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Master Title
COMDENT’ 22
Secured 1st Place
TN STATE LEVEL PUBLIC HEALTH
DENTISTRY CONVENTION (Thai
Moogambigai Dental College)
HOW FAR ARE WE AHEAD IN
ORGAN DONATION IN INDIA? -
REVIEW
- NAVEEN GOKUL R
BDS IV YR
PDCH, TN
Master Title
WHAT IS ORGAN DONATION ?
• Organ Donation is the process of surgically donating a
donor's organs like heart, liver, kidneys, intestines, lungs,
and pancreas after the donor dies for the purpose of
transplanting them into another person who is in need of
an organ.
• According to a survey in India every year about 500,000
people die because of non-availability of organs, 200,000
people die due to liver disease and 50,000 people die
because of heart disease.
2
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
WHAT IS ORGAN DONATION ?
• Organ donation can provide treatment of end-stage
organ diseases as it offers a better quality of life and has
a better long-term survival benefits.
• Organ Donation Day is observed every year on 13th
day of August.
• The aim of this day is to motivate fellow human beings
to pledge and donate the organs after death and to
create awareness about the importance of organ
donation
3
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
INDIA - NOTTO: NATIONAL
ORGAN AND TISSUE TRANSPLANT ORGANIZATION
EVERY INDIVIDUAL GETS CHANCE TO DONATE AND SAVE
LIVES 4
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
ORGAN DONATION IN INDIA
• Indian Transplantation of Human Organs Act (THOA)
1994 & 2011 - was enacted to provide a system of
removal, storage and transplantation of human organs
for therapeutic purposes and for the prevention of
trafficking of human organs.
• THOA is now adopted by all states except Andhra and
J&K, who have their own similar laws.
5
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
ORGAN DONATION IN INDIA
•Despite a facilitatory law, organ donation from
deceased persons continues to be very poor.
•To increase the awareness about organ donation to
general public and health care professionals, the Central
Government of India made - NOTTO: National
Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization, ROTTO:
Regional Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization and
National Organ Transplant Programmes along with
various public health programs incorporating the role of
public health professionals all across the country.
6
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
AMENDMENTS FOR ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION
IN INDIA
THE TRANSPLANTATION
OF HUMAN ORGANS
ACT - 1994
THE TRANSPLANTATION
OF HUMAN ORGANS
ACT - 1995
THE TRANSPLANTATION
OF HUMAN ORGANS
RULES, 2008
SOURCE : THE MOHAN FOUNDATION
7
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION IN INDIA
THE
TRANSPLANTATION
OF HUMAN
ORGANS BILL, 2011
THE
TRANSPLANTATION
OF HUMAN
ORGANS
TISSUES RULES,
2014
SOURCE : THE MOHAN FOUNDATION
8
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
HISTORY OF ORGAN DONATION
9
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
WHY IS ORGAN,
TISSUES AND EYE
DONATION SO
IMPORTANT?
10
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGAN DONATION
• POWER TO SAVE LIVES
• CHARIABLE ACT WITH NO COST
• PROMOTING FELLOW HUMAN TO GROW
REGISTERED
DONORS
• RECEIVES 2nd CHANCE IN LIFE TO LIVE
• ABILITY TO HEAL, FREEDOM FROM PAIN, OR THE ABILITY
TO SEE AGAIN
RECIPIENTS
• FAMILY RECEIVES SOME COMFORT WHEN A LOVED ONE IS
ABLE TO BE A DONOR
• FAMILIES HAVE SOME CONSOLATION THAT THEIR LOSS
HELPED SAVE OR IMPROVE THE LIVES OF OTHERS
DONORS AND
FAMILIES
11
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
THE NATIONAL ORGAN DONATION CHALLENGE
12
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO REGISTER AS A
DONOR?
