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Holistic and dynamic concepts in design:
What design brings to systems thinking.
Birger Sevaldson
RSD3 2015 Revised version 2017
Anna Lisa Skoog, Siri Skoog, Beate Romslo. SOD, AHO 2014
Gigamaps are design artefacts
How to design the Gigamap
How to design your knowledge.
Constructivist knowledge
Designed knowledge
Systems Oriented Design (SOD) is a designerly way of
understanding, dealing with, and changing systems.
SOD is close to design practice in the field of Systemic
Design.
Systems thinking as design process
Visual thinking
Media is important
Co-process
From descriptive seamlessly to the generative
Composition is central in design
Composition is about arranging elements and
relations in space and time
Choreography
Orchestration as a concept
Gesamtkunstwerk
Composition
In visual arts: arrangement and placement of
visual components
Laplace 1812:
Compositional nature of perception
Points towards Gestalt psychology and Arnheims
Visual Thinking.
Composition Systems
Stuart Geman, Daniel F. Potter, Zhiyi Chi
Division of Applied Mathematics
Brown University
Composition in 2D space
Wassily Kandinsky 1926
Composition
Balance and imbalance
Relating categorically different entities
Objects primitives and freeform
Composed figures
Fields and boundaries
Colours
Creating tension but
generating a sense of a holistic resolution
The notion of time
Paolo Ucello The Battle of San Romano 1432
The notion of past and future (time) in art
The notion of movement
Marcel Duchamp 1912
Duchamp descending a staircase (Eliot Elifson)
Choreography
Voluntaries, Glenn Tetley 1973, Houston Ballet, 2006
Service choreography
Service choreographies are not executed: they
are enacted.
A service is created in the moment between the
service provider and the client / user, and
enacted according to a choreography created
by the designer. The service unfolds according
to this choreography but is interpreted and
unique at every instance
Organic Unity
Platon Aristoteles
In Aristotle’s Poetics, organic unity is described by how writing
relies internally on narration and drama to remain cohesive to
one another, not as separate entities (wikipedia)
The main theme of organic unity relies on a free spirited style of
writing and by following any guidelines or genre-based habits,
the true nature of a work becomes stifled and unreliable on an
artistic plane (encyclopedia britannica)
How do we compose things?
Gestalt psychology is the theory how we, through
perception and conception, create wholes out of
fragments of patterns.
Gestalt psychology is closely related to systems thinking.
Christian von Ehrenfels:
“The whole is DIFFERENT than the sum of its parts”
This points to a qualitative perceived difference not just the
accumulation of functionality
The real Design Thinking
Rudolf Arnheim: “Visual Thinking”
Brings Gestalt close to the process of designing.
He claims that there is no divide between
perception and thinking.
This is at the foundation of designing as a
knowledge producing activity.
We design though thinking and we think
through designing.
Orchestration
Philharmonic Orchestra of Jalisco
(Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico)
Pedro Sánchez
Creative Commons
Orchestration
Orchestration in computing
Describes the automated arrangement,
coordination, and management of complex
computer systems, middleware, and
services (Wikip)
Orchestration and choreography are
terminology used in the context of cloud
computing
Gesamtkunstwerk
Total work of art, ideal work of art, universal artwork,
synthesis of the arts, comprehensive artwork, all-embracing
art form, or total artwork.
Gesamtkunstwerk is a work of art that makes use of all or
many art forms or strives to do so. The term is a German word
which has come to be accepted in English as a term in
aesthetics.
In our times where the boundaries between products,
interactions, services as well as between expertises and fields
is blurred, it is useful to return to this concept.
Wagner presented an idea of the Gesamtkunstwerk that was
literarily boxed in on the stage, presented to a passive
audience looking at it from the outside. The Gesamtkunstwerk
did not engage with the outside.
The Gesamtkunstwerk
according to Wagner
In modern interpretation
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-
XFLaVdHdjw&feature=related
In Architecture
 Already the architects in the Renaissance did not see a
division between their different tasks. Being it structure,
interour, exteriour, landscape, sculpting, painting or
engineering.
 e.g. Michelangelo
San Lorenzo de El Escorial
Architect Juan Bautista de Toledo
Work started in 1559
 Royal Palace
 Government functions
 Monastery
 Library
 School
 Cathedral
El Escorial
 The combination of political and religious functions is a
politic statement on the unity of the royal palace with
the roman catholic church of Spain. So this is not only
purely practical functional organisation design but also
symbolic / political functions
 A powerful statement in the counter reformation
 An expression of the melancholy side of Spain, and the
strictness of the counter reformation.
 It’s a symptom of a system and a system in its own
right.
