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How the Reformation Changed
the World
How the Reformation Changed the World
HOW LUTHER REFORMED
MARRIAGE and the FAMILY
Martin Luther, the German
Reformer, is generally
remembered as the
Theological Professor,
the Bible translator,
the writer,
even as the composer of hymns.
However, Martin Luther was also a husband and a father of
six children. He provided the church its first and most
prominent example of a pastoral family.
While still a
celibate priest,
Luther wrote
extensively on
marriage.
He saw
marriage as an
institution in as
much crisis as
the church
- and no less in
need of reform.
 Martin Luther was a
leading defender of
the dignity of women
and the foundational
importance of
marriage.
 Luther placed
the home
“at the centre of the
universe.”
His teaching and practices on marriage and the family were
so radical and so long-lasting that it profoundly and
permanently altered the home.
 Luther and the first generation of Protestant Reformers
rejected this tradition of over a thousand years, of ascetic
sexuality – in both their Theology and their lives.
 The Reformers rejection of the celibate ideal of the Middle
Ages was as great a revolution in the home as their
teachings were in the Church.
 Luther literally transferred the praises and esteem that
Christians had traditionally heaped upon the celibate
monks and nuns, to marriage and the home.
Luther described marriage as the only institution where
a chaste & moral life could be maintained.
He insisted that “one cannot be unmarried without sin.”
 “Marriage pervades the whole of nature”.
Luther taught that nothing was more natural and necessary
than marriage,
“for all creatures are divided into male and female.”
 Luther had a high regard for
the ability of women to shape
society by moulding its
youth and civilising
its men through
the institution of marriage.
“A companionable woman
brings joy to life”,
Luther wrote.
 “Women tend to and rear
their young, administer the
household and are inclined
to compassion.
God has made
them
compassionate
by nature,
so that by their
example men
may be moved
to compassion
also.”
 Luther also wrote:
“People who
do not like
children are
swine, dunces
and
blockheads,
not worthy to
be called men
and women,
because they despise the blessings of God, the Creator and
Author of marriage.”
 “Love begins when we wish to serve others.”
 There is no better school for humility and for loving
sacrificial service than marriage and parenthood.
Luther wrote that his entrance into the monastery was
“a cowardly act”.
He saw marriage and fatherhood as an
essential requirement for effective pastors.
 Luther had six children (Hans, Elizabeth, Magdalene,
Martin, Paul and Margaretha).
Paul Elizabeth
Magdalene
 Luther not only made the Bible part of the daily routine in
the home, but he also made the singing of hymns
central. He played the flute and the lute, and led his
children in singing hymns of praise.
 He also introduced the Catechism to explain the faith to
children, incorporating Scripture memorisation in the daily routine.
 Perhaps it is time for us to recognise Martin Luther as the
true and original founder of Focus on the Family.
REFORMING WORSHIP
 Congregational singing remains one of Martin Luther’s
most enduring legacies.
 Luther himself was a well-trained musician with a fine
voice. He played the lute, composed intricate hymns and
was well acquainted with the works of the leading
composers of his day.
“Let
everything
be done
so that the
Word of
God may
have free
course.”
Luther loved to cite examples like Moses who praised God
in song following the crossing of the Red Sea,
and David who
composed
many of the
Psalms.
“Music is a vehicle for proclaiming
the Word of God”, declared Luther.
 Urging pastors to write German hymns based on the Psalms,
Luther advised “use the simplest and most common words,
preserve the pure teaching of God’s Word, and keep the meaning
as close to the Psalm as possible.”
 Luther wrote a variety of hymns, intended for Church services and
for devotions at home. To teach the Catechism, he wrote two
hymns on the Ten Commandments, a hymn for the Apostles
Creed, one for the Lords Prayer and others for baptism and the
Lords Supper. Through these hymns, Luther demonstrated his
on-going desire to teach the Faith, especially to children.
 In 1527, during one of the most
trying times of Luther’s life,
while he was suffering severe
illness and depression,
with his entire body in pain,
the plague had erupted in
Wittenberg and he watched many
friends die.
Then his own son became ill.
Even though his wife was
pregnant,
Luther’s house was transformed
into a hospital.
 During that
horrific year,
surrounded by
sickness and
death, Luther
took time to
remember the
10th anniversary
of his publication
against
indulgences.
 A Mighty Fortress is our God, based on Psalm 46, was
composed during this time of severe trial. It has endured
as one of the most popular and most translated hymns in
history:
A draft of “A Mighty Fortress Is Our God”
“And though this world with devils filled,
should threatened to undo us,
we will not fear for God has willed,
His truth to triumph through us.
