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HISTORY
OF
SIKKIM
INTRODUCTION
• History of Sikkim can be divided into three
different phases –
1.Establishment of Namgyal dynasty
2.British incursion in Sikkim
3.Democratic Sikkim
1) ESTABLISHMENT OF NAMGYAL DYNASTY
• LEPCHAS (Rongs) – Original inhabitants of
Sikkim
• MAGAR & LIMBU – Among the earliest settlers
of Sikkim
• KIRATI TRIBE
9th
Century…
• Guru Rinpoche
• Blessed the land
• Introduced Buddhism
• Foretold the Era of Monarchy
• Tibetans called Sikkim “DENJONG” meaning
“THE VALLEY OF RICE”
• India as “dark green bamboo country”
• CHUMBI VALLEY…east of Sikkim in Tibet…
flatland…good for cultivation
13th
Century
• Guru Tashi -Tibetan prince, represents the
Bhutias
• From Minyak House in Kham in Eastern Tibet
• Revelation
• Travel South to seek his fortunes
• Guru Tashi came & settled in Chumbi valley
• As directed by the divine vision he along with his family, which included
five sons, headed in the southern direction.
• came across the Sakya Kingdom in which a monastery was being built at
that time.
• The workers had not been successful in erecting pillars for the monastery.
The elder son of Guru Tashi raised the pillar single handedly and thereby
came to be known as "Kheye Bumsa" meaning the superior of ten
thousand heroes.
• The Sakya King offered his daughter in marriage to Khye Bumsa.
• Sikkim was ruled by Lepcha Punu (King) named-Tur ve pa no around A. D.
1400.
Khye Bumsa & wife remained childless…
• Were advised to seek the blessings of Rong
(Lepcha) elder THO-KONG TEK who was in
Skm..
• Khye Bumsa crossed the YAKLA & PENLONG
mountains & entered RONG TERRITORY
• Seeked the blessing of THO-KONG TEK
Khye Bumsa with Tho-kong Tek
PROPHECY….
• Khye Bumsa would father of 3 sons..
• Khye Bumsa’s descendents would become the
rulers of Sikkim
• Rongs would become their subjects
Prophecy came true
BLOOD BROTHERWOOD…
• Was sworn between khye bumsa & his family
with Tho-kong Tek and his family at 'Kabi
Lungchok-17km to the north from Gangtok.
• Bhutias could settle in Sikkim
• Two tribes would live harmoniously as friends
& brothers
INTER- MARRIAGES…
• Soon the Bhutia population & the Buddhism
religion became dominant in Sikkim
17th
Century….
• 3 Tibetan monks from Nyingmapa sect came
• Debated the need for sikkim to have a head or
KING who will actively propagate Buddhism
among the people
• 5th
generation descendent of Khye Bumsa was
living at the time…
PHUNTSOK NAMGYAL
• In 1642, Phuntsog Namgyal was summoned to
YUKSOM- “meaning meeting place of three
wise men” (West Sikkim)
• Consecrated by the Lamas as the first
CHOGYAL (Dharma Ruler/ King) of Sikkim
• Recognition from 8th
Dalai Lama
• Namgyal dynasty tied to Tibetan theocracy
• Lepchas – son of the soil – good cultivators
• Sikkim divided into 12 DZONGS (districts)
• 12 important Lepcha chiefs called Dzongpens
(governor) were allocated for each Dzong
Boundaries of Greater Sikkim then…
• North – Thangla in Tibet
• East - Tagongla in Bhutan
• West – Timar chorten (Tamar river, Nepal)
• South – Titalia (near border of Bihar & West
Bengal)
1642 - 1975
• 12 Namgyal rulers
• 333 years
PHUNSTOK NAMGYAL- (1642–1670)
•Born-1604
•He consecrated in 1642 at the age of 38
•Expanded his borders -Chumbi valley in Tibet & parts
of modern day Darjeeling in the south and some part of
Nepal and Bhutan
•Established YOKSAM-meaning “meeting place of
three wise men” as capital of Sikkim.
• the local Lepcha people to Buddhism
• He also declared Mahayana Buddhism as the
state religion
• Sikkim divided into 12 DZONGS (districts)
• 12 important Lepcha chiefs called Dzongpens
(governor) were allocated for each Dzong
• Died: 1670
TENSUNG NAMGYAL-(1670–1700)
• Born-1644
• Succeded his father Phuntsok Namgyal in
1670
• Moved capital to RABDENTSE
• Married three wives-1st
wife-Tibetan- Numbe ongmu
-2nd
wife-(Sikkimease-Bhutanese)-
Debasam Serpa
• -3rd
wife-Limbu-(daughter of YO
YO HANG)-Limbu chief
        Rabdentse
• Limbu daughter brought with her seven girls
who later married into important families of
Sikkim.
• Many of them rose to the rank of councilors to
the kings. Councilors later came to be known
as KAZI
• Died: 1700
CHADOR NAMGYAL- 1700-1717
• Minor son of Tensung Namgyal from
Tensung's second wife(Bhutanese)
succeeded on the death of his father
• PEDI or Palden Ongmu daughter from
1st
wife(Tibetan) challenged the
succession and invited Bhutanese
intervention
• Yungthing Yeshe (a loyal minister) took
the minor king to Lasa-Tibet
• During his asylum he learned Buddhist and
Tibetans literature and rose to the position of
state astrologer
• Dalai lama was so much pleased that he
bestowed high honor and titles on the young
king. He also received estate in central Tibet
with sovereign rights
• On the other hand Bhutanese forces had
captured Rabdentse palace and imprisoned the
son of Yungthing yeshe (a loyal minister)
• TIBET intervened and king DEB of Bhutan
withdrew
• He came back and drove out the rest of Bhutanese
forces but lost south-eastern tract of Sikkim
• Bhutanese again made a second attempt to capture
Sikkim territories. Chador Namgyal gave a tough
resistance but areas now called KALIMPONG and
RHENOCK were lost
• CHADOR NAMGYAL was religious and hence he
propagated Buddhist religion . He commanded that the
second of every three sons of Bhutia family be a monk
of Pemiongchi(Pemayangtse) Monastery, Originally
built by Lhatsun Chenpo
• He built GURU LHAKHANG TASHIDING (1715)
• Adapted the religious dances and also
invented an alphabet for Lepchas
• However, PEDI conspired with a Tibetan
man of medicine and killed CHADOR
NAMGYAL while the king was
holidaying at RALANG hot spring in
1717.
• later on doctor was executed and PEDI
was strangled to death by a silk scarf.
GYURMED NAMGYAL (1717- 1733)
• Born: 1707
• was the fourth Chogyal (king) of Sikkim
• succeeded after his father CHADOR
NAMGYAL.
• the people were forced to work on the
fortification of Rabdentse in the fear of
GURKHAS and BHUTANESE raids
• Many lepchas were not prepared to the force labour
hence fled to LIMBUANA which became a rebel
district and broke away from Sikkim even earlier to
GURKHA expansion
• Boundary disputes with BHUTAN also arose.
• Manger chief TASHI BIDUR also revolted but was
later subdued
• LIMBUANA was lost to Nepal
• GYURMED on his death bed at the age of 63 (1733)
said that a nun in SANGA CHOLING-PELLING was
carrying his child but people did not believed
• Nun was found and she delivered a male
child and he was accepted as heir to
GYURMED.
• He was named PHUNTSOK NAMGYAL II
PHUNTSOK NAMGYAL II (1733-1780)
• was the fifth Chogyal (king) of Sikkim
• Was opposed by many people on plea of
illegitimacy(the state of not being in
accordance with accepted standards or rules)
• CHANDZOD TAMDANG-a close confident and
treasurer of GYURMED not only opposed but
assured the power of the ruler and continued
to rule Sikkim for three years in spite of
opposition by pro-king faction
• Lepcha backed the baby king and fought with
the pretender under the leadership of
CHANDZOD KARWANG-a loyal supporter
of Gyurmed- lepcha leader
• TAMDANG was defeated and fled to Lhasa-
TIBET to seek guidance and help
• But Tibetan authorities favored the minority of
the king
• The system of annual taxation was also
introduced
• The Mangar tribe lost its cheftian and asked
the reagent to appoint the deceased’s son as
chieftain
• Reagent was unable to comply their demand
• This act enraged the Magars and they sought
the help and protection from BHUTAN Deb
king
• This way Sikkim lost MAGARS
ALLEGIANCE FORVER
• IN 1752, TSONGS rose in arms but was
subdued and won over by CHANDZOD
KARWANG
Flag of Sikkim (1914-1962)
Anthem
Jahan Bagcha Teesta Rangeet
• Rise of GURKHAS also posed a threat for
Sikkim
•Later GORKHAS inroad in Sikkim under the
leadership of RAJA PRITHIVI NARAYAN
SHAH of Nepal
•Bhutan also invaded Sikkim and captured all
area- east of TEESTA but withdrew to present
frontiers after negotiation at RHENOCK
• GURKHAS inroads were beaten back seventeen
times
• Peace treaty was signed with NEPAL in 1775
• Gorkhas promised to abstain from further
attacks and collaboration with Bhutanese
• But later Gorkhas voilated the treaty and
occupied the land in western Sikkim
• PHUNTSOK II had three queens. His son-
TENZING NAMGYAL from his second
queen in 1780 succeeded
TENZING NAMGYAL (1780-1793)
• was the sixth Chogyal (king) of Sikkim
• Born-1769
• He married the daughter of CHANDZOD
KARWANG- (A loyal Lepcha leader of
Gyurmed Namgyal)- ANYO GYELUM
• During his reign Nepali forces occupied large
chunks of Sikkim territory
• They attacked RABDENTSE
• NEPALIS excursions emboldened them
to penetrate even into Tibet. This led to
the Chinese intervention and Nepal was
defeated
• Chogyal(Tenzing namgyal), queen and
their son fled to Tibet- Lhasa and later
chogyal was died there in exile in 1793.
