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SOCIOLOGY
First Session
Sociology and the Social Sciences
2
Sociology
 Economics
 Psychology
 Geography
 Communication studies
 Anthropology
 History
 Political Science
Stratification:Stratification:
 Class...Class...
 Race...Race...
 Gender...Gender...
 Power...Power...
 Prestige.Prestige.
....
Race: Key TermsRace: Key Terms
 PrejudicePrejudice
 DiscriminationDiscrimination
 RacismRacism
 Social definition of RaceSocial definition of Race
 Institutional RacismInstitutional Racism
 Minority StatusMinority Status
Social Institutions Include...Social Institutions Include...
 ...family...family
 ...religion...religion
 ...economics and politics...economics and politics
 ...education...education
How did sociology begin?
• Sociology emerged in the middle of the
nineteen (19) century in Europe
• Three factors led to the development of
sociology
1.Industrial Revolution
2.Travel
3.Success of Natural Sciences
Industrial Revolution
 Europe was changing from
agriculture to factory production
 Masses of people moved to the
cities in search of work
 In cities people met anonymity,
crowding, filth, and poverty
 Industrial Revolution challenged
the traditional order an opened the
door for democratic changes
 Social changes undermined the
traditional explanations of human
existence
Travel
 The Europeans had been successful in
obtaining colonies
 Their colonial empires exposed them to
radically different cultures
 Startled by these contrasting ways of
life, they began to ask questions why
cultures differed
Success in natural sciences
 Newton’s laws explained the
movement of everything visible in
the universe (from planets to
buildings)
 It seemed logical to discover the
laws underlying social phenomena
The Father of Sociology
Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
 The new social science that Comte sought
to establish was first called socialsocial
physicsphysics but he coined the word
sociologysociology,, a hybrid term compounded of
Latin and Greek parts
Socio-Logy-
Logy: indicating the science or study of
 Comte first used the term sociology in print
in 1838
The Father of Sociology
August Comte’s philosophy based on his
conclusion that an intellectual discipline
progresses only to the degree that it is
grounded in facts and experience, i.e., rests
on information about which one can
reasonably make positive statements
Positivism
Seeks to describe only what “obviously” is,
what one can really be positive about, that is,
sense data. A strict positivist, seeing a black
sheep on a field could not say, “There is a
black sheep.” He could only say, “I see a
sheep, one side of which is black.”
August Comte: scientific methods
 Comte hoped that sociologists would use
scientific methods to gain knowledge of the
social world
 Then they would advise people about how life
ought to be lived
 This would the cure from social chaos
© 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith
Bolender
15
Auguste Comte:
The Law of Human Progress (or The Law of Three
Stages)
Applying what he conceived to be a method of
scientific comparison through time, Comte
emerged with his central conception, The of
Human Progress or The Law of Three
Stages.
(Coser 1971:7)
Sunday, September 18, 2016 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith
Bolender
16
Auguste Comte: The Law of Human Progress (or The
Law of Three Stages)
Each of our leading conceptions--each branch of
our knowledge, passes successively through
three different theoretical conditions: the
Theological ; the Metaphysical or abstract;
and the Scientific or positive. . .
(Comte 1912:1-2)
Sunday, September 18, 2016 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith
Bolender
17
Auguste Comte: The Law of Human Progress (or
The Law of Three Stages)
Stage Time Period Ruled or
Dominated
Dominate
Social Unit
Theological
--Fictitious
From the dawn of
man
Priest
Military
Family
Metaphysical
--Abstract
Middle Ages
Renaissance
Churchmen
Lawyers
State
Scientific
--Positive
Industrialization Industrial
Administrators
Scientific Moral
Guides
Entire Human
Race
(Coser 1971:7-8)
Auguste Comte: Three Stages
Sunday, September 18, 2016 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith
Bolender
20
Auguste Comte:
Hierarchy of the Sciences
Comte’s second best known theory, Hierarchy of
the Sciences, is connected with the Law of
Human Progress.
The social sciences, the most complex and the
most dependent for their emergence on the
development of all others, are the “highest”
in the hierarchy.