DONATION POTENTIAL -
LESS THAN 4% OF PEOPLE DIE IN A HOSPITAL ON A VENTILATOR
- ALLOWS FOR THE POTENTIAL OF ORGAN DONATION
LACK OF KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS –
LEGAL AUTHORIZATION FOR ORGAN, TISSUE AND EYE
DONATION FOR TRANSPLANT, RESEARCH AND EDUCATION
DISPROPORTIONATELY HIGH RACIAL AND
ETHNIC NEEDS -
BASED ON DISEASES AND CONDITIONS OCCURING IN
POPULATIONS
13
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
ETHNICITY MATTERS – HELP DIVERSIFY THE DONOR
REGISTRY
SOME ETHNIC GROUPS HAVE AN UNUSUALLY HIGH NEED FOR ORGAN
TRANSPLANTS
• African Americans, Latinos, Asians, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders are 3 times
more likely to suffer from kidney disease +liver disease
DONORS AND WAITING RECIPIENTS WHO SHARE THE SAME ANCESTRY ARE
MORE LIKELY TO MATCH.
• Compatible blood and tissue types are more likely to be found within the same
ethnicity
14
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
THE POWER OF ORGAN DONATION
. . . AND CAN SAVE AND HEAL 75 LIVES THROUGH
LIFESAVING AND HEALING GIFTS OF TISSUE AND CORNEA
DONATION 15
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
ORGANS AND TISSUES THAT CAN BE DONATED
16
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
LIFE SAVING ORGAN TRANSPLANTS :
HEART - CAD, CHD, Cardiomyopathy, Valvular Heart Diseases
LUNG - COPD, Emphysema, Pulmonary Fibrosis,
Hypertension, Congenital Defects
LIVER - Hepatitis, Biliary Disease, Tumors, Liver Cancer,
Cirrhosis
KIDNEY - Diabetes, High Blood Pressure, End Stage Renal
Disease, Polycystic Kidney Disease
PANCREAS - Type 1 Diabetes without Renal Disease,
Hypoglycemic Unawareness
17
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
LIFE SAVING OR HEALING TISSUE
TRANSPLANTS :
CORNEAS - restore loss of vision, cornea infection or injury
TENDONS & LIGAMENTS - sports injuries - cruciate
ligament, joint restoration
HEART VALVES - replace damaged heart valves
VEINS - CA bypass surgery, repair damaged, hemodialysis
fistula
SKIN - burn victims, diabetic wound repair, mastectomy, and
abdominal wall reinforcement
BONES - bones destroyed by cancer, trauma or infection; in
dental, spine and neck surgeries
18
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ORGAN DONATION
AND TISSUE AND EYE DONATION
• POSSIBLE ONLY IF A PATIENT DIES ON A
MECHANICAL VENTILATOR ( <5% OF ALL DEATHS)
• ORGANS MUST BE PROPERLY PRESERVED AND
QUICKLY TRANSPLANTED
• ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION BYPASSING SYSTEMIC
DISEASES
• LIFE SAVING PROCEDURE
ORGAN
DONATION
• TISSUES CAN BE PRESERVED FOR LATER USE
• IMMEDIATE TRANSPLANTATION IS NOT NECESSARY
• TISSUE DONATION IS EITHER A LIFE-SAVING OR LIFE-
ENHANCING PROCEDURE
TISSUES
AND
CORNEA
DONATION
19
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
ORGAN DONATION IN TAMIL NADU
• Organ transplantation in the Indian state of Tamil
Nadu is regulated by India's Transplantation of
Human Organs Act (THOA) 1994 and is facilitated by
the Transplant Authority of Tamil Nadu
(TRANSTAN) of the Government of Tamil Nadu and
several NGOs.
• Tamil Nadu ranks FIRST in India in deceased organ
donation rate at 1.8 per million population, which is
seven times higher than the national average (~ 0.5
per million population)
20
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
ORGAN DONATION IN TAMIL NADU
• Tamil Nadu made BRAIN DEATH CERTIICATION
MANDATORY in 2008, becoming the first Indian state to
do so – “ HITHENDRAN CASE ”
• It was also the first state to create “GREEN
CORRIDORS" to quickly transport donated organs to its
destined hospital.
• Between 2008 and 2019, about 7,783 organ
transplants were done successfully.
•Non-profit organisations - MOHAN Foundation played
a major part in the domain of organ transplantation
21
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
ORGAN DONATION IN TAMIL NADU
SOURCE : NDTV FORTIS 22
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
ORGAN DONATION IN TAMIL NADU
23
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION IN TAMIL NADU
SOURCE : NDTV FORTIS
24
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION IN TAMIL NADU
SOURCE : NDTV FORTIS 25
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
WHY ORGAN DONATION IS NOT
POPULAR IN INDIA ?
