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Politics                 Society          Achievmentz
Mesopota    Laws are based on        Large urban      First writting
mia         social class             centers          system
                                                      (cuneiform)
Tigris &    Protection of                             First code of
Euphrates   property                                  law (muraibi
                                                      code)
                                                      Invention of
                                                      wheel
Both        Kingdom                  Women work       Develpment of
                                     in farming       calendars
            Centralized rule                          math
Egypt       God-given power          Most people      Piramids
            to pharaoh               lived in small   pharmacology
Nile                                 farming
            Orotection of            villages along
            people by the            the nile
            pharaoh

                            Fernanda Hernández
Politics           Society          Achievmentz
India      Small and          Large towns      Navigation arts
           unstable                            Engineering
Indus      principalities     Caste system     skills

           No written
           laws
Both       Dynasties          Discrimination   Metalwork
           war-oriented       of women
           reigns             (submissive to   Philosophy
                              men)             (budhism &
                                               confusianism)
China      Centralized        Small farming    Use of money
           dynasty            villages
Yellow &                                       Language arts
Yangtze    Extensive          Apreciation of   develpment
           written            family
           records
                  Fernanda Hernández
Fernanda Hernández
Greece
0 Polis: city as a political unit
   0 Athens, Sparta
0 Types of Gov:
   0 Monarchy
   0 Aristocracy
   0 Democracy
   0 Oligarchy




                        Fernanda Hernández
Athens & Policies

0 Ekklesia:                       0 Senate: Patriachs
   0 Town meeting                 0 GA: Plebeyans
   0 All free men could go
                                  0 2 Consuls 1 year term
0 Boule:
                                  0 Censors for reviewing
   0 500 in 1 year term
                                    senate
   0 Legistaltion, executive
0 Deme:                           0 Tribunes to speak for
   0 Territorial unit               people
   0 Could select
     representatives

                        Fernanda Hernández
Rome foundation by estruscans

   Augustus starts empire
   • Also called Octavio
   • Made many political, social reforms

       Marcus Aurelius = Empire decline
       • End of Pax Romana

            Diocletian Divides empire in 2
            • Westen: fall into germanic tribes & Dark Age
              begins

                Bizantine Empire founded
                • eastern Half by Constantine
                • Constantinople was its capital
                           Fernanda Hernández
Politics                Society                Achievmentz
Greece     Cities= Polis           Rightful society to    Philosophical
           Mass political          citizens               development
           activity = ekklesia     Massive urban          Mathematical
                                   development            development
Both       Belic states            Slavery was            Science based
           Marine people           common                 upon greek
Mediterr                           Shared theology        Literary works
anean                                                     are based upon
sea                                                       greek models
Rome       Republic                Impose of culture to   Arquitectual
           Empire later on         other places           development
                                                          Roman empire




                             Fernanda Hernández
Country             Beliefs         Teachings
Buddha       India               Spiritual       Eightfold path

Both                             No gods, more
                                 like a
                                 philosphy
Confucious   China               Secular         Personal and
                                                 governmental
                                                 morality




                     Fernanda Hernández
Government           Economy            Religion              Art

Olmec     State                Long distant       Natural religion      Colosal
          government           trade              Shamanism             headstones
          elite priest class                      Animal spirits
          Theocracy
Mayas     Hereditary           Trade of goods     Natural gods          Public
          kingdom                                 stubborn              buildings
                                                                        Temples
                                                                        Concept of cero
Inca      Militaristic         Labor attolment    Rulers descent from   Metalurgy,
          Inherited power      clothes            sun god               symetricla
          Conquering                                                    pottery
          lands
Aztec     Central              Trade,             Natural gods,         Payed tributes
          governmet            agriculture        huitzilopochtli       to their gods
          Royal family                                                  Aztec calendar
Toltecs   Quetzalcoatl         agriculture        Quetzalcoatl: feather Chac mol,
          cultural hero                           snake tezcatlipoca    Works in stone