The prince of darkness grim?
We tremble not for him.
His rage we can endure,
for lo his doom is sure,
one little Word shall fell him.”
Luther made singing a central part
of Protestant worship.
He dispensed with the choir and assigned
all singing to the congregation.
Luther would often call the whole congregation into the
church during the week for congregational rehearsals
so that the people could learn new hymns.
“Let everything that has breath praise the Lord.”
Psalm 150:6
The REFORMATION and SCIENCE
Modern Science as a discipline is a
fruit of the Reformation.
As Francis Bacon, the father of the
scientific method, once put it:
“There are two books laid before us to
study; to prevent us falling into error;
first, the volume of the Scriptures
which reveal the will of God;
then the volume of the Creatures,
which express His power.”
Historian Robert G. Frank points out:
“The predominant forms of scientific activity can be shown to
be a direct outgrowth of a Puritan ideology.”
The great astronomer Johannes Kepler
(1571 – 1630), the founder of Celestial Mechanics declared:
“My wish is that I may perceive the God whom I find
everywhere in the external world in like manner within
me.” Kepler was a “brilliant mathematician and
astronomer, he contributed to the scientific revolution with
his work on the planetary orbits, laws of
motion and scientific method.
Kepler’s accomplishments formed
the foundation of modern
theoretical Astronomy.”
Kepler saw astronomy as a glimpse of God’s glory.
Kepler argued: “Truth in religion is based on the Word of
God in Scripture, while truth in natural science is based on
evidence and reason.”
Kepler viewed all of science as man attempting to
“think God’s thoughts after Him.”
Kepler was the father of the modern satellite,
and of modern space travel.
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), the father of
calculus and dynamics, was a scientific genius and
a dedicated Christian. Newton formulated the
theory of Gravitation and the laws of motion.
He discovered that white light
is composed of the colours of
the spectrum. He made vital
contributions to mathematics,
astronomy and physics.
Newton maintained that there were
two key sources of knowledge –
one revealed in the Bible and the
other revealed in nature.
Newton believed that in order to “truly
know the Creator, one must study
the natural order of things.”
Newton dedicated his life to know
the Word of God (the Bible)
and to know the works of God
(creation).
Blaise Pascal
(1623-1662)
made vital contributions
to mathematics and
technology that helped
with the development
of the computer.
Pascal invented the first
adding machine.
In his honour, a computer
language is named
after Pascal.
Charles Babbage
(1792-1871), the
father of modern day
computer science,
described the world
as a great computer,
and God as the
programmer.
Babbage was essentially a
mathematician and regarded
mathematics as the best
preliminary preparation for all
other branches of human
knowledge.
He believed that the study
of the works of nature,
with scientific precision,
was a necessary and indispensable
preparation for the understanding
and interpreting their testimony of
the wisdom and goodness
of the Divine Author.
Samuel F.B. Morse
(1791-1872)
was the man responsible
for the development of
the modern telegraph
and the Morse Code.
This was one of the greatest
innovations in the world of
communication.
Samuel deeply absorbed his
family’s Calvinism,
which he eventually translated
and applied
to all his scientific work.
Samuel Morse's first
telegraph, using artist's
canvas stretcher, 1835
In 1844, he astonished the US Congress,
gathered in the Supreme Court chamber,
by sending words from Numbers 23:23:
“What hath God wrought?”
The first inter-city telegraph line in the
world communicated these Words of
Scripture to inaugurate this great
invention. Morse, as an inventor,
saw his work as a service to the Lord.
He laid the foundations for the
development of
modern communications.
In the realm of physics,
Sir Michael Faraday is
acknowledged as one of
the greatest scientists of
all times.
He discovered electro-magnetic induction, without
which we could have no motors or engines. He invented
the generator. Faraday was a devout Christian who declared:
“The Bible, and it alone,
with nothing added to it
nor taken away from it by man,
is the sole and sufficient guide
for each individual,
at all times and in all circumstances.
Faith in the Divinity and work of Christ
is the gift of God
and the evidence of this faith
is obedience to the commandments of Christ.”
Lord Kelvin, one of the greatest
scientists of all times, formulated
the metric temperature scale.
He formulated the science of
thermodynamics,
giving us the first and second laws
of thermodynamics,
including entropy.
Lord Kelvin was the first scientist
who used the concept of energy.
He declared: “With regard to the
origin of life, science positively
affirms Creative power.”