26
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
1. 46.4% of population question organ donation
- POOR AWARNESS ACCEPTANCE
2. 11.9% of population refuse organ donation -
RELIGIOUS ISSUES
3. 41.5% of population refuse organ donation -
LAWS & ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
KEY FACTORS FOR ORGAN DONATION
REFUSAL
Out of total 100 individuals
SOURCE : International Journal of Public Health Research 2018 Vol 5 No 2
27
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
1. LACK OF FAMILY CONSENT
• When a person is declared brain dead it is difficult for the
family to initially accept the death, heart continues to beat.
• Brain death is often confused with coma and the family
harbors hope of the patient reviving.
•But the fact is that brain death is irreversible even if the
organs continue to function.
KEY FACTORS FOR ORGAN DONATION
REFUSAL
28
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
2. SUPERSTITIONS AND MISCONCEPTIONS
• Most of the myths associated with organ donation are
false.
• People who are ready to donate organs often register their
wish by thinking that they will have to bear the cost till the
organ is harvested in other person’s body.
• Instead of taking an expert advice, people make
assumptions and decide to not donate organs
KEY FACTORS FOR ORGAN DONATION
REFUSAL
29
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
3. LACK OF EDUCATION AND AWARNESS
• Lack of proper education to the attendants, lack of
awareness among general public about organ donation,
process of organ donation add to the superstitions and
misconceptions make organ donation a tedious task.
•Many times doctors are also not fully aware about the
process of organ donation and things related to it which
makes it difficult for the family of deceased or brain dead
person to take a vital decision
KEY FACTORS FOR ORGAN DONATION
REFUSAL
30
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
4. LACK OF BRAIN DEATH DECLARATION
• In some hospitals doctors also lack knowledge about brain
death and keep the patient on ventilator for as long as it is
possible.
•Many of brain death cases occur in government hospitals
where in brain death declaration is low rather negligible.
• Also, less government hospitals are involved in the
process of organ transplantation and retrieval.
KEY FACTORS FOR ORGAN DONATION
REFUSAL
31
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
5. LACK OF ORGAN TRANSPLANT AND RETRIEVAL CENTRES
• Not all hospitals are equipped to carry out the process of
organ transplantation and retrieval.
• Out of 301 hospitals equipped to handle the process, only
250 have registered with National Organ and Tissue
Transplant Organisation (NOTTO).
• Currently, in India, there are only 5 (ROTTO) Regional
Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation and 6 (SOTTO)
State Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation are in the
proposal state.
KEY FACTORS FOR ORGAN DONATION
REFUSAL
32
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
IMPLEMENTING APPROACHES FOR
ORGAN DONATION ACCEPTANCE
33
Challenges Solutions
Awareness
Prime Minister highlighted DDOT in “Mann Ki Baat”
radio program
“Mobile caller tune, festival celebration, walkathon” on
organ donation theme
Religious, NGOs support to overcome religious, socio-
cultural barriers
Social media, TV, and digital reforms
Implementing organ pledge while applying for a driving
license in all states
Include organ donation in the education system
syllabus, developing IEC materials as per regional need
Facility for pledging for donation of organ
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
IMPLEMENTING APPROACHES FOR
ORGAN DONATION ACCEPTANCE
34
Registry, allocation, transplant
team
Uniform data collection and data
management system
Government priority and support
Commitment of authorities, institutions,
and individuals for pledge, waiting list,
and transplant outcome registry
Government guidelines for donation after
circulatory death donors