                                    Fernanda Hernández
Muhhamad& Islam
0 His life:                      0 Islamic Authorities
   0 Archangel Gabriel showed       0 Allah: God
     him mystical revelations
   0 He starter preaching &         0 Caliph: Muhammad
     converting people                Succesor
   0 He fled to Medina              0 Sultan: mulsim leader
   0 He returned to Arabia &
     gained control there           0 Qu’ran: Muslim Bible
0 His beliefs                    0 After the death of 4 of
   0 5 pillars of islam             the Caliphs, they decided
   0 Qu’ran                         to made a Dynasty
   0 Straight doctrine of           instead of elections. This
     salvation                      created 2:
                       Fernanda Hernández
Islam Branches
        Sunni                                      Shia

0 Mayority (90%)                           0 Believed bloodline
0 Supported Umayad                           from Muhamad is
  & elected                                  important
  caliphates.                              0 Support Dynasty &
0 Made Damascus the                          hereditary
  Capital                                    caliphate
                                           0 Rejected Umayad
  Later on Changed Capital to                Dynasty
                          Fernanda Hernández
Jesus Born during Cesar Augustus


Teachings & Gatherings of Jesus affect Roman Empire
Order, so he es sent to death (Golgota, under Pilatus)


    Saul de Tarsus (San Pablo) spread the word



          Disciples go and spread the word


 Constantine (Roman Emperor) made Edcit of Milan
                to accept Christians


         Christians start gaining throug RE


    Fernanda Hernández
     Council of Nicaea Decides theological stuff
Christianity Spread

Cause                                          Effect

                                               Church gained
                          Economical           economical support
Disciples preached                             Stablishment of Church
north
                            Political          in Roman Empire
Constantine’s mother                           Later on, papacy
was christian                                  controlss europe
Constantine wanted to
be united with his
people
People liked Catholic                          Many people converted
ideas
                              Social           to christianity
Other religions offered                        Moral values changed
very little               Fernanda Hernández
                                               to those of christians
Mongols
0 Sang dinasty was doing      0 Chingis Khan conquests:
  great in China                 0 Fail china, move to
0 Mongols were nomads              persia & turks
  who practised pastoral         0 South russia=tartars
  nomadism.                      0 Invade China
0 Their leaders where              (chanchanchan)
  called KHANS and made          0 Destroyed Baghdad =
  campaigns to size land           end muslim golden age



                    Fernanda Hernández
Fernanda Hernández
Pax Mongolica

0 Unified Asia
0 Supported the Silk Road         0 Imposed by Kublai Khan
0 Move China Technology           0 Based upon Chinese
  to europe                         costumes
                                  0 Peaceful
0 Spread diseases
                                  0 Foreigners had higher
                                    state
                                  0 Gunpowder,
                                    cunfusianism &
                                    budhism

                    Fernanda Hernández
Fernanda Hernández
Mongols Conquest

        Cause                                           Effect

Mongols had a greater                          Silk road
warrior power             Economical           Expansion of chinese
Constant threats from                          invntions
north
China asked Chingis to                         Pax mongolica
defend from other tribe    Political           Yuan Dynasty
                                               Support to foreigners
Mongols were really                            People tired of mongol
united tribes                Social            imposition
Mongols believed they                          Cultur stuck for a while
were entitled to
conquer the entire
world                     Fernanda Hernández
European Middle Ages
0 Feudal system: peasant       0 Important cities:
  were part of gained land        0 Berlin
0 Classes were strictly           0 Munich
  stablished                      0 Moscow
0 Improved agriculture,        0 Black death killed
  trade                           thousands and changed
                                  geography




                     Fernanda Hernández
Social Classes



Peasants       Knights             Nobles        King

               Fighted &         • Owned land
 Serfs who                       • Lords,
               protected
worked land                        barons, etc
              upper classes