Joseph Lister,
the English surgeon who
developed antiseptic surgery
and the use of
chemical disinfectants,
stated:
“I am a believer in the
fundamental doctrines of
Christianity.”
Karl von Linnaeus (1707-1778)
was the pioneer of modern botany.
He laid the foundation of natural
history by devising a system of
classification whereby any plant
or animal could be identified
and related to an overall plan.
He introduced the method of naming each type of living
being with universal terms that could be recognised in any
language. He used the Bible to provide the framework for
scientific classification of plants and animals.
James Simpson
(1811-1870),
the founder of gynaecology
and anaesthetics,
was inspired by the Scriptural
passage that God had made
Adam fall into a deep sleep
before taking the rib from him,
to develop chloroform,
and pioneer the beginnings
of modern surgical anaesthetics.
Matthew Fontaine Maury
(1806-1873), the father of
modern oceanography and
hydrology, derived many of
his ideas from the Bible.
He was the first person to chart shipping routes
throughout the world, pioneered the establishment
of sea-lanes and made possible
the laying of electric cables across the ocean floor.
Maury was inspired by a
verse from the Bible
(Psalm 8:8, which speaks of
the fish that passed through
“the paths of the seas”).
Maury declared that:
“The Bible is true and
science is true …
the Bible is authority for
everything it touches …
God is the Great Architect
Who planned it all.”
It has been pointed out that science could not have
developed amongst those who worship Allah,
because of Islam’s fatalism.
Nor could science have been birthed from Hinduism
or Buddhism, because of their belief that
the world is an illusion.
Neither could modern science have risen in our modern
humanistic culture, because of humanist's belief that
life is irrational and illogical.
By rejecting the notion of
absolutes, humanists
reject the very foundation
of science.
If there are no absolutes
in nature, then results in
experimentation can only be
relative.
If everything is relative,
then engineering,
and other branches of science,
becomes impossible.
A proper, philosophical base
for investigating the universe was needed,
and only the Christian doctrine of Creation
has provided that base.
The Creator established Laws for people
and Laws for the natural world.
A created universe was expected to have design,
order and purpose.
Man using his created, rational mind,
could study this ordered universe in a rational way
and seek to discover its laws.
Modern science is
based upon this
assumption of
scientific law.
In addition, the moral laws given by the Creator
established the ethical basis for science.
Scientists must be honest and truthful. If this universe were not
created, if it is merely the product of chance, then no intelligence
would be involved. There could be no reason to expect such a
universe to operate in a rational or consistent way.
Man’s mind would also
be the product of
chance and would not
be capable of reason or
logic. Hence, a
materialistic philosophy
could not provide any
foundation for science.
The irrefutable fact is that Christianity gave
birth to modern science. The scientific
revolution began in the Protestant
Reformation and the Bible played a vital part
in the development of scientific discovery.
Every major branch of science was
developed by a Bible-believing Christian.
The Bible essentially created science.
When we get into a car, start the engine, turn on the
lights, drive to hospital, receive an anaesthetic before an
operation, and have an effective operation done in a
germ-free environment, we need to remember that we
owe it to the Reformation.
As Isaac Watts declared in
his great Christmas carol:
“Joy to the World”,
Jesus makes His blessings flow
“far as the curse is found.”
“No more let sins and sorrows grow, nor
thorns infest the ground; He comes to make
His blessings flow, far as the curse is found,
far as the curse is found, far as, far as, the
curse is found.”
The Reformation and Education
The phenomenon of education for the masses has its roots in
Christianity. Christianity is a teaching religion.
The greatest universities worldwide were started by
Christians in fulfillment of the Great Commission of
our Lord Jesus Christ.
Cambridge
The roots of education for the common person goes
back to the Reformation, and, especially,
to John Calvin.
“The modern idea of popular
education – that is, education for
everyone – first arose in Europe
during the Protestant
Reformation.” (Dr. Samuel Blumenfeld –
Is Public Education necessary?)
American educator, Dr. Samuel
Blumenfeld, came to Christ through
reading Calvin’s Institutes of the
Christian religion. As Blumenfeld did his
research on education, he found that,
when it came to the concept of education
for the common man, all roads led to
Calvin. It was as he read the primary
documents, that he came to place his
faith in Christ.
“Wherever Calvinism has gone, it has carried
the school with it and has given a powerful
impulse to popular education. It is a system
which demands intellectual manhood. In fact,
we say that its very existence is tied up with
education of the people.” (Dr. Loraine Boettner –
The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination).
Calvin’s Academy in Geneva was the model for many
of the early colleges and universities established by
the Puritans and their successors in America.