“One Nation One Policy” for digital organ
allocation
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
IMPLEMENTING APPROACHES FOR
ORGAN DONATION ACCEPTANCE
35
Training, capacity building
Organ transplant fellowships
Local multiorgan retrieval team to
avoid delay in multiorgan retrieval
by multiple teams
Abundancy of general surgeons
and paid on case by case basis
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
FUTURE GEOGRAPHY FRAMEWORKS
SOURCE : NHS
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH 36
Master Title
I. FIXED DISTANCE FROM DONOR HOSPITAL
Advantages:
• Easy to explain
• Extends distribution area,
particularly for medically urgent
patients
Disadvantages:
• Fixed boundaries
• Differences in population density
may affect patients with similar
matching characteristics
SOURCE : NHS
37
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
II. MATHEMATICALLY OPTIMIZED
BOUNDARIES
Limited
number of
large districts
Large number of localized
neighborhoods
Advantages
• Provides consistent results
• Can be monitored and scaled
Disadvantages
• Boundaries may be
complex and not uniform
• Fixed boundaries
SOURCE : NHS
38
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
III. CONTINUOUS DISTRIBUTION
Advantages:
• Two patients who are similar in
suitability would be treated much the
same way
• Priority would consider specific
clinical characteristics about the
candidate
• More likely that organ offers would
be matched efficiently with highest
medical need
Disadvantages:
• Less easy to understand and explain
SOURCE : NHS 39
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
40
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
CONCLUSION
India has performed 12,666 transplants in 2019, the
second-largest volume by country worldwide. Main
goals in the future will be a close collaboration by all
key players and the necessity to increase the
support of healthcare in the public sector. Cultural
and religious barriers to organ donation need to be
addressed, and educational efforts need to target
both medical professionals as well as the general
population. An expert infrastructure in hospitals
needs to assure the identification of donors and an
optimized management.
41
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
42
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
REFERENCES
43
1. Kute, Vivek B. DM, FRCP1; Ramesh, Vasanthi MS2,3; Rela, Mohamed MS, FRCS, DSc4
On the Way to Self-sufficiency: Improving Deceased Organ Donation in India,
Transplantation: August 2021 - Volume 105 - Issue 8 - p 1625-1630 doi:
10.1097/TP.0000000000003677
2. Arvinder S. Soin, Rohan J. Chaudhary, Prashant Bhangui, Ankur Gupta, Kamal S.
Yadav, Amit Rastogi, Comment – Bold policy changes are needed to meet the need
for organ transplantation in India, American Journal of Transplantation,
10.1111/ajt.16755, 22, 1, (324-325), (2021).
3. Knowledge, attitude and practice of organ donation in urban areas of
Puducherry – A Community based study Devi K.1*, Leondra L.2, Poovitha R.3
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17511/ijphr.2018.i2.06
4. Beliefs and barriers for organ donation and influence of educational intervention on
dental students: A questionnaire study Patthi Basavaraj, Jain Swati, Singla Ashish,
Singh Shilpi, Kundu Hansa, Singh Khushboo
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
REFERENCES
44
5. Sam N, Ganesh R, Indrapriyadarshini V, Jeyamarthan S, Nandhini C K. Awareness,
knowledge, and attitude regarding organ donation among final year students of
medical, Dental, Engineering, and Arts and Science Colleges in Thiruvallur and
Chennai City, India. Indian J Transplant 2018;12:25-9
6. National Organ Transplant Programme - DGHS
https://dghs.gov.in/content/1353_3_NationalOrganTransplantProgramme.aspx
7. Tamuli, R. P., Sarmah, S., & Saikia, B. (2019). Organ donation - "attitude and
awareness among undergraduates and postgraduates of North-East India". Journal
of family medicine and primary care, 8(1), 130–136.