In the same year, his son TSUDPHUD
NAMGYAL was sent to Sikkim to
succeed him in the same year.
TSUDPHUD NAMGYAL-(1793-1863)
• Rabdantse was now considered too insecure
because of its proximity to the NEPAL border
and hence TSUDPHUD NAMGYAL shifted his
capital to TUMLONG
• Still Nepal continued to attack Sikkim and
neighboring British territories
• British India successfully befriended Sikkim.
• Died in 1863
Sidekeong Namgyal(1863-1874)
• Sidekeong Namgyal succeeded Tsugphud Namgyal in 1863
• He was defied (openly resist or refuse to obey) in 1874 in
issueless matter and was succeeded by his half brother Thutob 
Namgyal.
• The Britishers appointed JOHN CLAUDE WHITE as the first
political officer in Sikkim in 1889 and Chogyal Thutob
Namgyal was virtually under his supervision
• Thutob Namgyal shifted the capital from Tumlong to
Gangtok in 1894.
• The Sir Thutob Namgyal Memorial (STNM) Hospital was built in
1917 is named in the memory of Thutob Namgyal who died in
1914.
Sidekeong Namgyal
Thutob Namgyal/old STNM
hospital
• Thutob Namgyal was succeeded by his
son Sidekong Tulku in 1914.
• Unfortunately he did not live long and died in
the same year.
• He was succeeded by his half brother Tashi
Namgyal who promulgated many reforms in
the state.
• Born in Tibet and crowned by the 13th Dalai
Lama, Thubten Gyatso
• He was a strong advocate for closer links with
India.
• He has introduced lots of reforms in Sikkim.
• He was married in October 1918 to Kunzang
Dechen, and they had 3 sons and 3 daughters.
The eldest son died in a plane crash during
World War-II.
• Tashi Namgyal died in 1963 and was succeeded
by his son Palden Thondup Namgyal.
Reforms of Sir Tashi Namgyal
• He is known for land reform and free elections
• He also favoured closer links between Sikkim, India
and Tibet
• Abolished zamindar/jhi system
• He established English medium public school in
sikkim
• Abolished jharlangi/kurwa/kalabhari system
• Opened High Court in Sikkim(1955)
• Abolished open gambling in the public
Palden Thondup Namgyal (1923-1982)
• Was born on 23 May 1923 at the Royal Palace, Park Ridge,
Gangtok.
• was the 12th and last Chogyal (king) of the Kingdom of
Sikkim.
• By the beginning of 1970 there were rumbling in the political
ranks and file of the State, which demanded the removal of
Monarchy and the establishment of a democratic setup.
• His elder brother-Palzor Namgyal-born on 26th
November, 1921
was the first and the only Pilot prince of Sikkim who was died
in the plan crash on 20th
December, 1941.
• 16th may 1975, Sikkim become a full-fledged 22nd state of the
Indian Union
In 1963, Namgyal
married Hope Cooke
Palden Thondup Namgyal, 21 years
old
• Prince Tenzing kunzang Jigme Namgyal and
princess Yangchen Dloma Namgyal
• King died-1982(57)
Palzor Namgyal
ii) British Incursions in Sikkim
• British also looked forward to establish trade
link with TIBET and it was felt that the route
through Sikkim was the most feasible one
• War between Nepal and British India broke
out in 1814 and came to an end in 1816
• Nepal got defeated and signed a TREATY OF
SUGAULI-1816
• British India signed another treaty with Sikkim
in 1817 known as TREATY OF TITALIA
ANGLO-NEPAL WAR of 1814-1816
&
TREATY OF SAGAULI - 1816
• Treaty negotiated on 2nd
december, 1815
• British asked Nepal to surrender all the fertile
flatlands of Terai
• Then PM of Nepal, Bhim Sen Thapa refused
• Hostilities broke out again
• War continued for several more months
• Battle of Makawanpur(Neapl)- British won
• Gorkha’s declared peace
• 4th
march 1816 – Treaty of Sagauli signed
Significance of Treaty of Sagauli
• Gorkha military expansion stopped
• Nepal’s border restricted to today’s current
border ( between Mechi and Makhali river)
• Treaty prevented territory-hungry East India
company to claim any land from Nepal
TREATY OF TITALIA-1817
• Signed between Sikkim & British
• On 10th
Febuary, 1817
• All the lost territories of Sikkim (i.e. hill territories
east of river Mechi & west of Teesta) were
restored back to Sikkim
• Reason – British wanted to open trade route
between Calcutta & Lhasa through Sikkim
Points agreed under the Treaty
1. All the hill territories restored back to Sikkim
2. The Chogyal of Sikkim will refer all the
disputes between Sikkim & Nepal, or any
other neighbouring state, to the British
government for arbitration (judgement)
3. If needed, He(Chogyal) himself & all his
successors will join the British Troops with the
whole of the military force, when employed in
the hills, and will give the British troop every
aid and facility possible.
4. He will not permit any British, European or
American subject to reside within Sikkim without
the permission of the British government.
5. Chogyal will not provide any protection to
defaulters of revenue; he will immediately seize
& deliver any dacoits or notorious offenders that
may take refuge within his territories.
6. The honourable East India Company
guarantees to the Sikkim Chogyal & his
successors the full and peaceful possession of
the hilly country specified in the first point of
the Treaty.
7. This Treaty was ratified and exchanged by the
Chogyal of Sikkim within one month. The
counter part when confirmed by the British
Govenor General, shall be transmitted to the
Chogyal.
Done at Titalia, this 10th
of Febuary, 1817.
After Treaty of Titalia…
• British started to increase their influence in Sikkm
• In 1835, British forced the Bhutia rulers of Sikkim
to gift Darjeeling as a Sanatorium
• Englishmen were facing problems due to the hot
humid climate and wanted to getaway to a cooler
nearer station for vacation..
Deed of Grant, 1835
• Darjeeling was gifted to East India Company by
the Chogyal of Sikkim “out of friendship”
• “All lands south of the Great Rangit rivers, east
of Balason, Kahail and little Rangit rivers, and
west of Rangpo and Mahanadi rivers”
• annual grant of Rs. 6000/- to the Maharaja of
Sikkim
• Gift deed was signed by the Chogyal TSUDPHUD
NAMGYAL in 1835
Darjeeling provided…
• Facilities in free trade
• Extensive forest land – good for cultivation
• This caused no. of Lepchas & Nepalese to
migrate & settle there.
Deed of Grant threatened..
• Monopoly of trade of Bhutia families
• Aged population(old settler) & inter-tribal
relations in Sikkim
• Relation of Sikkim with Bhutan, Nepal and
Tibet.
Tibet’s action..
• Restricted Chogyal’s visit to Lhasa
• Took away grazing rights of Sikkimese on the
border areas of Tibet.
To tackle the displeasure of Tibet..
• In 1847, Chogyal of Skm appointed a Tibetan person having
strong anti- British conviction TOKYANG DEWAN NAMGYEL
as his Prime Minister.
• Nevertheless, hostilities between Sikkim, Tibet and British
worsened esp. between 1850 – 1860.
• Namgyel (Tokhang Dewan Namgyal) and his men
misbehaved, kidnapped & molested the British people n
troops sanctioned in Sikkim.
• The relations deteriorated to such an extent that when Dr.
Campbell, the Superintendent of Darjeeling and botanist Dr.
J.D. Hooker visited Sikkim in connection with the latter's
botanical research, they were captured and imprisoned in
1849. The British issued an ultimatum and the two captives
were released after a month of detention.
• In February 1850, an expedition was sent to Sikkim, which
resulted in the stoppage of the annual grant of Rs. 6000/- to the
Maharaja of Sikkim and also the annexation of Darjeeling and a
great portion of Sikkim (Terai, Morang) to British India.
• Sikkim resorted to making attacks into British
territories and it was in November 1860 that the
British sent an expeditionary force to Sikkim.
This force was driven back from Rinchenpong in
west-Sikkim. A stronger force (army of 2000) was
sent in 1861 that resulted in the capture of the
capital Tumlong.