Calvin advocated that the purpose of education is for
people to know God and to glorify Him as God – that in
our vocation and in our life we might know “the
knowledge of God, the Creator and Redeemer.” The
content of education must begin with the
Scriptures, and continue into God’s Creation.
In Geneva, Calvin promoted education for
everyone, which has become the pattern for
our day. When John Knox fled from
Scotland and sought freedom from
persecution in Geneva, he declared that
Geneva had become the greatest school
of Christ since the time of the Apostles.
Calvin emphasised the importance of education having
moral relevance. Calvin also was insistent that it was
the parents’ responsibility to educate their children.
Therefore the control of education should remain
with the parents.
Of America’s first 126 universities, 123 were Christian.
This included Harvard, Yale, Princeton, etc.
Harvard
The Reformation also produced some
of the greatest works of literature.
William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
was one of the world’s greatest
writers. Scriptural quotes and Biblical
images from the Geneva Bible
permeate Shakespeare’s writings.
Similarly, John Bunyan (1628-1688) gave the world
one of the greatest novels ever written – Pilgrim’s
Progress. This parable of the Christian life is one of
the all-time most published and widely read books in
the history of the world.
John Milton (1608-1674) author of Paradise Lost
and Paradise Regained was the secretary to Oliver
Cromwell, and also a Puritan.
Milton dictating to his
daughter.
Many music critics declare that Bach was the greatest
musician that ever lived. J.S. Bach was an
unsurpassed genius, and is acknowledged as the father
of modern music. He left no musical form as he found
it, says one critic. On the other hand, with every form
he touched, he seemed to have said the last word.
Bach’s teaching notebooks and violin books have been
the basis for music theory and practice ever since.
Johan Sebastian Bach was a
Protestant Christian, a Lutheran. Most
of his library consisted of Protestant
writings, including all of Luther’s
writings. Bach taught his pupils that
music is an act of worship and all
musicians need to commit their talents
to the Lord Jesus Christ.
As one critic said: “Bach is to music
what Shakespeare is to literature.
They are both the greatest.” And they
were both Protestant Christians.
Free Enterprise and the Work Ethic
Along with some of the greatest art and literature, the
Reformation brought about the greatest industrial
advances and prosperity ever experienced in history.
The Protestant work ethic, which helped to bring
about great prosperity in Western Europe and North
America, arose mostly through the Protestant
Reformers – particularly John Calvin.
“The most dynamic businessmen were to be found in
Protestant Holland and the most vigorous industrial
growth in Protestant England, both states heavily
tinctured with Calvinism.” (Historian Richard Dunn).
Max Webber, in his famous book:
“The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of
Capitalism” (1905), attributed the
Capitalist Revolution to Calvinism, its
worldly asceticism and Protestant
work ethic.
Calvin upheld the right of
private ownership of
property, taught the Biblical
concept of stewardship,
promoted free enterprise
and freed money from the
bondage to which it had
been held for centuries by
the forbidding of interest
being charged.
By allowing interest and promoting the work ethic,
Calvin unleashed all the powers that capitalism has
produced.
As a result, the free enterprise system has generated
the highest standards of living, the longest life
expectancy and the greatest advances in industry
and medicine ever experienced in history.
 For these and so many other reasons, the
Reformation in Europe during the 16th century
has to be seen as one of the most important
epochs in the history of the world. The
Reformation gave us the Bible – now freely
available in our own languages.
Luther’s German
translation of the
NT.
The Reformation also pioneered the now-almost
universally acknowledged principles of:
religious freedom,
liberty of conscience,
the rule of law,
separation of powers and
constitutionally limited Republics.
All of these foundational principles
were unthinkable before the
Reformation.
The Reformers emphasis on God’s
sovereignty,
that Scripture alone is the final
authority,
that Christ alone is the head of the
Church,
that justification is by God’s grace, on
the basis of the finished work of
Christ,
received by grace alone.
Their teachings on the
depravity of man, the
Covenant and Church
government has influenced
law and liberty throughout
the Western world and
beyond.
All of us are
beneficiaries of
this tremendous
movement
for Faith
and Freedom.
It is time that we
re-examined
the history
and the principles
of the Reformation.