(Coser 1971:9)
21
Auguste Comte:
Social Statics and Social Dynamics
Social Statics
 The study of the conditions and pre-
conditions of social order
Social Dynamics
 The study of human progress and evolution
(Coser 1971:10-12)
22
Auguste Comte:
Social Statics and Social Dynamics
Social Statics
 Family
 True social unit
 Smallest unit of social study in sociology
 The individual is not a legitimate component for
research in sociology
 Families become tribes and tribes become nations
Sunday, September 18, 2016 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith
Bolender
23
Auguste Comte:
Social Statics and Social Dynamics
The family is the most elementary social unit and
the prototype of all other human associations,
for these evolve from family and kinship
groups.
Coser (1971:10)
24
Auguste Comte:
Social Statics and Social Dynamics
Three Factors of Social Statics
 Language
 The means of storing the thought and culture of
preceding generations
 Without a common language men could never
have attained solidarity and consensus
 Without this collective tool no social order is
possible
25
Auguste Comte:
Social Statics and Social Dynamics
 Religion
 A common religious belief provides a guide for behavior
 Religion furnishes the unifying principle, the common
ground without which individual differences would tear
society apart.
 Religion is the root of social order
 It is indispensable for making legitimate the commands of
government. No temporal power can endure without the
support of spiritual power.
26
Auguste Comte:
Social Statics and Social Dynamics
 Division of Labor
 Creates interdependence among members of the
society
 Society ultimately benefits from a properly
functioning division of labor
 As societies become more complex, the division
of labor is the only means to properly adjust to
that complexity
Sunday, September 18, 2016 27
Auguste Comte:
Social Statics and Social Dynamics
Social Dynamics
If the Social Statics are correctly balanced
within a society, Social Dynamics can be
orderly and positive for society.
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
 What hold society together?
 To answer this question Durkheim compared premodern
and modern societies
 Mechanical Solidarity existed in primitive societies.
People in premodern community were alike and functioned
as “simple machine”
 Collectivism dominated over individualism. All the people
shared the same beliefs and values.
 Durkheim used term “Collective Consciousness” to reflect
the shared ideas, values, and goals
Organic Solidarity
 As the division of labor in society became more
complex, people became more different and, thus,
more dependent on one another
 Organic Solidarity, (Modern society) then, describes
the proper functioning of a variety of parts, or organs
of the society.
Durkheim and sociology
 Durkheim believed that if he could show that
the most individual of acts, which had
previously been attributed to psychological
causes, had social causes, then he would
validate the power & worth of Sociology
“Suicide” (1897)
 Whether suicide the most private act or it is
instigated by the structure of the society?
 Durkheim carefully examined the available data on
rates of suicide among various social groups
 If suicide is purely an act of individuals desperation
one would not expect to find any changes in the rates
from year to year or society to society
Durkheim's Method
 He traveled around France and examined
death certificates of suicides
 Durkheim collected data on social
background of suicide victims, e.g.
demographic information including age,
religion, class, job, work history, income,
wealth, gender, etc.
 Then Durkheim grouped people according
to suicide rates and each social factor
“Suicide” (1897)
 Durkheim discovered that suicide rates in all
the countries tended to be higher:
1. Among widowed, single, and divorced
people than among married people
2. Among people without children than
among parents
3. Among Protestants than among Catholics
What make these groups of people different?
Two major functions of society
 Integration is the degree to which collective
sentiments (knowledge, beliefs, values) are
shared by members is society
 Regulation is the degree of external
constraint on people, i.e. the common norms
people live under
Durkheim’s four types of suicide
Suicide
 Durkheim argued that when group, family, or
communities ties are weak, people feel disconnected
and alone
 Catholic Church emphasizes salvation through
community and binds members to the church
through elaborate doctrine and ritual
 Protestantism emphasizes individual salvation and
responsibility (this individualism explained the
differences in suicide rate)
Suicide
 Durkheim also felt that suicide can become likely
when the ties to one’s community is too strong
 Religious cults require their members to reject their
ties to outside people and live by the values and
customs of their new community
The link between suicide and religious
ties
Egoistic suicide
 Too little social integration
 Those individuals who were not sufficiently bound to social
groups (and therefore well-defined values, traditions, norms,
and goals) were left with little social support or guidance, and
therefore tended to commit suicide on an increased basis
 An example Durkheim discovered was that of unmarried
people, particularly males, who, with less to bind and connect
them to stable social norms and goals, committed suicide at
higher rates than unmarried people.
Altruistic suicide
 Too much integration
 Self sacrifice was the defining trait, where
individuals were so integrated into social
groups that they lost sight of their
individuality and became willing to sacrifice
themselves
 The most common cases of altruistic suicide
occurred among members of the military.