• This led to signing of Peace Treaty in
Tumlong (Skm Capital) on 28th
, March 1861
• According to this Treaty, Sikkim became a
British dependency
Treaty of Tumlong, 1861
1. All previous treaties made between the British Govt &
the Skm govt. were cancelled.
2. The whole Skm territory under British was restored back
to the Chogyal (Tshudup Namgyal), & there shall be
peace & amity between the two states.
3. Chogyal will restore all property left by British troops at
Rinchinpong.
4. The Govt of Skm engages that its subjects shall never
again commit degradations on British territory, or
kidnap & molest British subjects. In event of any such
happening the govt of Skm will handle up all the
persons involved in such malpractice.
5. The govt. of Skm will seize & deliver up criminals,
defaulters, who have taken refuge within its territory. The
police of the Brit. Govt. can follow such offender in any
part of the Skm territory & shall receive protection or
assistance from the Skm govt.
6. The late misunderstandings between the two govts. Were
mainly due to the acts of EX- Dewan Namgyal
7. No duties or fees of any sort shall be developed by the Skm govt of
any persons on account of goods exported into the British territories
from Skm, or imported into Skm from British territories.
8. The govt of Skm will abstain (formally decline) from any acts of
aggression or hostility against any of the neighbouring states which
are allies of the British govt. If any questions or disputes arise
between people of Sikkim & neighbouring states, it will be referred
to British Govt for arbitration(dispute) and the Skm govt will abide
by the decision of Brit govt.
9. The govt of Skm will not cede or lease any portion of it’s
territory to another state without the permission of the
Brit govt.
10. The govt of Skm shall not allow any armed force
belonging to any other country to pass through Skm
without the sanction of the Brit. Govt.
Scenario after Treaty of Tumlong..
• Chogyal SIDEKONG NAMGYAL succeeded TSUDPHUD
NAMGYAL in 1863
• Following the treaty of Tumlong, the British encouraged
the Nepalese settlers to reclaim the wasteland, open
copper mines, and work in road construction, agriculture,
trade, etc.
• Bhutias could not reconcile (restore friendly relations)
themselves to Nepalese settlement
• Tibet and China feared that if left unopposed, the British
would encroach into Tibet through Sikkim.
• Chogyal (Thutob Namgyal) was restricted to spending no
more than three months in Tibet but he frequently ignored
this provision and in 1887, after having resided for almost
two years in Tibet he declined to travel to Darjeeling to
meet with the Lieutenant-Governor arguing that
the Amban(high official) in Lhasa had forbidden him to do
so. Meanwhile he had ordered that the revenue collected
be sent to Chumbi (in Tibet), a clear sign of his intention
not to return to Sikkim.
• Tibetan government dispatched an expedition of 300
soldiers that crossed the Jelap La and occupied Lingtu
around thirteen miles into Sikkim.
• In 1889, British sent an expeditionary force (army) to evict
the Tibetan army. Battle raged. Tibetans retreated.
• The Tibetan hostility towards the British’s interest in Sikkim
came to an end with the signing of the Anglo- Chinese
(Tibet) Convention at Calcutta in 1890..
• In 1888, British appointed the First ever Political Officer
in Gangtok JOHN CLAUDE WHITE, who remained in
Sikkim along with his family for the next 20 years.
• CHOGYAL THUTOB NAMGYAL shifted capital from
TUMLONG to GANGTOK in 1894
• The British during it’s rule never wanted to turn Sikkim
into a colony, BUT WANTED only to effectively control
it’s activities, to reach the Chinese and Tibetans.
• Starting from the Treaty of Titalia in 1817 to British
withdrawal from India in 1947, the British remained in
Sikkimese scene for 130 years.
(End of British incursion)
CHOGYALS OF SIKKIM
1. PHUNTSOG NAMGYAL – 1642-1670 (Capital-
Yuksom)
2. TENSUNG NAMGYAL – 1670-1700. Not much is
known of him. (Capital-Rabdentse, Nepal
border)
3. CHAGDOR NAMGYAL – 1700-1717. “All
victorious Thunderbolt bearer”, pious Buddhist.
Started the festival of masked dances called
Pang Lhabsol celebrating the blood
brotherhood. Bhutan invaded.
4. CHOGYAL GURMED NAMGYAL – 1717-1733. The
kingdom faced many raids by Nepalese in the
West and Bhutanese in the East, resuting in the
destruction of the capital Rabdentse.
5. PHUNTSOG NAMGYAL II – 1733-1780. Animal
taxation started. Magars enraged. Sikkim Magar
allegiance lost forever.
Bhutan invaded Sikkim and captured all land east of
teesta.
Nepal Gurkhas under Prithvi Narayan Shah attacke
Sikkim. Sikkim beat Gorkha invasion 17 times.
Peace Treaty signed with Nepal in 1775
6. TENZING NAMGYAL – 1780-1793. Nepali forces
occupied large chunks of Skm territory. Attacked
Rabdentse. Bhutias fled to Tibet. This led to Chinese
intervention & Nepal was defeated. Chogyal died
there in exile.
7. TSHUDUP NAMGYAL – 1793-1863.Longest reigning
Chogyal of Skm. Capital shifted to Tumlong.
Anglo – Nepal war 1814-1816.
Treaty of Sagauli, 1816
Treaty of Titalia, 1817
Darjeeling gifted – Deed of Grant, 1835
Treaty of Tumlong, 1861
8. SIDKEONG NAMGYAL – 1863-1874.
9. THUTOB NAMGYAL – 1874-1914. John Claude
White appointed the first PO of Skm in 1889.
Capital shifted from Tumlong to Gangtok in 1894.
10. SIDKEONG TULKU NAMGYAL – 1914. The
shortest-reigning Chogyal of Sikkim, ruled from 10
February to 5 December 1914. Died of heart
failure, aged 35, in most suspicious circumstances.
11. TASHI NAMGYAL – 1914-1963. Treaty between
India and Sikkim was signed in 1950, giving
India suzerainty over Sikkim.
12. PALDEN THONDUP NAMGYAL – 1963-1975.
Forced to abdicate after illness. Married Hope
Cooke, a US citizen. Died in 1982.
The son from the first marriage of Palden Thondup
Namgyal, Wangchuk Namgyal, was named the 13th
Chogyal after his father's death on 29 January 1982,
but the position no longer confers any official
authority.
DEMOCRATIC SIKKIM
Political developments in Sikkim
after 1947
• The British left a heritage behind in 1947, in
which the Nepalese were pitted
(disappointment) against the Lepcha-Bhutia…
who then themselves were pitted against
each other.
Inspired by Indian Independence
movement, some educated Sikkimese
came forward to form political parties…
• Tashi Tshering and his party PRAJA
SUDHARAK SAMAJ (East district-Gangtok)
• Gobardhan Pradhan and his PRAJA
SAMMELAN (South district-Namchi)
• Lhendup Dorji Khangsarpa and his PRAJA
MANDAL (West District-Galyshing)
On 7th
, December 1947…
• These 3 parties were merged together
formally to form a new party called SIKKIM
STATE CONGRESS (SSC)
• TASHI TSHERING was elected the President of
this party.
SSC put forward their 3-fold
demand to the Chogyal
1. Abolition of landlordism
2. Formation of interim Govt. as a precursor of
a democratic & responsible Govt.
3. Accession(addition) of Sikkim to the Indian
Union
SSC started to impart political education to the
masses and gained a lot of popularity.
• Chogyal TASHI NAMGYAL formed the SIKKIM
NATIONAL PARTY (SNP)
• From it’s very inception SNP remained under the
leadership of the affluent Bhutias with the backing of
the lamas.
• The party stood for an independent Sikkim with
special treaty with India
• Could not gain popularity as SSC.
After prolonged negotiation between
the parties…
• Chogyal agreed to install a 5 membered interim govt.
including his 2 nominees.
• In this way the first democratic Govt. of Sikkim was
installed in 9th
May, 1949.
• Tashi Tshering (Leader), Dimik Singh Lepcha and C.D.Rai
• Chogyal’s nominees – Dorji Dadul & Reshmi Prasad Alley
PROBLEMS of the interim Govt…
• The power & function of the ministry was not defined.
• On most important issues the Chogyal disagreed with
the ministry.
• Chogyal refused to introduce administrative reforms.
• Tension remained & increased within the ministry.
• Ministry was dismissed on 6th
June 1949 on the grounds
of “threat of disorder” by political officer of Govt. of
India.
GOI issued a statement on 20th
March
1950…
• New treaty was to be signed between India & Sikkim
• Both parties agreed that Sikkim would continue to be an
Indian protectorate in respect of external relations,
defence and communication
• Sikkim would have her internal autonomy(self Govt.)
• GOI would be responsible for maintenance of good
administration and law & order…
• Both parties also agreed to institute village Panchayats
INDO-SIKKIMESE TREATY, 1950
• Thus the INDO- SIKKIMESE TREATY enshrining
these principles were signed at Gangtok on 5th
December 1950 by Chogyal TASHI NAMGYAL
and Harishwar Dayal, the political officer in
Sikkim representing India.