https://doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_206_18
8. NHS - https://www.organdonation.nhs.uk/
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
Master Title
REFERENCES
45
9. NDTV FORTIS - https://sites.ndtv.com/moretogive/lack-organ-donation-india-
half-million-people-die-annually-india-due-unavailability-organs-2107/
10. NDTV Organ Donation Day: Tamil Nadu Is Again The ‘Best Performing State’ In
Organ Donation - https://sites.ndtv.com/moretogive/organ-donation-day-tamil-
nadu-best-performing-state-organ-donation-2842/
11. MOHAN FOUNDATIONS - https://www.mohanfoundation.org/deceased-organ-
donation-in-india.asp
12. ORGAN INDIA - https://www.organindia.org/
13. STATISTA - https://www.statista.com/topics/2389/organ-donations-and-
transplants/
NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH

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HOW FAR ARE WE AHEAD IN DONATION OF ORGANS IN INDIA? – A REVIEW

  • 1. Master Title COMDENT’ 22 Secured 1st Place TN STATE LEVEL PUBLIC HEALTH DENTISTRY CONVENTION (Thai Moogambigai Dental College) HOW FAR ARE WE AHEAD IN ORGAN DONATION IN INDIA? - REVIEW - NAVEEN GOKUL R BDS IV YR PDCH, TN
  • 2. Master Title WHAT IS ORGAN DONATION ? • Organ Donation is the process of surgically donating a donor's organs like heart, liver, kidneys, intestines, lungs, and pancreas after the donor dies for the purpose of transplanting them into another person who is in need of an organ. • According to a survey in India every year about 500,000 people die because of non-availability of organs, 200,000 people die due to liver disease and 50,000 people die because of heart disease. 2 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 3. Master Title WHAT IS ORGAN DONATION ? • Organ donation can provide treatment of end-stage organ diseases as it offers a better quality of life and has a better long-term survival benefits. • Organ Donation Day is observed every year on 13th day of August. • The aim of this day is to motivate fellow human beings to pledge and donate the organs after death and to create awareness about the importance of organ donation 3 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 4. Master Title INDIA - NOTTO: NATIONAL ORGAN AND TISSUE TRANSPLANT ORGANIZATION EVERY INDIVIDUAL GETS CHANCE TO DONATE AND SAVE LIVES 4 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 5. Master Title ORGAN DONATION IN INDIA • Indian Transplantation of Human Organs Act (THOA) 1994 & 2011 - was enacted to provide a system of removal, storage and transplantation of human organs for therapeutic purposes and for the prevention of trafficking of human organs. • THOA is now adopted by all states except Andhra and J&K, who have their own similar laws. 5 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 6. Master Title ORGAN DONATION IN INDIA •Despite a facilitatory law, organ donation from deceased persons continues to be very poor. •To increase the awareness about organ donation to general public and health care professionals, the Central Government of India made - NOTTO: National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization, ROTTO: Regional Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization and National Organ Transplant Programmes along with various public health programs incorporating the role of public health professionals all across the country. 6 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 7. Master Title AMENDMENTS FOR ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION IN INDIA THE TRANSPLANTATION OF HUMAN ORGANS ACT - 1994 THE TRANSPLANTATION OF HUMAN ORGANS ACT - 1995 THE TRANSPLANTATION OF HUMAN ORGANS RULES, 2008 SOURCE : THE MOHAN FOUNDATION 7 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 8. Master Title ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION IN INDIA THE TRANSPLANTATION OF HUMAN ORGANS BILL, 2011 THE TRANSPLANTATION OF HUMAN ORGANS TISSUES RULES, 2014 SOURCE : THE MOHAN FOUNDATION 8 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 9. Master Title HISTORY OF ORGAN DONATION 9 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 10. Master Title WHY IS ORGAN, TISSUES AND EYE DONATION SO IMPORTANT? 