How the Reformation Changed the World
How the Reformation Changed the World
How the Reformation Changed the World
How the Reformation Changed the World
How the Reformation Changed the World
How the Reformation Changed the World
Dr Peter Hammond
Reformation Society
P.O. Box 74
Newlands, 7725
Cape Town, South Africa
Tel: (021) 689 4480
Fax: (021) 685 5884
Email: info@ReformationSA.org
Website: www.ReformationSA.org
How the Reformation Changed the World
How the Reformation Changed the World
How the Reformation Changed the World
www.FrontlineMissionSA.org
How the Reformation Changed the World

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How the Reformation Changed the World

  • 1. How the Reformation Changed the World
  • 3. HOW LUTHER REFORMED MARRIAGE and the FAMILY Martin Luther, the German Reformer, is generally remembered as the Theological Professor,
  • 6. even as the composer of hymns.
  • 7. However, Martin Luther was also a husband and a father of six children. He provided the church its first and most prominent example of a pastoral family.
  • 8. While still a celibate priest, Luther wrote extensively on marriage. He saw marriage as an institution in as much crisis as the church - and no less in need of reform.
  • 9.  Martin Luther was a leading defender of the dignity of women and the foundational importance of marriage.  Luther placed the home “at the centre of the universe.”
  • 10. His teaching and practices on marriage and the family were so radical and so long-lasting that it profoundly and permanently altered the home.
  • 11.  Luther and the first generation of Protestant Reformers rejected this tradition of over a thousand years, of ascetic sexuality – in both their Theology and their lives.
  • 12.  The Reformers rejection of the celibate ideal of the Middle Ages was as great a revolution in the home as their teachings were in the Church.
  • 13.  Luther literally transferred the praises and esteem that Christians had traditionally heaped upon the celibate monks and nuns, to marriage and the home. Luther described marriage as the only institution where a chaste & moral life could be maintained. He insisted that “one cannot be unmarried without sin.”
  • 14.  “Marriage pervades the whole of nature”. Luther taught that nothing was more natural and necessary than marriage, “for all creatures are divided into male and female.”
  • 15.  Luther had a high regard for the ability of women to shape society by moulding its youth and civilising its men through the institution of marriage. “A companionable woman brings joy to life”, Luther wrote.  “Women tend to and rear their young, administer the household and are inclined to compassion.
  • 16. God has made them compassionate by nature, so that by their example men may be moved to compassion also.”
  • 17.  Luther also wrote: “People who do not like children are swine, dunces and blockheads, not worthy to be called men and women,
  • 18. because they despise the blessings of God, the Creator and Author of marriage.”
  • 19.  “Love begins when we wish to serve others.”
  • 20.  There is no better school for humility and for loving sacrificial service than marriage and parenthood.
  • 21. Luther wrote that his entrance into the monastery was “a cowardly act”.
  • 22. He saw marriage and fatherhood as an essential requirement for effective pastors.
  • 23.  Luther had six children (Hans, Elizabeth, Magdalene, Martin, Paul and Margaretha). Paul Elizabeth Magdalene
  • 24.  Luther not only made the Bible part of the daily routine in the home, but he also made the singing of hymns central. He played the flute and the lute, and led his children in singing hymns of praise.
  • 25.  He also introduced the Catechism to explain the faith to children, incorporating Scripture memorisation in the daily routine.  Perhaps it is time for us to recognise Martin Luther as the true and original founder of Focus on the Family.
  • 26. REFORMING WORSHIP  Congregational singing remains one of Martin Luther’s most enduring legacies.
  • 27.  Luther himself was a well-trained musician with a fine voice. He played the lute, composed intricate hymns and was well acquainted with the works of the leading composers of his day.
  • 28. “Let everything be done so that the Word of God may have free course.”
  • 29. Luther loved to cite examples like Moses who praised God in song following the crossing of the Red Sea,
  • 30. and David who composed many of the Psalms.
  • 31. “Music is a vehicle for proclaiming the Word of God”, declared Luther.
  • 32.  Urging pastors to write German hymns based on the Psalms, Luther advised “use the simplest and most common words, preserve the pure teaching of God’s Word, and keep the meaning as close to the Psalm as possible.”
  • 33.  Luther wrote a variety of hymns, intended for Church services and for devotions at home. To teach the Catechism, he wrote two hymns on the Ten Commandments, a hymn for the Apostles Creed, one for the Lords Prayer and others for baptism and the Lords Supper. Through these hymns, Luther demonstrated his on-going desire to teach the Faith, especially to children.
  • 34.  In 1527, during one of the most trying times of Luther’s life, while he was suffering severe illness and depression, with his entire body in pain, the plague had erupted in Wittenberg and he watched many friends die. Then his own son became ill. Even though his wife was pregnant, Luther’s house was transformed into a hospital.