Points agreed on the treaty were..
1. All previous treaties between Sikkim govt & British are
cancelled.
2. Sikkim will continue to be protectorate of India but will
enjoy autonomy in its internal affairs
3. GOI will be responsible for its defense & territorial
integrity. GOI will have right to station troops in Sikkim.
4. Govt. of Sikkim shall not import any arms, ammunities,
military stores, war materials without the consent of GOI
5. The external relations of Sikkim, whether political,
economic, or financial can be conducted by GOI.
6. Subjects of Sikkim travelling to foreign countries shall be
treated as Indian protected persons
7. The GOI & Sikkim agrees not to levy(impose tax, fee,etc)
any import duty, transit duty, on each other’s products.
8. Subjects of Sikkim can enter and freely move within India,
and Indian nationals can too enter & freely move around
Sikkim.
9. Sikkim subjects & Indian nationals can carry on trade &
commerce, acquire, hold & dispose any property in India &
Sikkim respectively.
10. Indians in Sikkim, & Sikkimese in India shall be subject to
the laws of Sikkim & India respectively.
11. The Govt. of Sikkim shall seize & deliver any fugitive offender from
outside Sikkim who has taken refuge in Sikkim.
12. Indian police may follow the offender in any part of Sikkim & on
showing a signed warrant receive all assistance & protection from
Sikkim.
13. The GOI agrees similarly
14. The GOI desirous of assisting in the development & good
administration of Sikkim agrees to pay a sum of Rs. 3 lakhs/ year as
long as the terms of the treaty are observed by the Govt. of Sikkim
15. The GOI shall have a right to appoint a representative to reside in
Sikkim.
16. If any dispute arises in the interpretation of the provisions of this
Treaty, the dispute shall be referred to the Chief Justice of India,
whose decision thereon will be final.
17. The treaty shall come to force from the date of signature by both
parties.
• After Indo Sikkim treaty of 1950, the political parties of
Sikkim fought the local & general elections which were held
in 1951, 1953, 1958, 1967, 1970, 1973.
• In 1951, the parity system was formed before the general
election of 1953.
• Acc. To the parity system the seats for the state council
was equally divided among the Lepcha-Bhutia, Nepalese
community & the Chogyal (6 each).
• In 1955, a High Court was established and Chief Judge was
appointed from among the Indian judges.
• Also 4 district magistrates at the District level headed by a
Chief Magistrate at Gangtok too were appointed
1960s..
• The weakness of Sikkim people lied in the
existence of small political parties holding
divergent and often conflicting views.
• Thus all the small parties were merged into
one compact party called SIKKIM NATIONAL
CONGRESS (SNC) on 20th
May 1960 at a
convention held in Singtam.
Demands of SNC..
1. Establishment of responsible govt.
2. A written constitution
3. Universal adult franchise based on Joint
electorate.
• Between 3rd
& 4th
general elections (1967-1970) a new party
called SIKKIM JANATA PARTY (SJP) was formed.
• On 15th
August 1972, SSC & SJP joined to form SIKKIM
JANATA CONGRESS (SJC)
• The 5th
general election was held on 10th
& 23rd
January 1973.
There were 3 parties in the electoral battle-
• SNP-SIKKIM NATIONAL PARTY
• SNC-SIKKIM NATIONAL CONGRESS
• SJC-SIKKIM JANATA CONGRESS
th
• The 2 congress parties SNC & SJC formed the JOINT
ACTION COMMITTEE (JAC) under the chairmanship
of L.D.Kazi
• Their demands were-
1.Full fledged democracy
2.Written constitution
3.Fundamental rights
4.One man one vote principle based on adult
franchise
5.Abolition of parity formula
• The administration (Govt) was busy organising the Golden
Jubilee Celebration of Chogyal’s 50th birthday on “4th
April,
1973.
• On the other hand JAC (Joint action committee) served an
ultimatum that if their demands were not met before 4th
April, they would not allow the celebrations to be held.
• The administration went ahead with the celebration
arrangements..
On the day of the celebration..
• Thousands of demonstrators poured into Gangtok from
other parts of Sikkim
• They clashed with the police, leading to serious lathi –
charge
• Situation got out of control
• Chogyal realized that he could not any longer continue in
power
• Chogyal thus requested GOI to intervene and restore law
& order in Sikkim & to take over the administration as
well.
• JAC & SNP too made similar requests.
TRIPARTITE AGREEMENT
• Chogyal, Indian Foreign secretary and 5
representatives from among SNP, SNC and SJC
signed the Tripartite Agreement on 8th
May, 1973.
• The Agreement envisaged the future constitutional
set up and Sikkim’s relation with India.
Agreement included..
• Legislative Assembly elected on the basis of one
man one vote principle.
• Cabinet responsible to the State Assembly
• Independence of judiciary & rights of the
minorities guaranteed
• India will provide the head of the
administration to ensure good administration,
communal harmony, & rapid economic & social
development.
1974
• Chief Minister L.D Kazi approached New Delhi
and representation Sikkim in the body of India
politices.
• The GOI acted in accordance by introducing the
36th
Constitutional Amendment Bill in the Indian
Parliament.
• This bill proposed to give Sikkim the status of an
“Associate State of India” & representation of
Sikkim in the Indian Parliament
14th
April, 1975
• 57 polling booths for casting 97,000 votes were
spread over Sikkim
• 97% of the voters voted in favour of the
resolution removing P.T.Namgyal as Chogyal of
Sikkim.
• Thus in 1975 Sikkim joined India as one of the
federating units..i.e. Sikkim merged with India
becoming one of it’s 22nd
state
• Sikkim became the 22nd Indian State on April
26, 1975.
• On May 16, 1975, Sikkim officially became a
state of the Indian Union and Lhendup Dorji Kazi
became head of State (chief minister).
• This was promptly recognised by the United
Nations and all countries except China.
• The position of Chogyal was thus abolished,
ending the monarchy. In 1982, Palden Thondup
Namgyal succumbed to cancer in the United
States.
Kazi Lhendup Dorjee Khangsarpa- First
Democratic Chief Minister of Sikkim
SIKKIM POLITICS AFTER 1975
• L.D. Kazi was born & brought up in feudal (old
fashion) & theocratic environment
• Could not mould himself to democratic
functioning
• Younger & popular leaders of his political
parties (SJC) parted company
• By 1979 the ruling Kazi party was reduced to a
minority in the State Assembly.
NAR BAHADUR BHANDARI
• Born on 5th
October 1940, West District
• He joined anti- Chogyal movement in 1973
• He formed his own political party Sikkim Janata
Parishad to oppose Kazi’s party
• He contested the first general election supported
by former Chogyal & his loyalists in October 1979
and won the elections
• A month before the 1st
general elections the
notorious Parity System was abolished by the
GOI.
• Out of the 32 seats
• 12 seats was reserved for Lepcha- Bhutia
• 1 seat for sangha (monk body)
• 2 seats for scheduled castes
• Rest 17 seats declared general
• Sikkimese Nepalis were not pleased with this
• They had presumed all the remaining seats would
be allotted to them
• Nar Bahadur Bhandari turned to be the spokesman of the Nepali
grievances & raised 3 demands through the 1980s…
1. Reservation of the general seats for the Sikkimese Nepalis
2. Granting citizenship to the stateless Nepali residing in Sikkim
since long
3. Recognition of the Nepali language by GOI & getting it listed
among the Indian languages as per provision of the VIII schedule
of the Indian constitution.
 Bhandari managed to accomplish the first 2 demands
satisfactorily and last demand was accomplished by his wife- Dil
kumari Bhandari in 20th
Aug 1992 in 38th
Amendment Act.
• N.B. Bhandari all through 15 years as the CM
of Sikkim fought for the cause of Sikkimese
Nepalis
• He won the general elections of 1979, ‘84,’89
and was CM till 1994.
• In 1984, he formed another regional political
party – Sikkim Sangram Parishad (SSP)
B.B Gurung/Sanchaman subba
PAWAN KUMAR CHAMLING
• Born on
• MLA since 1984 on SSP ticket
• 17th
June 1992 was dropped from party due to
differences
• 4th
MARCH 1993 he formed his own political
party Sikkim Democratic Front (SDF)
Objectives of SDF
1. Getting the recommendations of the
Backward Commission
2. Fighting against the allegedly prevalent
corruption
1994
• Bhandari was voted out of office of Chief Minister
• 2nd
June 1994 – 7 communities of Sikkimese of Nepali origin
viz. Bhujel, Gurung, Limbu, Magar, Rai, Sunuwar & Tamang
were included as OBCs in Sikkim.
• Following this incident, the 4th
general election of 1994 was
won by Mr. Pawan Kr. Chamling
• 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009 & 2014 general elections saw
steady increase in political support for SDF &
simultaneously decline in political fortunes for Bhandari.
Chamling and his party thrives..
• On the issue of getting every Sikkimese community a reserved
status in terms of socio-economic backwardness.
• All communities in Sikkim has been recognized as OBC, MBC, SC or
ST.
