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History of
                              furniture and
                             interior design
                              a global View
                               Mark HincHMan
                                University of Nebraska, Lincoln
                                          first edition




                                   Fa i r c h i l d B o o k s , i n c .
                                           new york


                                                                                                Tp



Hinchman design 2.indd 2-3                                                4/22/09 11:35:54 AM
FMH




                                                  conte nts




                   	         Preface		                                              0
                   		        acknowledgments	                                       0    chapter	14:		 neoclassical					                              000
                   chapter	1:		     Prehistory				                                   0    chapter	15:		 Victorian	and	Historical	revivals				          000
                   chapter	2:		     ancient	civilizations			                        00    chapter	16:		 reform	movements:	arts	and	crafts				          000
                   chapter	3:		     classical	civilizations			                      00    chapter	17:		   africa					                                  000
                   chapter	4:		     early	christian		Byzantine			                  00    chapter	18:		 Japan		Japanisme					                         000
                   chapter	5:		     romanesque		Islamic			                         00    chapter	19:		 art	nouveau				                                000
                   chapter	6:		     gothic				                                      00    chapter	20:		Proto	modernism				                             000
                   chapter	7:		     the	americas			                                 00    chapter	21:		   Heroic	modernism:	myths	and	realities					   000
                   chapter	8:		     from	stupa	to	Pagoda	and                              chapter	22:		art	deco,	traditional	design,
                   	         	      	 from	mat	to	chair:	china,	India,	and	cambodia		00   	    	          	   	     and	the	rise	of	the	decorato	      000
                   chapter	9:		     renaissance				                                 00    chapter	23:		other	modernisms				                            000
                   chapter	10:		 Baroque				                                      000     chapter	24:		after	modernism:	modernism	continued,	

                   chapter	11:		    rococo					                                   000     	    	          	   Postmodernism,	and	deconstruction					   000

                   chapter	12:		 england					                                     000     	    glossary				                                            000

                   chapter	13:		    In	the	colonies					                          000     	    Index				                                               000




Hinchman design 2.indd 4-5                                                                                                                                   4/22/09 11:35:54 AM
York: Knopf, 2001.
                                                                                               c H a p t e r               8                                                                     CN


                                                                                                                                                                                                 CT

                                                                 f r o M s t u Pa to Pag o da
                                                                 a n d f r o M M at to c H a i r                                                                                                 CST

                                                                 cHina , india , and caMbodia


                                             1600	–	1050	bce	    1050	–	256	bce	    221	–	206	bce	     206	BCE	–	220	ce	   618	–	907	ce	      1279-1368	ce	      1368 - 16�� ce
                                                                                                                                                                 1368	-	16��	
                                         China                                                                                                                                                   TL

                                             Shang	dynasty				   Zhou	dynasty				   Qin	dynasty				    Han	dynasty				     Tang	dynasty				   Yuan	dynasty				   �ing	dynasty
                                                                                                                                                                 �ing dynasty