Altruistic suicide
 Sati is a Hindi custom in India in which
widow was burnt to ashes on her dead
husband’s pyre (altruistic suicide)
 This is a voluntary act in which the woman
decides to end her life with her husband after
his death
 When a parent dies while pushing their child
out of the way of a car
Altruistic suicide
 1989 four young Korean sisters (ranging from 6 to 13 )
attempted to kill themselves by ingesting rat poison
 The sisters were not depressed rather they felt obligated to
sacrifice their personal well-being to the success of their
family’s male heir (their 3-year-old brother)
 Parents were poor and could not afford the education for
the brother
 Within the traditional Korean culture, female children are
much less important than male children
 Thus, suicide pact of these young girls was tied to the
social system of which they were a part
Anomic suicide (Too little regulation)
1. Acute economic anomie suicide
2. Chronic economic anomie suicide
3. Acute domestic anomie suicide
4. Chronic domestic anomie suicide
Anomic suicide (Too little regulation)
 Acute economic anomie: sporadic decreases in the ability of
traditional institutions (such as religion, pre-industrial social
systems) to regulate
 Chronic economic anomie: long term dimunition of social
regulation.
 Acute domestic anomie: sudden changes on the microsocial
level resulted in an inability to adapt and therefore higher
suicide rates.
 Chronic domestic anomie: Marriage has traditionally served
to overregulate the lives of women by further restricting their
already limited opportunities and goals. Unmarried women,
therefore, do not experience chronic domestic anomie nearly
as often as do unmarried men.
Fatalistic suicide
 Too much regulation
 Examples:
1. slaves
2. prisoners
3. overworked college students
4. American middle class working men
5. American middle class house wives
6. School Age suicides/killers: (I cannot stand the
harassment by the in-crowd, because I am different)
What is the profile of a suicidal person?
 Men commit suicide more than women ( Women make more
attempts at suicide, but men succeed more often )
 The young, mid teens to mid twenties & the middle aged, late
40s & 50s are the most suicidal age groups
 Protestants more than Catholics or Jews to commit suicide
 People of all Classes have about the same rates of suicide,
except for the extreme rich & poor
 Those who have been recently Laid-Off more likely to
commit suicide
 If you are male, middle-age, Protestant, laid-off, Watch-out!
Sociological value of “Suicide”
 Social forces that affect human behavior
 The role of sociology to expose and
understand these actions as the foundations of
societal structure.
 In other words, Suicide is a vital work
because it is the first effective combination of
sociological theory and empiricism to explain
a social phenomenon
Social Facts
 “Social Facts consist of manners of acting, thinking
and feeling external to the individual, which are
invested with a coercive power by virtue of which
they exercise control over him”
 Undoubtedly when one conforms to them of his/her
own free will, this coercion is not felt or felt hardly
at all, since it is unnecessary.
Sociology in Germany
 Ferdinand Tonnies (1855-1936)
 Like Durkheim he compared premodern and
modern societies
 Tonnies wished to understand how social
relationships between people differed in the two
types of societies
Tonnies on social relationships
 There are two basic categories of social
relationships
 Emotion-based relationships, Gemeinschaft
 Goal-driven social relationships, Gesellschaft
Emotion-based relationships, Gemeinschaft
 People enter into this sort of relationships for
emotional or affective reasons
 Example: family relationships, friendship
Goal-driven social relationships, Gesellschaft
 Gesellschaft exists in the realm of business,
travel, or sciences
 Example: worker-boss
Modern society
 In your own life you experience both sorts of
relationships
friend-friend
wife-husband
doctor-patient
retailer-customer
 Social structure (type of the relationship) influences
our behavior
Tonnies on social relationships
 In modern societies there are more relationships
Gesellschaft than in premodern societies
 People did not change, society changed
 Modern society forces people live and work with
less emotional attachments
 We leave emotional relationships only for people
close to us
Tonnies’ contribution to sociology
“ The type of the relationship determines the
rules of the relationship”
Some rules
 Relationships can be either Gesellschaft or
Gemeinschaft
 Relationships might change from Gesellschaft to
Gemeinschaft or from Gemeinschaft to
Gesellschaft
 Particular relationship can have some elements of
Gemeinschaft and some elements of Gesellschaft
Possible answers (Group 5, Group 6)
 Some of the rules of Gemeinschaft: spend time
together, show/return affection, be honest, give gifts,
etc
 Some of the rules of Gesellschaft: receiving gifts,
using car (other resources), social status among peers
 Generally, the banker-client relationship is
Gesellschaft. From watching television advertisements
for banks, one might conclude that the banker-client
relationship is supposed to be Gemeinschaft
 Question 1: Why would banks promote their services
as Gemeinschaft?