• In 1994 SDF won
• In 1999 SDF won
• In 2004 SDF won 31 out of 32 seats
• In 2009 SDF won all 32 seats
• In 2014 SDF won 21 seats
• Waiting for 2019 election…
History of sikkim

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History of sikkim

  • 2. INTRODUCTION • History of Sikkim can be divided into three different phases – 1.Establishment of Namgyal dynasty 2.British incursion in Sikkim 3.Democratic Sikkim
  • 3. 1) ESTABLISHMENT OF NAMGYAL DYNASTY • LEPCHAS (Rongs) – Original inhabitants of Sikkim • MAGAR & LIMBU – Among the earliest settlers of Sikkim • KIRATI TRIBE
  • 4. 9th Century… • Guru Rinpoche • Blessed the land • Introduced Buddhism • Foretold the Era of Monarchy
  • 5. • Tibetans called Sikkim “DENJONG” meaning “THE VALLEY OF RICE” • India as “dark green bamboo country” • CHUMBI VALLEY…east of Sikkim in Tibet… flatland…good for cultivation
  • 6. 13th Century • Guru Tashi -Tibetan prince, represents the Bhutias • From Minyak House in Kham in Eastern Tibet • Revelation • Travel South to seek his fortunes
  • 7. • Guru Tashi came & settled in Chumbi valley • As directed by the divine vision he along with his family, which included five sons, headed in the southern direction. • came across the Sakya Kingdom in which a monastery was being built at that time. • The workers had not been successful in erecting pillars for the monastery. The elder son of Guru Tashi raised the pillar single handedly and thereby came to be known as "Kheye Bumsa" meaning the superior of ten thousand heroes. • The Sakya King offered his daughter in marriage to Khye Bumsa. • Sikkim was ruled by Lepcha Punu (King) named-Tur ve pa no around A. D. 1400.
  • 8. Khye Bumsa & wife remained childless… • Were advised to seek the blessings of Rong (Lepcha) elder THO-KONG TEK who was in Skm.. • Khye Bumsa crossed the YAKLA & PENLONG mountains & entered RONG TERRITORY • Seeked the blessing of THO-KONG TEK
  • 9. Khye Bumsa with Tho-kong Tek
  • 10. PROPHECY…. • Khye Bumsa would father of 3 sons.. • Khye Bumsa’s descendents would become the rulers of Sikkim • Rongs would become their subjects Prophecy came true
  • 11. BLOOD BROTHERWOOD… • Was sworn between khye bumsa & his family with Tho-kong Tek and his family at 'Kabi Lungchok-17km to the north from Gangtok. • Bhutias could settle in Sikkim • Two tribes would live harmoniously as friends & brothers
  • 12. INTER- MARRIAGES… • Soon the Bhutia population & the Buddhism religion became dominant in Sikkim
  • 13. 17th Century…. • 3 Tibetan monks from Nyingmapa sect came • Debated the need for sikkim to have a head or KING who will actively propagate Buddhism among the people • 5th generation descendent of Khye Bumsa was living at the time…
  • 14. PHUNTSOK NAMGYAL • In 1642, Phuntsog Namgyal was summoned to YUKSOM- “meaning meeting place of three wise men” (West Sikkim) • Consecrated by the Lamas as the first CHOGYAL (Dharma Ruler/ King) of Sikkim • Recognition from 8th Dalai Lama • Namgyal dynasty tied to Tibetan theocracy
  • 15. • Lepchas – son of the soil – good cultivators • Sikkim divided into 12 DZONGS (districts) • 12 important Lepcha chiefs called Dzongpens (governor) were allocated for each Dzong
  • 16. Boundaries of Greater Sikkim then… • North – Thangla in Tibet • East - Tagongla in Bhutan • West – Timar chorten (Tamar river, Nepal) • South – Titalia (near border of Bihar & West Bengal)
  • 17.
  • 18. 1642 - 1975 • 12 Namgyal rulers • 333 years
  • 19.
  • 20. PHUNSTOK NAMGYAL- (1642–1670) •Born-1604 •He consecrated in 1642 at the age of 38 •Expanded his borders -Chumbi valley in Tibet & parts of modern day Darjeeling in the south and some part of Nepal and Bhutan •Established YOKSAM-meaning “meeting place of three wise men” as capital of Sikkim.
  • 21. • the local Lepcha people to Buddhism • He also declared Mahayana Buddhism as the state religion • Sikkim divided into 12 DZONGS (districts) • 12 important Lepcha chiefs called Dzongpens (governor) were allocated for each Dzong • Died: 1670
  • 22. TENSUNG NAMGYAL-(1670–1700) • Born-1644 • Succeded his father Phuntsok Namgyal in 1670 • Moved capital to RABDENTSE • Married three wives-1st wife-Tibetan- Numbe ongmu -2nd wife-(Sikkimease-Bhutanese)- Debasam Serpa • -3rd wife-Limbu-(daughter of YO YO HANG)-Limbu chief
  • 24. • Limbu daughter brought with her seven girls who later married into important families of Sikkim. • Many of them rose to the rank of councilors to the kings. Councilors later came to be known as KAZI • Died: 1700
  • 25. CHADOR NAMGYAL- 1700-1717 • Minor son of Tensung Namgyal from Tensung's second wife(Bhutanese) succeeded on the death of his father • PEDI or Palden Ongmu daughter from 1st wife(Tibetan) challenged the succession and invited Bhutanese intervention • Yungthing Yeshe (a loyal minister) took the minor king to Lasa-Tibet
  • 26. • During his asylum he learned Buddhist and Tibetans literature and rose to the position of state astrologer • Dalai lama was so much pleased that he bestowed high honor and titles on the young king. He also received estate in central Tibet with sovereign rights • On the other hand Bhutanese forces had captured Rabdentse palace and imprisoned the son of Yungthing yeshe (a loyal minister) • TIBET intervened and king DEB of Bhutan withdrew
  • 27. • He came back and drove out the rest of Bhutanese forces but lost south-eastern tract of Sikkim • Bhutanese again made a second attempt to capture Sikkim territories. Chador Namgyal gave a tough resistance but areas now called KALIMPONG and RHENOCK were lost • CHADOR NAMGYAL was religious and hence he propagated Buddhist religion . He commanded that the second of every three sons of Bhutia family be a monk of Pemiongchi(Pemayangtse) Monastery, Originally built by Lhatsun Chenpo • He built GURU LHAKHANG TASHIDING (1715)
  • 28.
  • 29. • Adapted the religious dances and also invented an alphabet for Lepchas • However, PEDI conspired with a Tibetan man of medicine and killed CHADOR NAMGYAL while the king was holidaying at RALANG hot spring in 1717. • later on doctor was executed and PEDI was strangled to death by a silk scarf.
  • 30. GYURMED NAMGYAL (1717- 1733) • Born: 1707 • was the fourth Chogyal (king) of Sikkim • succeeded after his father CHADOR NAMGYAL. • the people were forced to work on the fortification of Rabdentse in the fear of GURKHAS and BHUTANESE raids
  • 31. • Many lepchas were not prepared to the force labour hence fled to LIMBUANA which became a rebel district and broke away from Sikkim even earlier to GURKHA expansion • Boundary disputes with BHUTAN also arose. • Manger chief TASHI BIDUR also revolted but was later subdued • LIMBUANA was lost to Nepal • GYURMED on his death bed at the age of 63 (1733) said that a nun in SANGA CHOLING-PELLING was carrying his child but people did not believed
  • 32. • Nun was found and she delivered a male child and he was accepted as heir to GYURMED. • He was named PHUNTSOK NAMGYAL II
  • 33. PHUNTSOK NAMGYAL II (1733-1780) • was the fifth Chogyal (king) of Sikkim • Was opposed by many people on plea of illegitimacy(the state of not being in accordance with accepted standards or rules) • CHANDZOD TAMDANG-a close confident and treasurer of GYURMED not only opposed but assured the power of the ruler and continued to rule Sikkim for three years in spite of opposition by pro-king faction
  • 34. • Lepcha backed the baby king and fought with the pretender under the leadership of CHANDZOD KARWANG-a loyal supporter of Gyurmed- lepcha leader • TAMDANG was defeated and fled to Lhasa- TIBET to seek guidance and help • But Tibetan authorities favored the minority of the king • The system of annual taxation was also introduced
  • 35. • The Mangar tribe lost its cheftian and asked the reagent to appoint the deceased’s son as chieftain • Reagent was unable to comply their demand • This act enraged the Magars and they sought the help and protection from BHUTAN Deb king • This way Sikkim lost MAGARS ALLEGIANCE FORVER • IN 1752, TSONGS rose in arms but was subdued and won over by CHANDZOD KARWANG
  • 36. Flag of Sikkim (1914-1962) Anthem Jahan Bagcha Teesta Rangeet
  • 37. • Rise of GURKHAS also posed a threat for Sikkim •Later GORKHAS inroad in Sikkim under the leadership of RAJA PRITHIVI NARAYAN SHAH of Nepal •Bhutan also invaded Sikkim and captured all area- east of TEESTA but withdrew to present frontiers after negotiation at RHENOCK • GURKHAS inroads were beaten back seventeen times
  • 38. • Peace treaty was signed with NEPAL in 1775 • Gorkhas promised to abstain from further attacks and collaboration with Bhutanese • But later Gorkhas voilated the treaty and occupied the land in western Sikkim • PHUNTSOK II had three queens. His son- TENZING NAMGYAL from his second queen in 1780 succeeded
  • 39.