                    Fernanda Hernández
Rennaisance 1300
0 Started in Italy                0 Attitude:
                                     0 Individualism
   0 Because of trade
                                     0 Secularism
     advantages and
                                     0 Classical Values
     financial genius
                                  0 Humanism: government
0 Patrons were those who            need to change instead of
 paid artists so they               people (Utopia)
 could develop art                0 Theory of State
                                      0 Legitimacy
                                      0 Sovereignity
                                      0 Territory

                        Fernanda Hernández
Renaissance

Cause                                             Effect
Wealth in Italy because   Economical              Cities developed artists
of financial genius &                             More Stable
trade                                             economical system
Surplus of agriculture
Important families        Political               Theory of State
supported artirsts                                States unified
(patrons)
Kingdoms settle
Rainnasance Attitude      Social                  Cultural advances in art
Urban towns and                                   and literature
middle class                                      Rise from
                                                  obscurantism

                             Fernanda Hernández
Age of Explotarion
   Mercantilism                            Motivations

0 To improve
 economy trough
                                                   God
 trade, countries
 only let their
 conquered lands to                        Glory
 trade with them.
                                                         Gold




                      Fernanda Hernández
Explorers

                  Origin                 Discovered/conquere
                                         d
Vasco da Gama     Portugal               Indian Sea
Alvarez Cabral    Portugal               Brazil
Columbus          Spain                  America
Cortés            Spain                  Mexico
Magallanes        Spain                  Cirvumnavigate the
                                         world
Pizarro           Spain                  Peru
Walter Raleighs   England                Carolina Coast



                    Fernanda Hernández
Tordecillas

0 Treaty that separated Spain & Portugal territories
0 Allowed other countries to attack Portugal.




                     Fernanda Hernández
Age of Explorations

        Cause                                         Effect

New inventions                                Mercantilism got more
Good trade = money       Economical           money to European
                                              States
                                              Exchange of products
Countries wanted                              Countries gained new
control                   Political           territories in America
Countries wanted to                           America changed of
prove their power                             government
Church wanted to                              Racial mixture
spread christianity         Social            America was subject of
Explorers wanted glory                        slavery & poverty
& adventure
                         Fernanda Hernández
Japan
  0 Protugal arrived
  0 Jesuitst wanted to convert people to Chriatianity
  0 They had a Feudal system:




Peasants       Samurais          Daimyos         Shogun



                       Fernanda Hernández
Reformation
        Cause                                           Effect

Church was getting all                          Money was now in
the money
                            Economy             hands of kings
                                                Church left without
                                                taxation = has to beg
                                                for money
Church Corruption                               Separation of States
Country leaders tired
                             Political          from Church
to follow orders from                           Many religions created
Church
Change of point of view                         Church            starts
from the Renaissance
                               Social           Inquisition to keep
They     wanted      the                        followers
promise of eternal life                         People     change     of
                                                religion
                           Fernanda Hernández
Reformants
                          Causes                    Major ch.
Luther – Lutheranism -    Church selling            Posted 95 thesis
Germany                   indulgencies              Faith gets you to
                                                    heaven
Calvin – Calvinism -      French lawyer, tired of   Spread through Europe
France                    corruption                Predestination
                          He wanted no politics
                          in religion
Henry – Anglican          He wanted to divorce      Same beliefs of RCC,
Church - England                                    different leadership
Loyola – Jesuir Order -   Church needed to          Orderof misionaires
Spain                     preserve followers        Went to many places to
                                                    preach
                             Fernanda Hernández
Henry’s Succesors

Edward
• Sick boy, died shortly afterwards


    Mary
    • Catholic Bloody Mary


         Elizabeth
         • Virgin Queen, Succesful ruler

                      Fernanda Hernández
CounterReform

0 Council of Trent
   0 Reunion to decide what does the church believe in
   0 Completely separated RCC from Protestants
0 Jesuit Order
   0 Attempet to gain back followers
0 Index
   0 Books that catholics should not read
0 Inquisition
   0 Savage acts to asure people won’t go to other church
                       Fernanda Hernández
Absolutism
        Cause                                           Effect