                                             i
                                                                                                                                                                                                 2-li
                                                 ndia and China play major roles in Asian                                                                                                        Ahead
                                                                                                                           arcHItecture	and	                                                     +
                                                 history, both for their geographic heft and large                                                                                               Bhead
                                                                                                                              sculPture
                                             populations. A difference between them is that in
                                             its early history, India was not a consolidated entity.            china
                                             India does, however, have the considerable distinction             China plays a significant role in the fossil record of
                                             of having been the birthplace of Buddha. China is                  the earliest human habitations, including the famous
                                             the world’s longest continuous civilization, existing              Peking Man. A long and productive neolithic period
                                             as a unified cultural and political entity for some                left a variety of archeological remains, including
                                             4,000 years without interruption. In the twenty-first              geometric pottery.
                                             century China has the world’s largest population, but                  In the fourth millennium bce, a series of
                                             even in its earlier periods it had a significantly large           settlements lay in the area between the Yangzi
                                             population.                                                        River and the Yellow River. These naturally well
                                                  Cambodia is one of South East Asia’s smaller                  irrigated river valleys were conducive to agriculture.
                                             countries, but from the ninth to twelfth centuries, it             Initially there were no major urban centers, but small
                                             produced extremely fine examples of monumental                     settlements dispersed over a large area. Pottery sherds
                                             architecture and sculpture. The Hindu and Buddhist                 and the remains of a kiln date to this period.
                                             sculptures bear comparison to other representational                   One of the earliest Chinese capitals, a proto-urban
                                             sculptures, such as those of ancient Greece and                    center, Zhengzhou, relied upon the waters of the
                                             medieval Benin. They are informative about seating                 Yellow River. With Zhengzhou starts the tradition
                                             postures, just as reliefs from the temples bear the only           of each dynasty building its own capital city. A wall
                                             traces of historic Cambodian furniture.                            surrounded the rectilinear shaped enclosure that
                                                                                                                contained platforms upon which buildings stood.
                                                                                                                Tombs have been found from this time period,
                                             Fig. 8.1 Caption tk, caption tk, caption tk caption tk,
                                             caption tk, caption tk,caption tk caption tk caption tk
                                                                                                                known as Shang dynasty China. Prior to the Zhou
                                             caption tk                                                         dynasty, there were numerous linguistic groups in


                                                                                                           15



Hinchman design 2.indd 14-15                                                                                                                                               4/22/09 11:35:57 AM
16      /    History of Fu r nit u r e a n d In t e r ior D e sign                                                                           Cl a s sic a l Ci v il iz at ions          /    1