  • 40. TENZING NAMGYAL (1780-1793) • was the sixth Chogyal (king) of Sikkim • Born-1769 • He married the daughter of CHANDZOD KARWANG- (A loyal Lepcha leader of Gyurmed Namgyal)- ANYO GYELUM • During his reign Nepali forces occupied large chunks of Sikkim territory
  • 41. • They attacked RABDENTSE • NEPALIS excursions emboldened them to penetrate even into Tibet. This led to the Chinese intervention and Nepal was defeated • Chogyal(Tenzing namgyal), queen and their son fled to Tibet- Lhasa and later chogyal was died there in exile in 1793. In the same year, his son TSUDPHUD NAMGYAL was sent to Sikkim to succeed him in the same year.
  • 42. TSUDPHUD NAMGYAL-(1793-1863) • Rabdantse was now considered too insecure because of its proximity to the NEPAL border and hence TSUDPHUD NAMGYAL shifted his capital to TUMLONG • Still Nepal continued to attack Sikkim and neighboring British territories • British India successfully befriended Sikkim. • Died in 1863
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45.
  • 46. Sidekeong Namgyal(1863-1874) • Sidekeong Namgyal succeeded Tsugphud Namgyal in 1863 • He was defied (openly resist or refuse to obey) in 1874 in issueless matter and was succeeded by his half brother Thutob  Namgyal. • The Britishers appointed JOHN CLAUDE WHITE as the first political officer in Sikkim in 1889 and Chogyal Thutob Namgyal was virtually under his supervision • Thutob Namgyal shifted the capital from Tumlong to Gangtok in 1894. • The Sir Thutob Namgyal Memorial (STNM) Hospital was built in 1917 is named in the memory of Thutob Namgyal who died in 1914.
  • 49. • Thutob Namgyal was succeeded by his son Sidekong Tulku in 1914. • Unfortunately he did not live long and died in the same year. • He was succeeded by his half brother Tashi Namgyal who promulgated many reforms in the state.
  • 50. • Born in Tibet and crowned by the 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso • He was a strong advocate for closer links with India. • He has introduced lots of reforms in Sikkim. • He was married in October 1918 to Kunzang Dechen, and they had 3 sons and 3 daughters. The eldest son died in a plane crash during World War-II. • Tashi Namgyal died in 1963 and was succeeded by his son Palden Thondup Namgyal.
  • 51. Reforms of Sir Tashi Namgyal • He is known for land reform and free elections • He also favoured closer links between Sikkim, India and Tibet • Abolished zamindar/jhi system • He established English medium public school in sikkim • Abolished jharlangi/kurwa/kalabhari system • Opened High Court in Sikkim(1955) • Abolished open gambling in the public
  • 52. Palden Thondup Namgyal (1923-1982) • Was born on 23 May 1923 at the Royal Palace, Park Ridge, Gangtok. • was the 12th and last Chogyal (king) of the Kingdom of Sikkim. • By the beginning of 1970 there were rumbling in the political ranks and file of the State, which demanded the removal of Monarchy and the establishment of a democratic setup. • His elder brother-Palzor Namgyal-born on 26th November, 1921 was the first and the only Pilot prince of Sikkim who was died in the plan crash on 20th December, 1941. • 16th may 1975, Sikkim become a full-fledged 22nd state of the Indian Union
  • 53. In 1963, Namgyal married Hope Cooke Palden Thondup Namgyal, 21 years old
  • 54.
  • 55. • Prince Tenzing kunzang Jigme Namgyal and princess Yangchen Dloma Namgyal • King died-1982(57)
  • 57.
  • 58. ii) British Incursions in Sikkim • British also looked forward to establish trade link with TIBET and it was felt that the route through Sikkim was the most feasible one • War between Nepal and British India broke out in 1814 and came to an end in 1816 • Nepal got defeated and signed a TREATY OF SUGAULI-1816 • British India signed another treaty with Sikkim in 1817 known as TREATY OF TITALIA
  • 59.
  • 60. ANGLO-NEPAL WAR of 1814-1816 & TREATY OF SAGAULI - 1816 • Treaty negotiated on 2nd december, 1815 • British asked Nepal to surrender all the fertile flatlands of Terai
  • 61. • Then PM of Nepal, Bhim Sen Thapa refused • Hostilities broke out again • War continued for several more months • Battle of Makawanpur(Neapl)- British won • Gorkha’s declared peace • 4th march 1816 – Treaty of Sagauli signed
  • 62. Significance of Treaty of Sagauli • Gorkha military expansion stopped • Nepal’s border restricted to today’s current border ( between Mechi and Makhali river) • Treaty prevented territory-hungry East India company to claim any land from Nepal
  • 63.
  • 64. TREATY OF TITALIA-1817 • Signed between Sikkim & British • On 10th Febuary, 1817 • All the lost territories of Sikkim (i.e. hill territories east of river Mechi & west of Teesta) were restored back to Sikkim • Reason – British wanted to open trade route between Calcutta & Lhasa through Sikkim
  • 65.
  • 66. Points agreed under the Treaty 1. All the hill territories restored back to Sikkim 2. The Chogyal of Sikkim will refer all the disputes between Sikkim & Nepal, or any other neighbouring state, to the British government for arbitration (judgement)
  • 67. 3. If needed, He(Chogyal) himself & all his successors will join the British Troops with the whole of the military force, when employed in the hills, and will give the British troop every aid and facility possible.
  • 68. 4. He will not permit any British, European or American subject to reside within Sikkim without the permission of the British government. 5. Chogyal will not provide any protection to defaulters of revenue; he will immediately seize & deliver any dacoits or notorious offenders that may take refuge within his territories.
  • 69. 6. The honourable East India Company guarantees to the Sikkim Chogyal & his successors the full and peaceful possession of the hilly country specified in the first point of the Treaty.
  • 70. 7. This Treaty was ratified and exchanged by the Chogyal of Sikkim within one month. The counter part when confirmed by the British Govenor General, shall be transmitted to the Chogyal. Done at Titalia, this 10th of Febuary, 1817.
  • 71. After Treaty of Titalia… • British started to increase their influence in Sikkm • In 1835, British forced the Bhutia rulers of Sikkim to gift Darjeeling as a Sanatorium • Englishmen were facing problems due to the hot humid climate and wanted to getaway to a cooler nearer station for vacation..
  • 72. Deed of Grant, 1835 • Darjeeling was gifted to East India Company by the Chogyal of Sikkim “out of friendship” • “All lands south of the Great Rangit rivers, east of Balason, Kahail and little Rangit rivers, and west of Rangpo and Mahanadi rivers” • annual grant of Rs. 6000/- to the Maharaja of Sikkim • Gift deed was signed by the Chogyal TSUDPHUD NAMGYAL in 1835
  • 73. Darjeeling provided… • Facilities in free trade • Extensive forest land – good for cultivation • This caused no. of Lepchas & Nepalese to migrate & settle there.
  • 74. Deed of Grant threatened.. • Monopoly of trade of Bhutia families • Aged population(old settler) & inter-tribal relations in Sikkim • Relation of Sikkim with Bhutan, Nepal and Tibet.
  • 75. Tibet’s action.. • Restricted Chogyal’s visit to Lhasa • Took away grazing rights of Sikkimese on the border areas of Tibet.
  • 76. To tackle the displeasure of Tibet.. • In 1847, Chogyal of Skm appointed a Tibetan person having strong anti- British conviction TOKYANG DEWAN NAMGYEL as his Prime Minister. • Nevertheless, hostilities between Sikkim, Tibet and British worsened esp. between 1850 – 1860. • Namgyel (Tokhang Dewan Namgyal) and his men misbehaved, kidnapped & molested the British people n troops sanctioned in Sikkim.
  • 77. • The relations deteriorated to such an extent that when Dr. Campbell, the Superintendent of Darjeeling and botanist Dr. J.D. Hooker visited Sikkim in connection with the latter's botanical research, they were captured and imprisoned in 1849. The British issued an ultimatum and the two captives were released after a month of detention. • In February 1850, an expedition was sent to Sikkim, which resulted in the stoppage of the annual grant of Rs. 6000/- to the Maharaja of Sikkim and also the annexation of Darjeeling and a great portion of Sikkim (Terai, Morang) to British India.
  • 78. • Sikkim resorted to making attacks into British territories and it was in November 1860 that the British sent an expeditionary force to Sikkim. This force was driven back from Rinchenpong in west-Sikkim. A stronger force (army of 2000) was sent in 1861 that resulted in the capture of the capital Tumlong.