Surplus in wealth                              Empoverishment of
because fo trade         Economical            common people
Money owned by the                             State wasted a lot of
state- not the church                          money in luxuries
Reformation gived                              State gain strenght as a
power to monarchs          Political           central government
Raison d’etat allowed                          Conflicts between
them to do what they                           countries (provocated
wanted                                         by kings)
Common people was                              Huge gap between rich
ignorant so didn’t           Social            and poor
complain                                       Social unconfort for
Renaissance ideals of                          poverty
individualism             Fernanda Hernández
Luis XIV

0 Started governing at age 5
0 “Sun King”
0 “founder” of Royal Absolutism
0 Removed aristocrats from states to form a central gov
0 Palace of Versailles: kept his court close to him




                      Fernanda Hernández
Elizabeth I

0 Used her status of unmarried queen in her favour
0 Avoided religious wars
0 Supported arts
0 Let people had the religion they pleased




                     Fernanda Hernández
Peter the Great

0 Modernized Russia from middle ages
0 Brought experts from Europe
0 Supported arts & education
0 Made great navy
0 Saage & brutal leader




                     Fernanda Hernández
Fernanda Hernández

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Historia 1er Semestre

  • 1.
  • 2. Politics Society Achievmentz Mesopota Laws are based on Large urban First writting mia social class centers system (cuneiform) Tigris & Protection of First code of Euphrates property law (muraibi code) Invention of wheel Both Kingdom Women work Develpment of in farming calendars Centralized rule math Egypt God-given power Most people Piramids to pharaoh lived in small pharmacology Nile farming Orotection of villages along people by the the nile pharaoh Fernanda Hernández
  • 3. Politics Society Achievmentz India Small and Large towns Navigation arts unstable Engineering Indus principalities Caste system skills No written laws Both Dynasties Discrimination Metalwork war-oriented of women reigns (submissive to Philosophy men) (budhism & confusianism) China Centralized Small farming Use of money dynasty villages Yellow & Language arts Yangtze Extensive Apreciation of develpment written family records Fernanda Hernández
  • 5. Greece 0 Polis: city as a political unit 0 Athens, Sparta 0 Types of Gov: 0 Monarchy 0 Aristocracy 0 Democracy 0 Oligarchy Fernanda Hernández
  • 6. Athens & Policies 0 Ekklesia: 0 Senate: Patriachs 0 Town meeting 0 GA: Plebeyans 0 All free men could go 0 2 Consuls 1 year term 0 Boule: 0 Censors for reviewing 0 500 in 1 year term senate 0 Legistaltion, executive 0 Deme: 0 Tribunes to speak for 0 Territorial unit people 0 Could select representatives Fernanda Hernández
  • 7. Rome foundation by estruscans Augustus starts empire • Also called Octavio • Made many political, social reforms Marcus Aurelius = Empire decline • End of Pax Romana Diocletian Divides empire in 2 • Westen: fall into germanic tribes & Dark Age begins Bizantine Empire founded • eastern Half by Constantine • Constantinople was its capital Fernanda Hernández
  • 8. Politics Society Achievmentz Greece Cities= Polis Rightful society to Philosophical Mass political citizens development activity = ekklesia Massive urban Mathematical development development Both Belic states Slavery was Science based Marine people common upon greek Mediterr Shared theology Literary works anean are based upon sea greek models Rome Republic Impose of culture to Arquitectual Empire later on other places development Roman empire Fernanda Hernández