10 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 11. Master Title THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGAN DONATION • POWER TO SAVE LIVES • CHARIABLE ACT WITH NO COST • PROMOTING FELLOW HUMAN TO GROW REGISTERED DONORS • RECEIVES 2nd CHANCE IN LIFE TO LIVE • ABILITY TO HEAL, FREEDOM FROM PAIN, OR THE ABILITY TO SEE AGAIN RECIPIENTS • FAMILY RECEIVES SOME COMFORT WHEN A LOVED ONE IS ABLE TO BE A DONOR • FAMILIES HAVE SOME CONSOLATION THAT THEIR LOSS HELPED SAVE OR IMPROVE THE LIVES OF OTHERS DONORS AND FAMILIES 11 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 12. Master Title THE NATIONAL ORGAN DONATION CHALLENGE 12 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 13. Master Title WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO REGISTER AS A DONOR? DONATION POTENTIAL - LESS THAN 4% OF PEOPLE DIE IN A HOSPITAL ON A VENTILATOR - ALLOWS FOR THE POTENTIAL OF ORGAN DONATION LACK OF KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS – LEGAL AUTHORIZATION FOR ORGAN, TISSUE AND EYE DONATION FOR TRANSPLANT, RESEARCH AND EDUCATION DISPROPORTIONATELY HIGH RACIAL AND ETHNIC NEEDS - BASED ON DISEASES AND CONDITIONS OCCURING IN POPULATIONS 13 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 14. Master Title ETHNICITY MATTERS – HELP DIVERSIFY THE DONOR REGISTRY SOME ETHNIC GROUPS HAVE AN UNUSUALLY HIGH NEED FOR ORGAN TRANSPLANTS • African Americans, Latinos, Asians, Native Americans, and Pacific Islanders are 3 times more likely to suffer from kidney disease +liver disease DONORS AND WAITING RECIPIENTS WHO SHARE THE SAME ANCESTRY ARE MORE LIKELY TO MATCH. • Compatible blood and tissue types are more likely to be found within the same ethnicity 14 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 15. Master Title THE POWER OF ORGAN DONATION . . . AND CAN SAVE AND HEAL 75 LIVES THROUGH LIFESAVING AND HEALING GIFTS OF TISSUE AND CORNEA DONATION 15 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 16. Master Title ORGANS AND TISSUES THAT CAN BE DONATED 16 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 17. Master Title LIFE SAVING ORGAN TRANSPLANTS : HEART - CAD, CHD, Cardiomyopathy, Valvular Heart Diseases LUNG - COPD, Emphysema, Pulmonary Fibrosis, Hypertension, Congenital Defects LIVER - Hepatitis, Biliary Disease, Tumors, Liver Cancer, Cirrhosis KIDNEY - Diabetes, High Blood Pressure, End Stage Renal Disease, Polycystic Kidney Disease PANCREAS - Type 1 Diabetes without Renal Disease, Hypoglycemic Unawareness 17 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 18. Master Title LIFE SAVING OR HEALING TISSUE TRANSPLANTS : CORNEAS - restore loss of vision, cornea infection or injury TENDONS & LIGAMENTS - sports injuries - cruciate ligament, joint restoration HEART VALVES - replace damaged heart valves VEINS - CA bypass surgery, repair damaged, hemodialysis fistula SKIN - burn victims, diabetic wound repair, mastectomy, and abdominal wall reinforcement BONES - bones destroyed by cancer, trauma or infection; in dental, spine and neck surgeries 18 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 19. Master Title THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ORGAN DONATION AND TISSUE AND EYE DONATION • POSSIBLE ONLY IF A PATIENT DIES ON A MECHANICAL VENTILATOR ( <5% OF ALL DEATHS) • ORGANS MUST BE PROPERLY PRESERVED AND QUICKLY TRANSPLANTED • ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION BYPASSING SYSTEMIC DISEASES • LIFE SAVING PROCEDURE ORGAN DONATION • TISSUES CAN BE PRESERVED FOR LATER USE • IMMEDIATE TRANSPLANTATION IS NOT NECESSARY • TISSUE DONATION IS EITHER A LIFE-SAVING OR LIFE- ENHANCING PROCEDURE TISSUES AND CORNEA DONATION 19 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 20. Master Title ORGAN DONATION IN TAMIL NADU • Organ transplantation in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu is regulated by India's Transplantation of Human Organs Act (THOA) 1994 and is facilitated by the Transplant Authority of Tamil Nadu (TRANSTAN) of the Government of Tamil Nadu and several NGOs. • Tamil Nadu ranks FIRST in India in deceased organ donation rate at 1.8 per million population, which is seven times higher than the national average (~ 0.5 per million population) 20 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 21. Master Title ORGAN DONATION IN TAMIL NADU • Tamil Nadu made BRAIN DEATH CERTIICATION MANDATORY in 2008, becoming the first Indian state to do so – “ HITHENDRAN CASE ” • It was also the first state to create “GREEN CORRIDORS" to quickly transport donated organs to its destined hospital. • Between 2008 and 2019, about 7,783 organ transplants were done successfully. •Non-profit organisations - MOHAN Foundation played a major part in the domain of organ transplantation 21 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 22. Master Title ORGAN DONATION IN TAMIL NADU SOURCE : NDTV FORTIS 22 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 23. Master Title ORGAN DONATION IN TAMIL NADU 23 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 24. Master Title ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION IN TAMIL NADU SOURCE : NDTV FORTIS 24 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 25. Master Title ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION IN TAMIL NADU SOURCE : NDTV FORTIS 25 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 26. Master Title WHY ORGAN DONATION IS NOT POPULAR IN INDIA ? 