  • 79. • This led to signing of Peace Treaty in Tumlong (Skm Capital) on 28th , March 1861 • According to this Treaty, Sikkim became a British dependency
  • 80.
  • 81. Treaty of Tumlong, 1861 1. All previous treaties made between the British Govt & the Skm govt. were cancelled. 2. The whole Skm territory under British was restored back to the Chogyal (Tshudup Namgyal), & there shall be peace & amity between the two states. 3. Chogyal will restore all property left by British troops at Rinchinpong. 4. The Govt of Skm engages that its subjects shall never again commit degradations on British territory, or kidnap & molest British subjects. In event of any such happening the govt of Skm will handle up all the persons involved in such malpractice.
  • 82. 5. The govt. of Skm will seize & deliver up criminals, defaulters, who have taken refuge within its territory. The police of the Brit. Govt. can follow such offender in any part of the Skm territory & shall receive protection or assistance from the Skm govt. 6. The late misunderstandings between the two govts. Were mainly due to the acts of EX- Dewan Namgyal
  • 83. 7. No duties or fees of any sort shall be developed by the Skm govt of any persons on account of goods exported into the British territories from Skm, or imported into Skm from British territories. 8. The govt of Skm will abstain (formally decline) from any acts of aggression or hostility against any of the neighbouring states which are allies of the British govt. If any questions or disputes arise between people of Sikkim & neighbouring states, it will be referred to British Govt for arbitration(dispute) and the Skm govt will abide by the decision of Brit govt.
  • 84. 9. The govt of Skm will not cede or lease any portion of it’s territory to another state without the permission of the Brit govt. 10. The govt of Skm shall not allow any armed force belonging to any other country to pass through Skm without the sanction of the Brit. Govt.
  • 85. Scenario after Treaty of Tumlong.. • Chogyal SIDEKONG NAMGYAL succeeded TSUDPHUD NAMGYAL in 1863 • Following the treaty of Tumlong, the British encouraged the Nepalese settlers to reclaim the wasteland, open copper mines, and work in road construction, agriculture, trade, etc. • Bhutias could not reconcile (restore friendly relations) themselves to Nepalese settlement • Tibet and China feared that if left unopposed, the British would encroach into Tibet through Sikkim.
  • 86. • Chogyal (Thutob Namgyal) was restricted to spending no more than three months in Tibet but he frequently ignored this provision and in 1887, after having resided for almost two years in Tibet he declined to travel to Darjeeling to meet with the Lieutenant-Governor arguing that the Amban(high official) in Lhasa had forbidden him to do so. Meanwhile he had ordered that the revenue collected be sent to Chumbi (in Tibet), a clear sign of his intention not to return to Sikkim. • Tibetan government dispatched an expedition of 300 soldiers that crossed the Jelap La and occupied Lingtu around thirteen miles into Sikkim.
  • 87. • In 1889, British sent an expeditionary force (army) to evict the Tibetan army. Battle raged. Tibetans retreated. • The Tibetan hostility towards the British’s interest in Sikkim came to an end with the signing of the Anglo- Chinese (Tibet) Convention at Calcutta in 1890..
  • 88. • In 1888, British appointed the First ever Political Officer in Gangtok JOHN CLAUDE WHITE, who remained in Sikkim along with his family for the next 20 years. • CHOGYAL THUTOB NAMGYAL shifted capital from TUMLONG to GANGTOK in 1894 • The British during it’s rule never wanted to turn Sikkim into a colony, BUT WANTED only to effectively control it’s activities, to reach the Chinese and Tibetans. • Starting from the Treaty of Titalia in 1817 to British withdrawal from India in 1947, the British remained in Sikkimese scene for 130 years. (End of British incursion)
  • 89.
  • 90. CHOGYALS OF SIKKIM 1. PHUNTSOG NAMGYAL – 1642-1670 (Capital- Yuksom) 2. TENSUNG NAMGYAL – 1670-1700. Not much is known of him. (Capital-Rabdentse, Nepal border) 3. CHAGDOR NAMGYAL – 1700-1717. “All victorious Thunderbolt bearer”, pious Buddhist. Started the festival of masked dances called Pang Lhabsol celebrating the blood brotherhood. Bhutan invaded.
  • 91. 4. CHOGYAL GURMED NAMGYAL – 1717-1733. The kingdom faced many raids by Nepalese in the West and Bhutanese in the East, resuting in the destruction of the capital Rabdentse. 5. PHUNTSOG NAMGYAL II – 1733-1780. Animal taxation started. Magars enraged. Sikkim Magar allegiance lost forever. Bhutan invaded Sikkim and captured all land east of teesta. Nepal Gurkhas under Prithvi Narayan Shah attacke Sikkim. Sikkim beat Gorkha invasion 17 times. Peace Treaty signed with Nepal in 1775
  • 92. 6. TENZING NAMGYAL – 1780-1793. Nepali forces occupied large chunks of Skm territory. Attacked Rabdentse. Bhutias fled to Tibet. This led to Chinese intervention & Nepal was defeated. Chogyal died there in exile. 7. TSHUDUP NAMGYAL – 1793-1863.Longest reigning Chogyal of Skm. Capital shifted to Tumlong. Anglo – Nepal war 1814-1816. Treaty of Sagauli, 1816 Treaty of Titalia, 1817 Darjeeling gifted – Deed of Grant, 1835 Treaty of Tumlong, 1861
  • 93. 8. SIDKEONG NAMGYAL – 1863-1874. 9. THUTOB NAMGYAL – 1874-1914. John Claude White appointed the first PO of Skm in 1889. Capital shifted from Tumlong to Gangtok in 1894. 10. SIDKEONG TULKU NAMGYAL – 1914. The shortest-reigning Chogyal of Sikkim, ruled from 10 February to 5 December 1914. Died of heart failure, aged 35, in most suspicious circumstances.
  • 94. 11. TASHI NAMGYAL – 1914-1963. Treaty between India and Sikkim was signed in 1950, giving India suzerainty over Sikkim. 12. PALDEN THONDUP NAMGYAL – 1963-1975. Forced to abdicate after illness. Married Hope Cooke, a US citizen. Died in 1982. The son from the first marriage of Palden Thondup Namgyal, Wangchuk Namgyal, was named the 13th Chogyal after his father's death on 29 January 1982, but the position no longer confers any official authority.
  • 96. Political developments in Sikkim after 1947 • The British left a heritage behind in 1947, in which the Nepalese were pitted (disappointment) against the Lepcha-Bhutia… who then themselves were pitted against each other.
  • 97. Inspired by Indian Independence movement, some educated Sikkimese came forward to form political parties… • Tashi Tshering and his party PRAJA SUDHARAK SAMAJ (East district-Gangtok) • Gobardhan Pradhan and his PRAJA SAMMELAN (South district-Namchi) • Lhendup Dorji Khangsarpa and his PRAJA MANDAL (West District-Galyshing)
  • 98. On 7th , December 1947… • These 3 parties were merged together formally to form a new party called SIKKIM STATE CONGRESS (SSC) • TASHI TSHERING was elected the President of this party.
  • 99. SSC put forward their 3-fold demand to the Chogyal 1. Abolition of landlordism 2. Formation of interim Govt. as a precursor of a democratic & responsible Govt. 3. Accession(addition) of Sikkim to the Indian Union SSC started to impart political education to the masses and gained a lot of popularity.
  • 100. • Chogyal TASHI NAMGYAL formed the SIKKIM NATIONAL PARTY (SNP) • From it’s very inception SNP remained under the leadership of the affluent Bhutias with the backing of the lamas. • The party stood for an independent Sikkim with special treaty with India • Could not gain popularity as SSC.
  • 101. After prolonged negotiation between the parties… • Chogyal agreed to install a 5 membered interim govt. including his 2 nominees. • In this way the first democratic Govt. of Sikkim was installed in 9th May, 1949. • Tashi Tshering (Leader), Dimik Singh Lepcha and C.D.Rai • Chogyal’s nominees – Dorji Dadul & Reshmi Prasad Alley
  • 102. PROBLEMS of the interim Govt… • The power & function of the ministry was not defined. • On most important issues the Chogyal disagreed with the ministry. • Chogyal refused to introduce administrative reforms. • Tension remained & increased within the ministry. • Ministry was dismissed on 6th June 1949 on the grounds of “threat of disorder” by political officer of Govt. of India.
  • 103. GOI issued a statement on 20th March 1950… • New treaty was to be signed between India & Sikkim • Both parties agreed that Sikkim would continue to be an Indian protectorate in respect of external relations, defence and communication • Sikkim would have her internal autonomy(self Govt.) • GOI would be responsible for maintenance of good administration and law & order… • Both parties also agreed to institute village Panchayats
  • 104. INDO-SIKKIMESE TREATY, 1950 • Thus the INDO- SIKKIMESE TREATY enshrining these principles were signed at Gangtok on 5th December 1950 by Chogyal TASHI NAMGYAL and Harishwar Dayal, the political officer in Sikkim representing India.