Süleymaniye Mosque 1558
Architect: Mimar Sinan
Külliye, deriving from the Arabic word "kull" (meaning the whole, all)
The Külliye is the complex of buildings surrounding the mosque.
They are all about public services like hospitals, libraries, schools,
food kitchens etc. The Külliye cements the social contract
between the Sultan and the people
The Imperial Mosques
 The combination of social and religious functions is a politic
statement on the unity of the Ottoman Empire and Islam and
the commitment to its people.
 Unlike the Escorial the Külliye are open ended and flexible
schemes.
 Somehow the Ottoman architecture reflects its openness to
other religions and cultures.
 The inspiration from the Aya Sofia church as the archetype for
the Ottoman mosques is an evidence of the migration of ideas
and culture.
Bauhaus and Gesamtkunstwerk
The Bauhaus mission was to unify art and
technology, the fine arts and design arts,
resulting in the revolutionizing of typography,
painting, graphic design, industrial design, and
theater.
Interdisciplinary ?
The Bauhaus looked at a new type of merged disciplinarity in the
Gesamtkunstwerk.
This disciplinarity goes beyond the interdisciplinarity we talk of
today.
It is a natural and necessary interdependence rather than a
planned collaboration.
The result of systemic design projects are
constituting the New Gesamtkunstwerk
But also the process could be regarded the same
way where the Gigamap has a similar quality as
the Gesamtkunstwerk.
The Gigamap constitutes a holistic knowledge
design.
Pitfalls of the Gesamtkunstwerk
Overdesigning
Over-cleanliness
The current design culture has a tendency to
“hygienic” expression
It signals a notion of control, calmness, order and a
western good life style.
The Norwegian Bank building is an example where
one could say the principles of enforcing a holistic
design language has been exaggerated.
Overly ordered and designed representations might be
false
See the most (mis-)used Venn diagram:
What is the “logic of the three” ?
Symmetric diagrams are suspicious.
When the aesthetics and organisational structure take
over in the Gigamap the alarm bell must ring.
The urge for composition is a strive for the perfect.
Open designs are unfinished imperfect and dynamic. The combination of
objects creates new relations and tells life stories.
The appreciation of the imperfect (wabi-sabi)
The new Gesamtkunstwerk
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-
XFLaVdHdjw&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-
XFLaVdHdjw&feature=related

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Holistic and dynamic concepts in design 2017

  • 1. Holistic and dynamic concepts in design: What design brings to systems thinking. Birger Sevaldson RSD3 2015 Revised version 2017 Anna Lisa Skoog, Siri Skoog, Beate Romslo. SOD, AHO 2014
  • 2. Gigamaps are design artefacts How to design the Gigamap How to design your knowledge. Constructivist knowledge Designed knowledge
  • 3.
  • 4. Systems Oriented Design (SOD) is a designerly way of understanding, dealing with, and changing systems. SOD is close to design practice in the field of Systemic Design.
  • 5. Systems thinking as design process Visual thinking Media is important Co-process From descriptive seamlessly to the generative
  • 6. Composition is central in design Composition is about arranging elements and relations in space and time Choreography Orchestration as a concept Gesamtkunstwerk
  • 7. Composition In visual arts: arrangement and placement of visual components Laplace 1812: Compositional nature of perception Points towards Gestalt psychology and Arnheims Visual Thinking.
  • 8. Composition Systems Stuart Geman, Daniel F. Potter, Zhiyi Chi Division of Applied Mathematics Brown University
  • 9. Composition in 2D space Wassily Kandinsky 1926
  • 10. Composition Balance and imbalance Relating categorically different entities Objects primitives and freeform Composed figures Fields and boundaries Colours Creating tension but generating a sense of a holistic resolution
  • 11. The notion of time Paolo Ucello The Battle of San Romano 1432 The notion of past and future (time) in art The notion of movement
  • 13. Duchamp descending a staircase (Eliot Elifson)
  • 14. Choreography Voluntaries, Glenn Tetley 1973, Houston Ballet, 2006
  • 15. Service choreography Service choreographies are not executed: they are enacted. A service is created in the moment between the service provider and the client / user, and enacted according to a choreography created by the designer. The service unfolds according to this choreography but is interpreted and unique at every instance
  • 16. Organic Unity Platon Aristoteles In Aristotle’s Poetics, organic unity is described by how writing relies internally on narration and drama to remain cohesive to one another, not as separate entities (wikipedia) The main theme of organic unity relies on a free spirited style of writing and by following any guidelines or genre-based habits, the true nature of a work becomes stifled and unreliable on an artistic plane (encyclopedia britannica)
  • 17.