26 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 27. Master Title 1. 46.4% of population question organ donation - POOR AWARNESS ACCEPTANCE 2. 11.9% of population refuse organ donation - RELIGIOUS ISSUES 3. 41.5% of population refuse organ donation - LAWS & ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS KEY FACTORS FOR ORGAN DONATION REFUSAL Out of total 100 individuals SOURCE : International Journal of Public Health Research 2018 Vol 5 No 2 27 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 28. Master Title 1. LACK OF FAMILY CONSENT • When a person is declared brain dead it is difficult for the family to initially accept the death, heart continues to beat. • Brain death is often confused with coma and the family harbors hope of the patient reviving. •But the fact is that brain death is irreversible even if the organs continue to function. KEY FACTORS FOR ORGAN DONATION REFUSAL 28 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 29. Master Title 2. SUPERSTITIONS AND MISCONCEPTIONS • Most of the myths associated with organ donation are false. • People who are ready to donate organs often register their wish by thinking that they will have to bear the cost till the organ is harvested in other person’s body. • Instead of taking an expert advice, people make assumptions and decide to not donate organs KEY FACTORS FOR ORGAN DONATION REFUSAL 29 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 30. Master Title 3. LACK OF EDUCATION AND AWARNESS • Lack of proper education to the attendants, lack of awareness among general public about organ donation, process of organ donation add to the superstitions and misconceptions make organ donation a tedious task. •Many times doctors are also not fully aware about the process of organ donation and things related to it which makes it difficult for the family of deceased or brain dead person to take a vital decision KEY FACTORS FOR ORGAN DONATION REFUSAL 30 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 31. Master Title 4. LACK OF BRAIN DEATH DECLARATION • In some hospitals doctors also lack knowledge about brain death and keep the patient on ventilator for as long as it is possible. •Many of brain death cases occur in government hospitals where in brain death declaration is low rather negligible. • Also, less government hospitals are involved in the process of organ transplantation and retrieval. KEY FACTORS FOR ORGAN DONATION REFUSAL 31 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 32. Master Title 5. LACK OF ORGAN TRANSPLANT AND RETRIEVAL CENTRES • Not all hospitals are equipped to carry out the process of organ transplantation and retrieval. • Out of 301 hospitals equipped to handle the process, only 250 have registered with National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO). • Currently, in India, there are only 5 (ROTTO) Regional Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation and 6 (SOTTO) State Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation are in the proposal state. KEY FACTORS FOR ORGAN DONATION REFUSAL 32 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 33. Master Title IMPLEMENTING APPROACHES FOR ORGAN DONATION ACCEPTANCE 33 Challenges Solutions Awareness Prime Minister highlighted DDOT in “Mann Ki Baat” radio program “Mobile caller tune, festival celebration, walkathon” on organ donation theme Religious, NGOs support to overcome religious, socio- cultural barriers Social media, TV, and digital reforms Implementing organ pledge while applying for a driving license in all states Include organ donation in the education system syllabus, developing IEC materials as per regional need Facility for pledging for donation of organ NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 34. Master Title IMPLEMENTING APPROACHES FOR ORGAN DONATION ACCEPTANCE 34 Registry, allocation, transplant team Uniform data collection and data management system Government priority and support Commitment of authorities, institutions, and individuals for pledge, waiting list, and transplant outcome registry Government guidelines for donation after circulatory death donors “One Nation One Policy” for digital organ allocation NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 35. Master Title IMPLEMENTING APPROACHES FOR ORGAN DONATION ACCEPTANCE 35 Training, capacity building Organ transplant fellowships Local multiorgan retrieval team to avoid delay in multiorgan retrieval by multiple teams Abundancy of general surgeons and paid on case by case basis NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 36. Master Title FUTURE GEOGRAPHY FRAMEWORKS SOURCE : NHS NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH 36