  • 105. Points agreed on the treaty were.. 1. All previous treaties between Sikkim govt & British are cancelled. 2. Sikkim will continue to be protectorate of India but will enjoy autonomy in its internal affairs 3. GOI will be responsible for its defense & territorial integrity. GOI will have right to station troops in Sikkim. 4. Govt. of Sikkim shall not import any arms, ammunities, military stores, war materials without the consent of GOI
  • 106. 5. The external relations of Sikkim, whether political, economic, or financial can be conducted by GOI. 6. Subjects of Sikkim travelling to foreign countries shall be treated as Indian protected persons 7. The GOI & Sikkim agrees not to levy(impose tax, fee,etc) any import duty, transit duty, on each other’s products. 8. Subjects of Sikkim can enter and freely move within India, and Indian nationals can too enter & freely move around Sikkim. 9. Sikkim subjects & Indian nationals can carry on trade & commerce, acquire, hold & dispose any property in India & Sikkim respectively. 10. Indians in Sikkim, & Sikkimese in India shall be subject to the laws of Sikkim & India respectively.
  • 107. 11. The Govt. of Sikkim shall seize & deliver any fugitive offender from outside Sikkim who has taken refuge in Sikkim. 12. Indian police may follow the offender in any part of Sikkim & on showing a signed warrant receive all assistance & protection from Sikkim. 13. The GOI agrees similarly 14. The GOI desirous of assisting in the development & good administration of Sikkim agrees to pay a sum of Rs. 3 lakhs/ year as long as the terms of the treaty are observed by the Govt. of Sikkim 15. The GOI shall have a right to appoint a representative to reside in Sikkim. 16. If any dispute arises in the interpretation of the provisions of this Treaty, the dispute shall be referred to the Chief Justice of India, whose decision thereon will be final. 17. The treaty shall come to force from the date of signature by both parties.
  • 108. • After Indo Sikkim treaty of 1950, the political parties of Sikkim fought the local & general elections which were held in 1951, 1953, 1958, 1967, 1970, 1973. • In 1951, the parity system was formed before the general election of 1953. • Acc. To the parity system the seats for the state council was equally divided among the Lepcha-Bhutia, Nepalese community & the Chogyal (6 each). • In 1955, a High Court was established and Chief Judge was appointed from among the Indian judges. • Also 4 district magistrates at the District level headed by a Chief Magistrate at Gangtok too were appointed
  • 109. 1960s.. • The weakness of Sikkim people lied in the existence of small political parties holding divergent and often conflicting views. • Thus all the small parties were merged into one compact party called SIKKIM NATIONAL CONGRESS (SNC) on 20th May 1960 at a convention held in Singtam.
  • 110. Demands of SNC.. 1. Establishment of responsible govt. 2. A written constitution 3. Universal adult franchise based on Joint electorate.
  • 111. • Between 3rd & 4th general elections (1967-1970) a new party called SIKKIM JANATA PARTY (SJP) was formed. • On 15th August 1972, SSC & SJP joined to form SIKKIM JANATA CONGRESS (SJC) • The 5th general election was held on 10th & 23rd January 1973. There were 3 parties in the electoral battle- • SNP-SIKKIM NATIONAL PARTY • SNC-SIKKIM NATIONAL CONGRESS • SJC-SIKKIM JANATA CONGRESS th
  • 112. • The 2 congress parties SNC & SJC formed the JOINT ACTION COMMITTEE (JAC) under the chairmanship of L.D.Kazi • Their demands were- 1.Full fledged democracy 2.Written constitution 3.Fundamental rights 4.One man one vote principle based on adult franchise 5.Abolition of parity formula
  • 113. • The administration (Govt) was busy organising the Golden Jubilee Celebration of Chogyal’s 50th birthday on “4th April, 1973. • On the other hand JAC (Joint action committee) served an ultimatum that if their demands were not met before 4th April, they would not allow the celebrations to be held. • The administration went ahead with the celebration arrangements..
  • 114. On the day of the celebration.. • Thousands of demonstrators poured into Gangtok from other parts of Sikkim • They clashed with the police, leading to serious lathi – charge • Situation got out of control • Chogyal realized that he could not any longer continue in power • Chogyal thus requested GOI to intervene and restore law & order in Sikkim & to take over the administration as well. • JAC & SNP too made similar requests.
  • 115. TRIPARTITE AGREEMENT • Chogyal, Indian Foreign secretary and 5 representatives from among SNP, SNC and SJC signed the Tripartite Agreement on 8th May, 1973. • The Agreement envisaged the future constitutional set up and Sikkim’s relation with India.
  • 116. Agreement included.. • Legislative Assembly elected on the basis of one man one vote principle. • Cabinet responsible to the State Assembly • Independence of judiciary & rights of the minorities guaranteed • India will provide the head of the administration to ensure good administration, communal harmony, & rapid economic & social development.
  • 117. 1974 • Chief Minister L.D Kazi approached New Delhi and representation Sikkim in the body of India politices. • The GOI acted in accordance by introducing the 36th Constitutional Amendment Bill in the Indian Parliament. • This bill proposed to give Sikkim the status of an “Associate State of India” & representation of Sikkim in the Indian Parliament
  • 118. 14th April, 1975 • 57 polling booths for casting 97,000 votes were spread over Sikkim • 97% of the voters voted in favour of the resolution removing P.T.Namgyal as Chogyal of Sikkim. • Thus in 1975 Sikkim joined India as one of the federating units..i.e. Sikkim merged with India becoming one of it’s 22nd state
  • 119. • Sikkim became the 22nd Indian State on April 26, 1975. • On May 16, 1975, Sikkim officially became a state of the Indian Union and Lhendup Dorji Kazi became head of State (chief minister). • This was promptly recognised by the United Nations and all countries except China. • The position of Chogyal was thus abolished, ending the monarchy. In 1982, Palden Thondup Namgyal succumbed to cancer in the United States.
  • 120. Kazi Lhendup Dorjee Khangsarpa- First Democratic Chief Minister of Sikkim
  • 121.
  • 122. SIKKIM POLITICS AFTER 1975 • L.D. Kazi was born & brought up in feudal (old fashion) & theocratic environment • Could not mould himself to democratic functioning • Younger & popular leaders of his political parties (SJC) parted company • By 1979 the ruling Kazi party was reduced to a minority in the State Assembly.
  • 123. NAR BAHADUR BHANDARI • Born on 5th October 1940, West District • He joined anti- Chogyal movement in 1973 • He formed his own political party Sikkim Janata Parishad to oppose Kazi’s party • He contested the first general election supported by former Chogyal & his loyalists in October 1979 and won the elections
  • 124. • A month before the 1st general elections the notorious Parity System was abolished by the GOI. • Out of the 32 seats • 12 seats was reserved for Lepcha- Bhutia • 1 seat for sangha (monk body) • 2 seats for scheduled castes • Rest 17 seats declared general • Sikkimese Nepalis were not pleased with this • They had presumed all the remaining seats would be allotted to them
  • 125. • Nar Bahadur Bhandari turned to be the spokesman of the Nepali grievances & raised 3 demands through the 1980s… 1. Reservation of the general seats for the Sikkimese Nepalis 2. Granting citizenship to the stateless Nepali residing in Sikkim since long 3. Recognition of the Nepali language by GOI & getting it listed among the Indian languages as per provision of the VIII schedule of the Indian constitution.  Bhandari managed to accomplish the first 2 demands satisfactorily and last demand was accomplished by his wife- Dil kumari Bhandari in 20th Aug 1992 in 38th Amendment Act.
  • 126. • N.B. Bhandari all through 15 years as the CM of Sikkim fought for the cause of Sikkimese Nepalis • He won the general elections of 1979, ‘84,’89 and was CM till 1994. • In 1984, he formed another regional political party – Sikkim Sangram Parishad (SSP)
  • 128. PAWAN KUMAR CHAMLING • Born on • MLA since 1984 on SSP ticket • 17th June 1992 was dropped from party due to differences • 4th MARCH 1993 he formed his own political party Sikkim Democratic Front (SDF)
  • 129. Objectives of SDF 1. Getting the recommendations of the Backward Commission 2. Fighting against the allegedly prevalent corruption
  • 130. 1994 • Bhandari was voted out of office of Chief Minister • 2nd June 1994 – 7 communities of Sikkimese of Nepali origin viz. Bhujel, Gurung, Limbu, Magar, Rai, Sunuwar & Tamang were included as OBCs in Sikkim. • Following this incident, the 4th general election of 1994 was won by Mr. Pawan Kr. Chamling • 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009 & 2014 general elections saw steady increase in political support for SDF & simultaneously decline in political fortunes for Bhandari.
  • 131. Chamling and his party thrives.. • On the issue of getting every Sikkimese community a reserved status in terms of socio-economic backwardness. • All communities in Sikkim has been recognized as OBC, MBC, SC or ST. • In 1994 SDF won • In 1999 SDF won • In 2004 SDF won 31 out of 32 seats • In 2009 SDF won all 32 seats • In 2014 SDF won 21 seats • Waiting for 2019 election…