                                                                                                                                                     and material culture is an endeavor that includes          visiting a stupa was to circumnavigate the mound,
                                                                                                                                                     considering the natural landscape, the body,               clockwise. This was a processional homage but also a
                                                                                                                                                     represented body, building, and town-planning; all         somatic activity that cleared the mind of extraneous
                                                                                                                                                     are interrelated to a diagrammatic pattern known as        thoughts. At Sanchi, gateways to the precinct stand
                                                                                                                                                     the mandala, a common feature of many artworks             at the four cardinal points. The gate at the front
                                                                                                                                                     and textile designs.                                       blocks direct access, and prompts visitors to begin
                                                                                                                                                         One of the vestigial means of finding meaning on       their meditative walk.
                                                                                                                                                     Earth, proto-architecture, occurred when indigenous             The practice of visiting a stupa relates to a diagram
                                                                                                                                                     people picked out distinguishing landscape features        which relates how followers of Buddhism understand
                                                                                                                                                     and in them saw meaning. Ayer’s Rock in Australia,         themselves, their place on Earth, and Earth’s place
                                                                                                                                                     Sugarloaf Mountain in Brazil, and Chimney Rock in          in the cosmos. Over the course of centuries, stupas
                                                                                                                                                     the United States are all examples of this. Sometimes      were built through the area that is now India and
                                                                                                                                                     the natural features are so extraordinary that it          Nepal, and gradually spread eastward. While early
                                                                                                                                                     seems as though the landscapes themselves are a            stupas were solid, they were followed with structures
                                                                                                                                                     part of the selection process. Mountains and fantastic     that featured hollow domes. Stupas became more
                                                                                                                                                     promontories stand out from their surroundings and         elaborate and architectural practice increasingly
                                                                                                                                                     clearly are important, a naturally occurring example       emphasized the vertical. Sometimes the dome is
                                                                                                                                                     of rarified space.                                         emphasized with a pole at its apex, furthering the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                vertical thrust of the structure. One way of involving
                                                                                                                                                                                                                stupas with impermanent ritual was to attach a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Bhead
                                                                                                                                                     india, afghanistan, and tibet                              banner to the chattri, drawing more attention to the
                                                                                                                                                     The next step for human involvement in creating            stupa’s highest point. Hanging a banner on a stupa
                                                                                                                                                     meaning in landscape is to shape the landscape and         was a further means to personalize the experience of
  cap                   Fig. 8.3 Caption tk, caption tk, caption tk caption tk, caption tk, caption tk,caption tk caption tk caption tk caption tk   natural materials. One of the earliest shifts from         visiting the stupa. The banners that flew on stupas
                        caption tk caption tk caption tk caption tk caption tk caption tk caption tk.
                                                                                                                                                     seeing meaning in landscape to shaping landscape           are some of the oldest surviving Asian textiles, today
                                                                                                                                                     involves the burial places of Buddha’s relics. He died     protected in museums.
                        China. Zhou rulers enforced the use of Chinese,                 geographic term. It only acquired a national meaning         at Kushinagara, his body was cremated, his remains              An example of incorporating naturally oc-curring
                        thus creating a large, unified, linguistic geographical         in the twentieth century.                                    buried, and the mound of earth that covered his            forms and rendering them more elaborate occurs at the
                        group. The Zhou had cast iron production, and                                                                                remains became venerated. Over time, the mound             caves of Ajanta (fig. 8.3). There, the stupa sits within
A head
                        created two cities, Luoyang and Xian, that still exist                                                                       of earth was faced with either bricks or stone,            an interior space, yet the process of circumnavigating
                        today. The teacher and philosopher Confucius (551                     from	stuPa	to	Pagoda                                   thereby rendered permanent and more monumental,            around the stupa remains. A limit to the stupa as the
                        – 479 bce) belongs to the Zhou period. The Zhou                 Buddha is one of the names given to the teacher              and evolved into the stupa. The Stupa at Sarnath,          sole element of a Buddhist architecture is that there
                        built a ritual ancestral temple complex at Fengchi,             and enlightened one, also known as Gautama and               Darnek, in India, is a simple yet powerful stupa that      was no worship space separate from the stupa. The
                        circa 1000, which is one of the earliest versions of a          Siddhartha. He lived in Northern India and Nepal.            reveals the honest expression of facing a mound of         caves of Ajanta provided a vocabulary and form for a
                        large-scaled building based on the typical Chinese              The dates of his life are not certain, but one widely        earth with permanent material (fig. 8.1).                  larger space to house multiple devotees, and formed
                        courtyard house.                                                accepted scenario puts the years of his time on Earth             Another early stupa, the Stupa at Sanchi, is a more   the basis of subsequent Buddhist temples with
                            The English term “China” comes from the                     as 480 – 400 bce. The religion that resulted from his        elaborate architectural composition that intertwines       rectangular halls.
                        Qin dynasty (also referred to as the Ch’in dynasty).            teachings, Buddhism, celebrates the enlightenment            site, setting, and ritual (fig. 8.2). Buddhism was              Some caves were utilized as they were, some
                        Chinese people today refer to the country as ‘China’            and eventual passage of Buddha and his followers             largely a religion of meditation, involving recitation     are a combination of found configuration and
                        or ‘Zhong guo’. The latter first appeared in a                  into nirvana.                                                in front of a stupa, sculpture, or images, and later a     elaborately carved-out architectural compositions.
                        Shang Dynasty document, but it was a cultural and                   Tracing Buddhism’s effect on art, architecture,          pagoda, that housed Buddhist relics. The ritual of         (In the kingdom of Bamiyan, today Afghanistan, in




         Hinchman design 2.indd 16-17                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   4/22/09 11:35:58 AM