 Question 2: What, if any, danger is there in thinking
of your relationship with banker as Gemeinschaft?
Possible answers
 According to Tonnies,“ The type of the
relationship determines the rules of the
relationship”
 Emotion-based relationships are beneficial for
the banker
 Clients feel obliged to behave well (trust to
the banker, do not rob, pay credits in time)

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history of sociology

  • 2. Sociology and the Social Sciences 2
  • 3. Sociology  Economics  Psychology  Geography  Communication studies  Anthropology  History  Political Science
  • 4. Stratification:Stratification:  Class...Class...  Race...Race...  Gender...Gender...  Power...Power...  Prestige.Prestige. ....
  • 5. Race: Key TermsRace: Key Terms  PrejudicePrejudice  DiscriminationDiscrimination  RacismRacism  Social definition of RaceSocial definition of Race  Institutional RacismInstitutional Racism  Minority StatusMinority Status
  • 6. Social Institutions Include...Social Institutions Include...  ...family...family  ...religion...religion  ...economics and politics...economics and politics  ...education...education
  • 7. How did sociology begin? • Sociology emerged in the middle of the nineteen (19) century in Europe • Three factors led to the development of sociology 1.Industrial Revolution 2.Travel 3.Success of Natural Sciences
  • 8. Industrial Revolution  Europe was changing from agriculture to factory production  Masses of people moved to the cities in search of work  In cities people met anonymity, crowding, filth, and poverty  Industrial Revolution challenged the traditional order an opened the door for democratic changes  Social changes undermined the traditional explanations of human existence
  • 9. Travel  The Europeans had been successful in obtaining colonies  Their colonial empires exposed them to radically different cultures  Startled by these contrasting ways of life, they began to ask questions why cultures differed
  • 10. Success in natural sciences  Newton’s laws explained the movement of everything visible in the universe (from planets to buildings)  It seemed logical to discover the laws underlying social phenomena
  • 11. The Father of Sociology Auguste Comte (1798-1857)  The new social science that Comte sought to establish was first called socialsocial physicsphysics but he coined the word sociologysociology,, a hybrid term compounded of Latin and Greek parts Socio-Logy- Logy: indicating the science or study of  Comte first used the term sociology in print in 1838
  • 12. The Father of Sociology August Comte’s philosophy based on his conclusion that an intellectual discipline progresses only to the degree that it is grounded in facts and experience, i.e., rests on information about which one can reasonably make positive statements
  • 13. Positivism Seeks to describe only what “obviously” is, what one can really be positive about, that is, sense data. A strict positivist, seeing a black sheep on a field could not say, “There is a black sheep.” He could only say, “I see a sheep, one side of which is black.”
  • 14. August Comte: scientific methods  Comte hoped that sociologists would use scientific methods to gain knowledge of the social world  Then they would advise people about how life ought to be lived  This would the cure from social chaos
  • 15. © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 15 Auguste Comte: The Law of Human Progress (or The Law of Three Stages) Applying what he conceived to be a method of scientific comparison through time, Comte emerged with his central conception, The of Human Progress or The Law of Three Stages. (Coser 1971:7)
  • 16. Sunday, September 18, 2016 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 16 Auguste Comte: The Law of Human Progress (or The Law of Three Stages) Each of our leading conceptions--each branch of our knowledge, passes successively through three different theoretical conditions: the Theological ; the Metaphysical or abstract; and the Scientific or positive. . . (Comte 1912:1-2)
  • 17. Sunday, September 18, 2016 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 17 Auguste Comte: The Law of Human Progress (or The Law of Three Stages) Stage Time Period Ruled or Dominated Dominate Social Unit Theological --Fictitious From the dawn of man Priest Military Family Metaphysical --Abstract Middle Ages Renaissance Churchmen Lawyers State Scientific --Positive Industrialization Industrial Administrators Scientific Moral Guides Entire Human Race (Coser 1971:7-8)
  • 19.