  • 35.  During that horrific year, surrounded by sickness and death, Luther took time to remember the 10th anniversary of his publication against indulgences.
  • 36.  A Mighty Fortress is our God, based on Psalm 46, was composed during this time of severe trial. It has endured as one of the most popular and most translated hymns in history: A draft of “A Mighty Fortress Is Our God”
  • 37. “And though this world with devils filled, should threatened to undo us, we will not fear for God has willed, His truth to triumph through us. The prince of darkness grim? We tremble not for him. His rage we can endure, for lo his doom is sure, one little Word shall fell him.”
  • 38. Luther made singing a central part of Protestant worship. He dispensed with the choir and assigned all singing to the congregation. Luther would often call the whole congregation into the church during the week for congregational rehearsals so that the people could learn new hymns. “Let everything that has breath praise the Lord.” Psalm 150:6
  • 39. The REFORMATION and SCIENCE Modern Science as a discipline is a fruit of the Reformation. As Francis Bacon, the father of the scientific method, once put it: “There are two books laid before us to study; to prevent us falling into error; first, the volume of the Scriptures which reveal the will of God; then the volume of the Creatures, which express His power.”
  • 40. Historian Robert G. Frank points out: “The predominant forms of scientific activity can be shown to be a direct outgrowth of a Puritan ideology.”
  • 41. The great astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571 – 1630), the founder of Celestial Mechanics declared: “My wish is that I may perceive the God whom I find everywhere in the external world in like manner within me.” Kepler was a “brilliant mathematician and astronomer, he contributed to the scientific revolution with his work on the planetary orbits, laws of motion and scientific method. Kepler’s accomplishments formed the foundation of modern theoretical Astronomy.”
  • 42. Kepler saw astronomy as a glimpse of God’s glory. Kepler argued: “Truth in religion is based on the Word of God in Scripture, while truth in natural science is based on evidence and reason.” Kepler viewed all of science as man attempting to “think God’s thoughts after Him.” Kepler was the father of the modern satellite, and of modern space travel.
  • 43. Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), the father of calculus and dynamics, was a scientific genius and a dedicated Christian. Newton formulated the theory of Gravitation and the laws of motion. He discovered that white light is composed of the colours of the spectrum. He made vital contributions to mathematics, astronomy and physics.
  • 44. Newton maintained that there were two key sources of knowledge – one revealed in the Bible and the other revealed in nature. Newton believed that in order to “truly know the Creator, one must study the natural order of things.” Newton dedicated his life to know the Word of God (the Bible) and to know the works of God (creation).
  • 45. Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) made vital contributions to mathematics and technology that helped with the development of the computer. Pascal invented the first adding machine. In his honour, a computer language is named after Pascal.
  • 46. Charles Babbage (1792-1871), the father of modern day computer science, described the world as a great computer, and God as the programmer.
  • 47. Babbage was essentially a mathematician and regarded mathematics as the best preliminary preparation for all other branches of human knowledge. He believed that the study of the works of nature, with scientific precision, was a necessary and indispensable preparation for the understanding and interpreting their testimony of the wisdom and goodness of the Divine Author.
  • 48. Samuel F.B. Morse (1791-1872) was the man responsible for the development of the modern telegraph and the Morse Code.
  • 49. This was one of the greatest innovations in the world of communication. Samuel deeply absorbed his family’s Calvinism, which he eventually translated and applied to all his scientific work. Samuel Morse's first telegraph, using artist's canvas stretcher, 1835
  • 50. In 1844, he astonished the US Congress, gathered in the Supreme Court chamber, by sending words from Numbers 23:23: “What hath God wrought?” The first inter-city telegraph line in the world communicated these Words of Scripture to inaugurate this great invention. Morse, as an inventor, saw his work as a service to the Lord. He laid the foundations for the development of modern communications.
  • 51. In the realm of physics, Sir Michael Faraday is acknowledged as one of the greatest scientists of all times.
  • 52. He discovered electro-magnetic induction, without which we could have no motors or engines. He invented the generator. Faraday was a devout Christian who declared:
  • 53. “The Bible, and it alone, with nothing added to it nor taken away from it by man, is the sole and sufficient guide for each individual, at all times and in all circumstances. Faith in the Divinity and work of Christ is the gift of God and the evidence of this faith is obedience to the commandments of Christ.”
  • 54. Lord Kelvin, one of the greatest scientists of all times, formulated the metric temperature scale. He formulated the science of thermodynamics, giving us the first and second laws of thermodynamics, including entropy.