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History Of Furniture Design

  • 1. History of furniture and interior design a global View Mark HincHMan University of Nebraska, Lincoln first edition Fa i r c h i l d B o o k s , i n c . new york Tp Hinchman design 2.indd 2-3 4/22/09 11:35:54 AM
  • 2. FMH conte nts Preface 0 acknowledgments 0 chapter 14: neoclassical 000 chapter 1: Prehistory 0 chapter 15: Victorian and Historical revivals 000 chapter 2: ancient civilizations 00 chapter 16: reform movements: arts and crafts 000 chapter 3: classical civilizations 00 chapter 17: africa 000 chapter 4: early christian Byzantine 00 chapter 18: Japan Japanisme 000 chapter 5: romanesque Islamic 00 chapter 19: art nouveau 000 chapter 6: gothic 00 chapter 20: Proto modernism 000 chapter 7: the americas 00 chapter 21: Heroic modernism: myths and realities 000 chapter 8: from stupa to Pagoda and chapter 22: art deco, traditional design, from mat to chair: china, India, and cambodia 00 and the rise of the decorato 000 chapter 9: renaissance 00 chapter 23: other modernisms 000 chapter 10: Baroque 000 chapter 24: after modernism: modernism continued, chapter 11: rococo 000 Postmodernism, and deconstruction 000 chapter 12: england 000 glossary 000 chapter 13: In the colonies 000 Index 000 Hinchman design 2.indd 4-5 4/22/09 11:35:54 AM
  • 3. York: Knopf, 2001. c H a p t e r 8 CN CT f r o M s t u Pa to Pag o da a n d f r o M M at to c H a i r CST cHina , india , and caMbodia 1600 – 1050 bce 1050 – 256 bce 221 – 206 bce 206 BCE – 220 ce 618 – 907 ce 1279-1368 ce 1368 - 16�� ce 1368 - 16�� China TL Shang dynasty Zhou dynasty Qin dynasty Han dynasty Tang dynasty Yuan dynasty �ing dynasty �ing dynasty i 2-li ndia and China play major roles in Asian Ahead arcHItecture and + history, both for their geographic heft and large Bhead sculPture populations. A difference between them is that in its early history, India was not a consolidated entity. china India does, however, have the considerable distinction China plays a significant role in the fossil record of of having been the birthplace of Buddha. China is the earliest human habitations, including the famous the world’s longest continuous civilization, existing Peking Man. A long and productive neolithic period as a unified cultural and political entity for some left a variety of archeological remains, including 4,000 years without interruption. In the twenty-first geometric pottery. century China has the world’s largest population, but In the fourth millennium bce, a series of even in its earlier periods it had a significantly large settlements lay in the area between the Yangzi population. River and the Yellow River. These naturally well Cambodia is one of South East Asia’s smaller irrigated river valleys were conducive to agriculture. countries, but from the ninth to twelfth centuries, it Initially there were no major urban centers, but small produced extremely fine examples of monumental settlements dispersed over a large area. Pottery sherds architecture and sculpture. The Hindu and Buddhist and the remains of a kiln date to this period. sculptures bear comparison to other representational One of the earliest Chinese capitals, a proto-urban sculptures, such as those of ancient Greece and center, Zhengzhou, relied upon the waters of the medieval Benin. They are informative about seating Yellow River. With Zhengzhou starts the tradition postures, just as reliefs from the temples bear the only of each dynasty building its own capital city. A wall traces of historic Cambodian furniture. surrounded the rectilinear shaped enclosure that contained platforms upon which buildings stood. Tombs have been found from this time period, Fig. 8.1 Caption tk, caption tk, caption tk caption tk, caption tk, caption tk,caption tk caption tk caption tk known as Shang dynasty China. Prior to the Zhou caption tk dynasty, there were numerous linguistic groups in 15 Hinchman design 2.indd 14-15 4/22/09 11:35:57 AM
  • 4. 16 / History of Fu r nit u r e a n d In t e r ior D e sign Cl a s sic a l Ci v il iz at ions / 1 and material culture is an endeavor that includes visiting a stupa was to circumnavigate the mound, considering the natural landscape, the body, clockwise. This was a processional homage but also a represented body, building, and town-planning; all somatic activity that cleared the mind of extraneous are interrelated to a diagrammatic pattern known as thoughts. At Sanchi, gateways to the precinct stand the mandala, a common feature of many artworks at the four cardinal points. The gate at the front and textile designs. blocks direct access, and prompts visitors to begin One of the vestigial means of finding meaning on their meditative walk. Earth, proto-architecture, occurred