  • 20. Sunday, September 18, 2016 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 20 Auguste Comte: Hierarchy of the Sciences Comte’s second best known theory, Hierarchy of the Sciences, is connected with the Law of Human Progress. The social sciences, the most complex and the most dependent for their emergence on the development of all others, are the “highest” in the hierarchy. (Coser 1971:9)
  • 21. 21 Auguste Comte: Social Statics and Social Dynamics Social Statics  The study of the conditions and pre- conditions of social order Social Dynamics  The study of human progress and evolution (Coser 1971:10-12)
  • 22. 22 Auguste Comte: Social Statics and Social Dynamics Social Statics  Family  True social unit  Smallest unit of social study in sociology  The individual is not a legitimate component for research in sociology  Families become tribes and tribes become nations
  • 23. Sunday, September 18, 2016 © 1998-2006 by Ronald Keith Bolender 23 Auguste Comte: Social Statics and Social Dynamics The family is the most elementary social unit and the prototype of all other human associations, for these evolve from family and kinship groups. Coser (1971:10)
  • 24. 24 Auguste Comte: Social Statics and Social Dynamics Three Factors of Social Statics  Language  The means of storing the thought and culture of preceding generations  Without a common language men could never have attained solidarity and consensus  Without this collective tool no social order is possible
  • 25. 25 Auguste Comte: Social Statics and Social Dynamics  Religion  A common religious belief provides a guide for behavior  Religion furnishes the unifying principle, the common ground without which individual differences would tear society apart.  Religion is the root of social order  It is indispensable for making legitimate the commands of government. No temporal power can endure without the support of spiritual power.
  • 26. 26 Auguste Comte: Social Statics and Social Dynamics  Division of Labor  Creates interdependence among members of the society  Society ultimately benefits from a properly functioning division of labor  As societies become more complex, the division of labor is the only means to properly adjust to that complexity
  • 27. Sunday, September 18, 2016 27 Auguste Comte: Social Statics and Social Dynamics Social Dynamics If the Social Statics are correctly balanced within a society, Social Dynamics can be orderly and positive for society.
  • 28.
  • 29. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)  What hold society together?  To answer this question Durkheim compared premodern and modern societies  Mechanical Solidarity existed in primitive societies. People in premodern community were alike and functioned as “simple machine”  Collectivism dominated over individualism. All the people shared the same beliefs and values.  Durkheim used term “Collective Consciousness” to reflect the shared ideas, values, and goals
  • 30. Organic Solidarity  As the division of labor in society became more complex, people became more different and, thus, more dependent on one another  Organic Solidarity, (Modern society) then, describes the proper functioning of a variety of parts, or organs of the society.
  • 31. Durkheim and sociology  Durkheim believed that if he could show that the most individual of acts, which had previously been attributed to psychological causes, had social causes, then he would validate the power & worth of Sociology
  • 32. “Suicide” (1897)  Whether suicide the most private act or it is instigated by the structure of the society?  Durkheim carefully examined the available data on rates of suicide among various social groups  If suicide is purely an act of individuals desperation one would not expect to find any changes in the rates from year to year or society to society
  • 33. Durkheim's Method  He traveled around France and examined death certificates of suicides  Durkheim collected data on social background of suicide victims, e.g. demographic information including age, religion, class, job, work history, income, wealth, gender, etc.  Then Durkheim grouped people according to suicide rates and each social factor
  • 34. “Suicide” (1897)  Durkheim discovered that suicide rates in all the countries tended to be higher: 1. Among widowed, single, and divorced people than among married people 2. Among people without children than among parents 3. Among Protestants than among Catholics What make these groups of people different?
  • 35. Two major functions of society  Integration is the degree to which collective sentiments (knowledge, beliefs, values) are shared by members is society  Regulation is the degree of external constraint on people, i.e. the common norms people live under
  • 37. Suicide  Durkheim argued that when group, family, or communities ties are weak, people feel disconnected and alone  Catholic Church emphasizes salvation through community and binds members to the church through elaborate doctrine and ritual  Protestantism emphasizes individual salvation and responsibility (this individualism explained the differences in suicide rate)
  • 38. Suicide  Durkheim also felt that suicide can become likely when the ties to one’s community is too strong  Religious cults require their members to reject their ties to outside people and live by the values and customs of their new community
  • 39. The link between suicide and religious ties
  • 40. Egoistic suicide  Too little social integration  Those individuals who were not sufficiently bound to social groups (and therefore well-defined values, traditions, norms, and goals) were left with little social support or guidance, and therefore tended to commit suicide on an increased basis  An example Durkheim discovered was that of unmarried people, particularly males, who, with less to bind and connect them to stable social norms and goals, committed suicide at higher rates than unmarried people.