  • 55. Lord Kelvin was the first scientist who used the concept of energy. He declared: “With regard to the origin of life, science positively affirms Creative power.”
  • 56. Joseph Lister, the English surgeon who developed antiseptic surgery and the use of chemical disinfectants, stated: “I am a believer in the fundamental doctrines of Christianity.”
  • 57. Karl von Linnaeus (1707-1778) was the pioneer of modern botany. He laid the foundation of natural history by devising a system of classification whereby any plant or animal could be identified and related to an overall plan. He introduced the method of naming each type of living being with universal terms that could be recognised in any language. He used the Bible to provide the framework for scientific classification of plants and animals.
  • 58. James Simpson (1811-1870), the founder of gynaecology and anaesthetics, was inspired by the Scriptural passage that God had made Adam fall into a deep sleep before taking the rib from him, to develop chloroform, and pioneer the beginnings of modern surgical anaesthetics.
  • 59. Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806-1873), the father of modern oceanography and hydrology, derived many of his ideas from the Bible.
  • 60. He was the first person to chart shipping routes throughout the world, pioneered the establishment of sea-lanes and made possible the laying of electric cables across the ocean floor.
  • 61. Maury was inspired by a verse from the Bible (Psalm 8:8, which speaks of the fish that passed through “the paths of the seas”). Maury declared that: “The Bible is true and science is true … the Bible is authority for everything it touches … God is the Great Architect Who planned it all.”
  • 62. It has been pointed out that science could not have developed amongst those who worship Allah, because of Islam’s fatalism.
  • 63. Nor could science have been birthed from Hinduism
  • 64. or Buddhism, because of their belief that the world is an illusion.
  • 65. Neither could modern science have risen in our modern humanistic culture, because of humanist's belief that life is irrational and illogical.
  • 66. By rejecting the notion of absolutes, humanists reject the very foundation of science. If there are no absolutes in nature, then results in experimentation can only be relative. If everything is relative, then engineering, and other branches of science, becomes impossible.
  • 67. A proper, philosophical base for investigating the universe was needed, and only the Christian doctrine of Creation has provided that base. The Creator established Laws for people and Laws for the natural world.
  • 68. A created universe was expected to have design, order and purpose. Man using his created, rational mind, could study this ordered universe in a rational way and seek to discover its laws.
  • 69. Modern science is based upon this assumption of scientific law.
  • 70. In addition, the moral laws given by the Creator established the ethical basis for science.
  • 71. Scientists must be honest and truthful. If this universe were not created, if it is merely the product of chance, then no intelligence would be involved. There could be no reason to expect such a universe to operate in a rational or consistent way.
  • 72. Man’s mind would also be the product of chance and would not be capable of reason or logic. Hence, a materialistic philosophy could not provide any foundation for science.
  • 73. The irrefutable fact is that Christianity gave birth to modern science. The scientific revolution began in the Protestant Reformation and the Bible played a vital part in the development of scientific discovery.
  • 74. Every major branch of science was developed by a Bible-believing Christian. The Bible essentially created science.
  • 75. When we get into a car, start the engine, turn on the lights, drive to hospital, receive an anaesthetic before an operation, and have an effective operation done in a germ-free environment, we need to remember that we owe it to the Reformation.
  • 76. As Isaac Watts declared in his great Christmas carol: “Joy to the World”, Jesus makes His blessings flow “far as the curse is found.”
  • 77. “No more let sins and sorrows grow, nor thorns infest the ground; He comes to make His blessings flow, far as the curse is found, far as the curse is found, far as, far as, the curse is found.”
  • 78. The Reformation and Education The phenomenon of education for the masses has its roots in Christianity. Christianity is a teaching religion.
  • 79. The greatest universities worldwide were started by Christians in fulfillment of the Great Commission of our Lord Jesus Christ. Cambridge
  • 80. The roots of education for the common person goes back to the Reformation, and, especially, to John Calvin.
  • 81. “The modern idea of popular education – that is, education for everyone – first arose in Europe during the Protestant Reformation.” (Dr. Samuel Blumenfeld – Is Public Education necessary?) American educator, Dr. Samuel Blumenfeld, came to Christ through reading Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian religion. As Blumenfeld did his research on education, he found that, when it came to the concept of education for the common man, all roads led to Calvin. It was as he read the primary documents, that he came to place his faith in Christ.
  • 82. “Wherever Calvinism has gone, it has carried the school with it and has given a powerful impulse to popular education. It is a system which demands intellectual manhood. In fact, we say that its very existence is tied up with education of the people.” (Dr. Loraine Boettner – The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination).