  • 18. How do we compose things? Gestalt psychology is the theory how we, through perception and conception, create wholes out of fragments of patterns. Gestalt psychology is closely related to systems thinking. Christian von Ehrenfels: “The whole is DIFFERENT than the sum of its parts” This points to a qualitative perceived difference not just the accumulation of functionality
  • 19. The real Design Thinking Rudolf Arnheim: “Visual Thinking” Brings Gestalt close to the process of designing. He claims that there is no divide between perception and thinking. This is at the foundation of designing as a knowledge producing activity. We design though thinking and we think through designing.
  • 20. Orchestration Philharmonic Orchestra of Jalisco (Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico) Pedro Sánchez Creative Commons
  • 21. Orchestration Orchestration in computing Describes the automated arrangement, coordination, and management of complex computer systems, middleware, and services (Wikip) Orchestration and choreography are terminology used in the context of cloud computing
  • 22.
  • 23. Gesamtkunstwerk Total work of art, ideal work of art, universal artwork, synthesis of the arts, comprehensive artwork, all-embracing art form, or total artwork. Gesamtkunstwerk is a work of art that makes use of all or many art forms or strives to do so. The term is a German word which has come to be accepted in English as a term in aesthetics. In our times where the boundaries between products, interactions, services as well as between expertises and fields is blurred, it is useful to return to this concept.
  • 24. Wagner presented an idea of the Gesamtkunstwerk that was literarily boxed in on the stage, presented to a passive audience looking at it from the outside. The Gesamtkunstwerk did not engage with the outside.
  • 25. The Gesamtkunstwerk according to Wagner In modern interpretation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- XFLaVdHdjw&feature=related
  • 26. In Architecture  Already the architects in the Renaissance did not see a division between their different tasks. Being it structure, interour, exteriour, landscape, sculpting, painting or engineering.  e.g. Michelangelo
  • 27. San Lorenzo de El Escorial Architect Juan Bautista de Toledo Work started in 1559  Royal Palace  Government functions  Monastery  Library  School  Cathedral
  • 28. El Escorial  The combination of political and religious functions is a politic statement on the unity of the royal palace with the roman catholic church of Spain. So this is not only purely practical functional organisation design but also symbolic / political functions  A powerful statement in the counter reformation  An expression of the melancholy side of Spain, and the strictness of the counter reformation.  It’s a symptom of a system and a system in its own right.
  • 29. Süleymaniye Mosque 1558 Architect: Mimar Sinan Külliye, deriving from the Arabic word "kull" (meaning the whole, all) The Külliye is the complex of buildings surrounding the mosque. They are all about public services like hospitals, libraries, schools, food kitchens etc. The Külliye cements the social contract between the Sultan and the people
  • 30.
  • 31. The Imperial Mosques  The combination of social and religious functions is a politic statement on the unity of the Ottoman Empire and Islam and the commitment to its people.  Unlike the Escorial the Külliye are open ended and flexible schemes.  Somehow the Ottoman architecture reflects its openness to other religions and cultures.  The inspiration from the Aya Sofia church as the archetype for the Ottoman mosques is an evidence of the migration of ideas and culture.
  • 32. Bauhaus and Gesamtkunstwerk The Bauhaus mission was to unify art and technology, the fine arts and design arts, resulting in the revolutionizing of typography, painting, graphic design, industrial design, and theater.
  • 33. Interdisciplinary ? The Bauhaus looked at a new type of merged disciplinarity in the Gesamtkunstwerk. This disciplinarity goes beyond the interdisciplinarity we talk of today. It is a natural and necessary interdependence rather than a planned collaboration.
  • 34. The result of systemic design projects are constituting the New Gesamtkunstwerk But also the process could be regarded the same way where the Gigamap has a similar quality as the Gesamtkunstwerk. The Gigamap constitutes a holistic knowledge design.
  • 35. Pitfalls of the Gesamtkunstwerk Overdesigning Over-cleanliness The current design culture has a tendency to “hygienic” expression It signals a notion of control, calmness, order and a western good life style. The Norwegian Bank building is an example where one could say the principles of enforcing a holistic design language has been exaggerated.
  • 36.
  • 37. Overly ordered and designed representations might be false See the most (mis-)used Venn diagram: What is the “logic of the three” ? Symmetric diagrams are suspicious. When the aesthetics and organisational structure take over in the Gigamap the alarm bell must ring.
  • 38. The urge for composition is a strive for the perfect. Open designs are unfinished imperfect and dynamic. The combination of objects creates new relations and tells life stories. The appreciation of the imperfect (wabi-sabi)