  • 41. Altruistic suicide  Too much integration  Self sacrifice was the defining trait, where individuals were so integrated into social groups that they lost sight of their individuality and became willing to sacrifice themselves  The most common cases of altruistic suicide occurred among members of the military.
  • 42. Altruistic suicide  Sati is a Hindi custom in India in which widow was burnt to ashes on her dead husband’s pyre (altruistic suicide)  This is a voluntary act in which the woman decides to end her life with her husband after his death  When a parent dies while pushing their child out of the way of a car
  • 43. Altruistic suicide  1989 four young Korean sisters (ranging from 6 to 13 ) attempted to kill themselves by ingesting rat poison  The sisters were not depressed rather they felt obligated to sacrifice their personal well-being to the success of their family’s male heir (their 3-year-old brother)  Parents were poor and could not afford the education for the brother  Within the traditional Korean culture, female children are much less important than male children  Thus, suicide pact of these young girls was tied to the social system of which they were a part
  • 44. Anomic suicide (Too little regulation) 1. Acute economic anomie suicide 2. Chronic economic anomie suicide 3. Acute domestic anomie suicide 4. Chronic domestic anomie suicide
  • 45. Anomic suicide (Too little regulation)  Acute economic anomie: sporadic decreases in the ability of traditional institutions (such as religion, pre-industrial social systems) to regulate  Chronic economic anomie: long term dimunition of social regulation.  Acute domestic anomie: sudden changes on the microsocial level resulted in an inability to adapt and therefore higher suicide rates.  Chronic domestic anomie: Marriage has traditionally served to overregulate the lives of women by further restricting their already limited opportunities and goals. Unmarried women, therefore, do not experience chronic domestic anomie nearly as often as do unmarried men.
  • 46. Fatalistic suicide  Too much regulation  Examples: 1. slaves 2. prisoners 3. overworked college students 4. American middle class working men 5. American middle class house wives 6. School Age suicides/killers: (I cannot stand the harassment by the in-crowd, because I am different)
  • 47. What is the profile of a suicidal person?  Men commit suicide more than women ( Women make more attempts at suicide, but men succeed more often )  The young, mid teens to mid twenties & the middle aged, late 40s & 50s are the most suicidal age groups  Protestants more than Catholics or Jews to commit suicide  People of all Classes have about the same rates of suicide, except for the extreme rich & poor  Those who have been recently Laid-Off more likely to commit suicide  If you are male, middle-age, Protestant, laid-off, Watch-out!
  • 48. Sociological value of “Suicide”  Social forces that affect human behavior  The role of sociology to expose and understand these actions as the foundations of societal structure.  In other words, Suicide is a vital work because it is the first effective combination of sociological theory and empiricism to explain a social phenomenon
  • 49. Social Facts  “Social Facts consist of manners of acting, thinking and feeling external to the individual, which are invested with a coercive power by virtue of which they exercise control over him”  Undoubtedly when one conforms to them of his/her own free will, this coercion is not felt or felt hardly at all, since it is unnecessary.
  • 50. Sociology in Germany  Ferdinand Tonnies (1855-1936)  Like Durkheim he compared premodern and modern societies  Tonnies wished to understand how social relationships between people differed in the two types of societies
  • 51. Tonnies on social relationships  There are two basic categories of social relationships  Emotion-based relationships, Gemeinschaft  Goal-driven social relationships, Gesellschaft
  • 52. Emotion-based relationships, Gemeinschaft  People enter into this sort of relationships for emotional or affective reasons  Example: family relationships, friendship
  • 53. Goal-driven social relationships, Gesellschaft  Gesellschaft exists in the realm of business, travel, or sciences  Example: worker-boss
  • 54. Modern society  In your own life you experience both sorts of relationships friend-friend wife-husband doctor-patient retailer-customer  Social structure (type of the relationship) influences our behavior
  • 55. Tonnies on social relationships  In modern societies there are more relationships Gesellschaft than in premodern societies  People did not change, society changed  Modern society forces people live and work with less emotional attachments  We leave emotional relationships only for people close to us
  • 56. Tonnies’ contribution to sociology “ The type of the relationship determines the rules of the relationship”
  • 57. Some rules  Relationships can be either Gesellschaft or Gemeinschaft  Relationships might change from Gesellschaft to Gemeinschaft or from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft  Particular relationship can have some elements of Gemeinschaft and some elements of Gesellschaft
  • 58. Possible answers (Group 5, Group 6)  Some of the rules of Gemeinschaft: spend time together, show/return affection, be honest, give gifts, etc  Some of the rules of Gesellschaft: receiving gifts, using car (other resources), social status among peers
  • 59.  Generally, the banker-client relationship is Gesellschaft. From watching television advertisements for banks, one might conclude that the banker-client relationship is supposed to be Gemeinschaft  Question 1: Why would banks promote their services as Gemeinschaft?  Question 2: What, if any, danger is there in thinking of your relationship with banker as Gemeinschaft?
