 3 countries then the income will solely be taxed in these 3 countries and it will not be at taxed in India. Different Agreements of Tax Rates between the various countries are:-5 Country TDS Rates Applicable Australia 15% USA 15% China 10% UK 15% UAE 12.5% • Deduction method: Tax paid in the country of source is deducted from the Global income and then on residual amount income tax is paid, as per this method. • Credit method: The country of residence includes income from the country of source (India) in the total taxable income of the tax payer and tax on the basis of such taxpayer’s total income (including income from country where income was earned) is then computed. A deduction is allowed from its own taxes for taxes paid in country where income was earned. There are a few variations of the Credit method: >> Ordinary credit method >> Underlying Tax Credit method >> Tax Sparing Credit 5 http://www.smartmoneygoal.in/blog/dtaa-rates-nris-double-taxation-avoidance-agreement- calculation/
  • 8. Steps for claiming DTAA6: The following are the few basic steps for availing benefit under DTAA: 6 http://www.moneycontrol.com/news/nris/how-can-nris-avoid-double-taxation_1174191.html
  • 9. 1. Check the DTAA between the countries in question after determining the country of residence. 2. The person concerned has to submit relevant documents to claim the tax exemption or tax credit as applicable. The basic documents generally include the DTAA application form, tax residency certificate and a self-attested copy of the Permanent Account Number (PAN). There are other sets of documents which are also required based on the specific necessity. Some Important points must be taken into consideration by the Tax Payer are as followings: >> Form 15 G/15 H is not acceptable for waiver of tax on for example NRO Term Deposits. >> If no certificate under DTAA is submitted by the client, then Income Tax at a rate of 30.90% will be deducted at source on interest earned in the NRO accounts/deposits irrespective of the amount of interest. >> If PAN Number is not updated with the Bank, then the DTAA rate or 30% whichever is higher will be applicable. It is expected that tax-payers, residents, non-residents will gain from the above discussion and will have a fair idea of what DTAA is all about.
  • 10. BIBLIOGRAPHY  Income Tax By CA Girish Ahuja  Foreign Taxation and Assessments By CA Vinod Gupta  http://www.incometaxindia.gov.in/Pages/non-resident-indian.aspx  http://www.moneycontrol.com/news/nris/how-can-nris-avoid-double-taxation_1174191.html  http://www.smartmoneygoal.in/blog/dtaa-rates-nris-double-taxation-avoidance-agreement-calculation/  http://www.smartpaisa.in/non-resident-indian-nri-definition-income-tax-act-implication-residency/