when indigenous The practice of visiting a stupa relates to a diagram people picked out distinguishing landscape features which relates how followers of Buddhism understand and in them saw meaning. Ayer’s Rock in Australia, themselves, their place on Earth, and Earth’s place Sugarloaf Mountain in Brazil, and Chimney Rock in in the cosmos. Over the course of centuries, stupas the United States are all examples of this. Sometimes were built through the area that is now India and the natural features are so extraordinary that it Nepal, and gradually spread eastward. While early seems as though the landscapes themselves are a stupas were solid, they were followed with structures part of the selection process. Mountains and fantastic that featured hollow domes. Stupas became more promontories stand out from their surroundings and elaborate and architectural practice increasingly clearly are important, a naturally occurring example emphasized the vertical. Sometimes the dome is of rarified space. emphasized with a pole at its apex, furthering the vertical thrust of the structure. One way of involving stupas with impermanent ritual was to attach a Bhead india, afghanistan, and tibet banner to the chattri, drawing more attention to the The next step for human involvement in creating stupa’s highest point. Hanging a banner on a stupa meaning in landscape is to shape the landscape and was a further means to personalize the experience of cap Fig. 8.3 Caption tk, caption tk, caption tk caption tk, caption tk, caption tk,caption tk caption tk caption tk caption tk natural materials. One of the earliest shifts from visiting the stupa. The banners that flew on stupas caption tk caption tk caption tk caption tk caption tk caption tk caption tk. seeing meaning in landscape to shaping landscape are some of the oldest surviving Asian textiles, today involves the burial places of Buddha’s relics. He died protected in museums. China. Zhou rulers enforced the use of Chinese, geographic term. It only acquired a national meaning at Kushinagara, his body was cremated, his remains An example of incorporating naturally oc-curring thus creating a large, unified, linguistic geographical in the twentieth century. buried, and the mound of earth that covered his forms and rendering them more elaborate occurs at the group. The Zhou had cast iron production, and remains became venerated. Over time, the mound caves of Ajanta (fig. 8.3). There, the stupa sits within A head created two cities, Luoyang and Xian, that still exist of earth was faced with either bricks or stone, an interior space, yet the process of circumnavigating today. The teacher and philosopher Confucius (551 from stuPa to Pagoda thereby rendered permanent and more monumental, around the stupa remains. A limit to the stupa as the – 479 bce) belongs to the Zhou period. The Zhou Buddha is one of the names given to the teacher and evolved into the stupa. The Stupa at Sarnath, sole element of a Buddhist architecture is that there built a ritual ancestral temple complex at Fengchi, and enlightened one, also known as Gautama and Darnek, in India, is a simple yet powerful stupa that was no worship space separate from the stupa. The circa 1000, which is one of the earliest versions of a Siddhartha. He lived in Northern India and Nepal. reveals the honest expression of facing a mound of caves of Ajanta provided a vocabulary and form for a large-scaled building based on the typical Chinese The dates of his life are not certain, but one widely earth with permanent material (fig. 8.1). larger space to house multiple devotees, and formed courtyard house. accepted scenario puts the years of his time on Earth Another early stupa, the Stupa at Sanchi, is a more the basis of subsequent Buddhist temples with The English term “China” comes from the as 480 – 400 bce. The religion that resulted from his elaborate architectural composition that intertwines rectangular halls. Qin dynasty (also referred to as the Ch’in dynasty). teachings, Buddhism, celebrates the enlightenment site, setting, and ritual (fig. 8.2). Buddhism was Some caves were utilized as they were, some Chinese people today refer to the country as ‘China’ and eventual passage of Buddha and his followers largely a religion of meditation, involving recitation are a combination of found configuration and or ‘Zhong guo’. The latter first appeared in a into nirvana. in front of a stupa, sculpture, or images, and later a elaborately carved-out architectural compositions. Shang Dynasty document, but it was a cultural and Tracing Buddhism’s effect on art, architecture, pagoda, that housed Buddhist relics. The ritual of (In the kingdom of Bamiyan, today Afghanistan, in Hinchman design 2.indd 16-17 4/22/09 11:35:58 AM