  • 37. Master Title I. FIXED DISTANCE FROM DONOR HOSPITAL Advantages: • Easy to explain • Extends distribution area, particularly for medically urgent patients Disadvantages: • Fixed boundaries • Differences in population density may affect patients with similar matching characteristics SOURCE : NHS 37 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 38. Master Title II. MATHEMATICALLY OPTIMIZED BOUNDARIES Limited number of large districts Large number of localized neighborhoods Advantages • Provides consistent results • Can be monitored and scaled Disadvantages • Boundaries may be complex and not uniform • Fixed boundaries SOURCE : NHS 38 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 39. Master Title III. CONTINUOUS DISTRIBUTION Advantages: • Two patients who are similar in suitability would be treated much the same way • Priority would consider specific clinical characteristics about the candidate • More likely that organ offers would be matched efficiently with highest medical need Disadvantages: • Less easy to understand and explain SOURCE : NHS 39 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 40. Master Title 40 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 41. Master Title CONCLUSION India has performed 12,666 transplants in 2019, the second-largest volume by country worldwide. Main goals in the future will be a close collaboration by all key players and the necessity to increase the support of healthcare in the public sector. Cultural and religious barriers to organ donation need to be addressed, and educational efforts need to target both medical professionals as well as the general population. An expert infrastructure in hospitals needs to assure the identification of donors and an optimized management. 41 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 42. Master Title 42 NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 43. Master Title REFERENCES 43 1. Kute, Vivek B. DM, FRCP1; Ramesh, Vasanthi MS2,3; Rela, Mohamed MS, FRCS, DSc4 On the Way to Self-sufficiency: Improving Deceased Organ Donation in India, Transplantation: August 2021 - Volume 105 - Issue 8 - p 1625-1630 doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000003677 2. Arvinder S. Soin, Rohan J. Chaudhary, Prashant Bhangui, Ankur Gupta, Kamal S. Yadav, Amit Rastogi, Comment – Bold policy changes are needed to meet the need for organ transplantation in India, American Journal of Transplantation, 10.1111/ajt.16755, 22, 1, (324-325), (2021). 3. Knowledge, attitude and practice of organ donation in urban areas of Puducherry – A Community based study Devi K.1*, Leondra L.2, Poovitha R.3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17511/ijphr.2018.i2.06 4. Beliefs and barriers for organ donation and influence of educational intervention on dental students: A questionnaire study Patthi Basavaraj, Jain Swati, Singla Ashish, Singh Shilpi, Kundu Hansa, Singh Khushboo NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 44. Master Title REFERENCES 44 5. Sam N, Ganesh R, Indrapriyadarshini V, Jeyamarthan S, Nandhini C K. Awareness, knowledge, and attitude regarding organ donation among final year students of medical, Dental, Engineering, and Arts and Science Colleges in Thiruvallur and Chennai City, India. Indian J Transplant 2018;12:25-9 6. National Organ Transplant Programme - DGHS https://dghs.gov.in/content/1353_3_NationalOrganTransplantProgramme.aspx 7. Tamuli, R. P., Sarmah, S., & Saikia, B. (2019). Organ donation - "attitude and awareness among undergraduates and postgraduates of North-East India". Journal of family medicine and primary care, 8(1), 130–136. https://doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_206_18 8. NHS - https://www.organdonation.nhs.uk/ NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH
  • 45. Master Title REFERENCES 45 9. NDTV FORTIS - https://sites.ndtv.com/moretogive/lack-organ-donation-india- half-million-people-die-annually-india-due-unavailability-organs-2107/ 10. NDTV Organ Donation Day: Tamil Nadu Is Again The ‘Best Performing State’ In Organ Donation - https://sites.ndtv.com/moretogive/organ-donation-day-tamil- nadu-best-performing-state-organ-donation-2842/ 11. MOHAN FOUNDATIONS - https://www.mohanfoundation.org/deceased-organ- donation-in-india.asp 12. ORGAN INDIA - https://www.organindia.org/ 13. STATISTA - https://www.statista.com/topics/2389/organ-donations-and- transplants/ NAVEEN GOKUL R, BDS IV, PDCH