  • 60. Possible answers  According to Tonnies,“ The type of the relationship determines the rules of the relationship”  Emotion-based relationships are beneficial for the banker  Clients feel obliged to behave well (trust to the banker, do not rob, pay credits in time)

Editor's Notes

  1. Class: is the economic, social, political power of someone in society. and we have 3 class’s one is upper class (this class makes up around 1 up to 10% of a society and they are Wealthy people or belongs to a recognized family, second is middle class (the middle class includes about 60 to 90 percent of the population and the members of the middle class earn their money by working professional jobs, and they also have college educations and these peoples are managers, doctors, lawyers professors, and teachers, and the third one is lower class ( the lower class make more than 50% population of our country and they may go to college but most of them are workers, drivers, factory worker, carpenter, electrician and police officers. Race: the term race refers to groups of people who have differences and similarities in biological traits deemed by society to be socially significant, meaning that people treat other people differently because of them and its not because of similarities and differences in eye color its because of differences and similarities in skin color like black and white in USA. Gender: the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women Power: Power refers to someone’s ability to get others to do his/her will, regardless of whether or not they want to. Legitimate power, power given to individuals willingly by others, is called authority. Illegitimate power, power taken by force or the threat of force, is called coercion. Prestige: Prestige refers to the reputation or esteem associated with one’s position in society. Prestige used to be associated with one's family name, but for most people in developed countries, prestige is now generally tied to one's occupation. Occupations like physicians or lawyers tend to have more prestige associated with them than occupations like bartender or janitor. An individual’s prestige is closely tied to their social class – the higher the prestige of an individual (through their occupation or maybe family name), the higher the social class. These three indicators tend to go hand-in-hand or lead to each other, such as a Supreme Court justice who is usually wealthy, enjoys a great deal of prestige, and exercises significant power. In some cases, however, a person ranks differently on these indicators, such as funeral directors. Their prestige is fairly low, but most have higher incomes than college professors, who are among the most educated people in America and have high prestige
  2. Prejudice has to do with the inflexible and irrational attitudes and opinions held by members of one group about another, while discrimination refers to behaviors directed against another group. Being prejudiced usually means having preconceived beliefs about groups of people or cultural practices. Prejudices can either be positive or negative—both forms are usually preconceived and difficult to alter. The negative form of prejudice can lead to discrimination, although it is possible to be prejudiced and not act upon the attitudes. Those who practice discrimination do so to protect opportunities for themselves by denying access to those whom they believe do not deserve the same treatment as everyone else. Racism: (Sociology) abusive or aggressive behaviour towards members of another race on the basis of such a belief. Social definition of race: Sociologists define race as a concept that is used to signify different types of human bodies. While there is no biological basis for racial classification, sociologists recognize a long history of attempts to organize groups of people based on similar skin color and physical appearance. Institutional Racism: Institutional racism is a pattern of social institutions — such as governmental organizations, schools, banks, and courts of law — giving negative treatment to a group of people based on their race. Institutional racism leads to inequality; sociologists use the concept to explain why some people face unequal treatment or occupy unequal statuses. One historic example of institutional racism is the barring of African-American students from attending certain public schools, which limited the students' educational opportunities and helped prevent them from achieving a status equal to that of others. Institutional racism need not involve intentional racial discrimination. For example, individual judges might intend to impose similar sentences for similar crimes; yet if Caucasian people tend to receive lighter punishments, plausibly institutional racism occurs. Minority Status: in society some times minority are excluded and some times minority exclude majority
  3. Family: is the first cycle of society and family is small group of society and every human being belongs to family because from birth to dead they are belong to one family. Religion. Religion is a big part of society. Economics and politics. Education