  • 83. Calvin’s Academy in Geneva was the model for many of the early colleges and universities established by the Puritans and their successors in America.
  • 84. Calvin advocated that the purpose of education is for people to know God and to glorify Him as God – that in our vocation and in our life we might know “the knowledge of God, the Creator and Redeemer.” The content of education must begin with the Scriptures, and continue into God’s Creation.
  • 85. In Geneva, Calvin promoted education for everyone, which has become the pattern for our day. When John Knox fled from Scotland and sought freedom from persecution in Geneva, he declared that Geneva had become the greatest school of Christ since the time of the Apostles.
  • 86. Calvin emphasised the importance of education having moral relevance. Calvin also was insistent that it was the parents’ responsibility to educate their children. Therefore the control of education should remain with the parents.
  • 87. Of America’s first 126 universities, 123 were Christian. This included Harvard, Yale, Princeton, etc. Harvard
  • 88. The Reformation also produced some of the greatest works of literature. William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was one of the world’s greatest writers. Scriptural quotes and Biblical images from the Geneva Bible permeate Shakespeare’s writings.
  • 89. Similarly, John Bunyan (1628-1688) gave the world one of the greatest novels ever written – Pilgrim’s Progress. This parable of the Christian life is one of the all-time most published and widely read books in the history of the world.
  • 90. John Milton (1608-1674) author of Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained was the secretary to Oliver Cromwell, and also a Puritan. Milton dictating to his daughter.
  • 91. Many music critics declare that Bach was the greatest musician that ever lived. J.S. Bach was an unsurpassed genius, and is acknowledged as the father of modern music. He left no musical form as he found it, says one critic. On the other hand, with every form he touched, he seemed to have said the last word. Bach’s teaching notebooks and violin books have been the basis for music theory and practice ever since.
  • 92. Johan Sebastian Bach was a Protestant Christian, a Lutheran. Most of his library consisted of Protestant writings, including all of Luther’s writings. Bach taught his pupils that music is an act of worship and all musicians need to commit their talents to the Lord Jesus Christ. As one critic said: “Bach is to music what Shakespeare is to literature. They are both the greatest.” And they were both Protestant Christians.
  • 93. Free Enterprise and the Work Ethic Along with some of the greatest art and literature, the Reformation brought about the greatest industrial advances and prosperity ever experienced in history.
  • 94. The Protestant work ethic, which helped to bring about great prosperity in Western Europe and North America, arose mostly through the Protestant Reformers – particularly John Calvin.
  • 95. “The most dynamic businessmen were to be found in Protestant Holland and the most vigorous industrial growth in Protestant England, both states heavily tinctured with Calvinism.” (Historian Richard Dunn).
  • 96. Max Webber, in his famous book: “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism” (1905), attributed the Capitalist Revolution to Calvinism, its worldly asceticism and Protestant work ethic.
  • 97. Calvin upheld the right of private ownership of property, taught the Biblical concept of stewardship, promoted free enterprise and freed money from the bondage to which it had been held for centuries by the forbidding of interest being charged.
  • 98. By allowing interest and promoting the work ethic, Calvin unleashed all the powers that capitalism has produced.
  • 99. As a result, the free enterprise system has generated the highest standards of living, the longest life expectancy and the greatest advances in industry and medicine ever experienced in history.
  • 100.  For these and so many other reasons, the Reformation in Europe during the 16th century has to be seen as one of the most important epochs in the history of the world. The Reformation gave us the Bible – now freely available in our own languages. Luther’s German translation of the NT.
  • 101. The Reformation also pioneered the now-almost universally acknowledged principles of: religious freedom, liberty of conscience, the rule of law, separation of powers and constitutionally limited Republics.
  • 102. All of these foundational principles were unthinkable before the Reformation. The Reformers emphasis on God’s sovereignty, that Scripture alone is the final authority, that Christ alone is the head of the Church, that justification is by God’s grace, on the basis of the finished work of Christ, received by grace alone.
  • 103. Their teachings on the depravity of man, the Covenant and Church government has influenced law and liberty throughout the Western world and beyond.
  • 104. All of us are beneficiaries of this tremendous movement for Faith and Freedom. It is time that we re-examined the history and the principles of the Reformation.
  • 111. Dr Peter Hammond Reformation Society P.O. Box 74 Newlands, 7725 Cape Town, South Africa Tel: (021) 689 4480 Fax: (021) 685 5884 Email: info@ReformationSA.org Website: www.ReformationSA.org