  • 9. Country Beliefs Teachings Buddha India Spiritual Eightfold path Both No gods, more like a philosphy Confucious China Secular Personal and governmental morality Fernanda Hernández
  • 10.
  • 11. Government Economy Religion Art Olmec State Long distant Natural religion Colosal government trade Shamanism headstones elite priest class Animal spirits Theocracy Mayas Hereditary Trade of goods Natural gods Public kingdom stubborn buildings Temples Concept of cero Inca Militaristic Labor attolment Rulers descent from Metalurgy, Inherited power clothes sun god symetricla Conquering pottery lands Aztec Central Trade, Natural gods, Payed tributes governmet agriculture huitzilopochtli to their gods Royal family Aztec calendar Toltecs Quetzalcoatl agriculture Quetzalcoatl: feather Chac mol, cultural hero snake tezcatlipoca Works in stone Fernanda Hernández
  • 12. Muhhamad& Islam 0 His life: 0 Islamic Authorities 0 Archangel Gabriel showed 0 Allah: God him mystical revelations 0 He starter preaching & 0 Caliph: Muhammad converting people Succesor 0 He fled to Medina 0 Sultan: mulsim leader 0 He returned to Arabia & gained control there 0 Qu’ran: Muslim Bible 0 His beliefs 0 After the death of 4 of 0 5 pillars of islam the Caliphs, they decided 0 Qu’ran to made a Dynasty 0 Straight doctrine of instead of elections. This salvation created 2: Fernanda Hernández
  • 13. Islam Branches Sunni Shia 0 Mayority (90%) 0 Believed bloodline 0 Supported Umayad from Muhamad is & elected important caliphates. 0 Support Dynasty & 0 Made Damascus the hereditary Capital caliphate 0 Rejected Umayad Later on Changed Capital to Dynasty Fernanda Hernández
  • 14. Jesus Born during Cesar Augustus Teachings & Gatherings of Jesus affect Roman Empire Order, so he es sent to death (Golgota, under Pilatus) Saul de Tarsus (San Pablo) spread the word Disciples go and spread the word Constantine (Roman Emperor) made Edcit of Milan to accept Christians Christians start gaining throug RE Fernanda Hernández Council of Nicaea Decides theological stuff
  • 15. Christianity Spread Cause Effect Church gained Economical economical support Disciples preached Stablishment of Church north Political in Roman Empire Constantine’s mother Later on, papacy was christian controlss europe Constantine wanted to be united with his people People liked Catholic Many people converted ideas Social to christianity Other religions offered Moral values changed very little Fernanda Hernández to those of christians
  • 16. Mongols 0 Sang dinasty was doing 0 Chingis Khan conquests: great in China 0 Fail china, move to 0 Mongols were nomads persia & turks who practised pastoral 0 South russia=tartars nomadism. 0 Invade China 0 Their leaders where (chanchanchan) called KHANS and made 0 Destroyed Baghdad = campaigns to size land end muslim golden age Fernanda Hernández
  • 18. Pax Mongolica 0 Unified Asia 0 Supported the Silk Road 0 Imposed by Kublai Khan 0 Move China Technology 0 Based upon Chinese to europe costumes 0 Peaceful 0 Spread diseases 0 Foreigners had higher state 0 Gunpowder, cunfusianism & budhism Fernanda Hernández
  • 20. Mongols Conquest Cause Effect Mongols had a greater Silk road warrior power Economical Expansion of chinese Constant threats from invntions north China asked Chingis to Pax mongolica defend from other tribe Political Yuan Dynasty Support to foreigners Mongols were really People tired of mongol united tribes Social imposition Mongols believed they Cultur stuck for a while were entitled to conquer the entire world Fernanda Hernández
  • 21. European Middle Ages 0 Feudal system: peasant 0 Important cities: were part of gained land 0 Berlin 0 Classes were strictly 0 Munich stablished 0 Moscow 0 Improved agriculture, 0 Black death killed trade thousands and changed geography Fernanda Hernández
  • 22. Social Classes Peasants Knights Nobles King Fighted & • Owned land Serfs who • Lords, protected worked land barons, etc upper classes Fernanda Hernández
  • 23. Rennaisance 1300 0 Started in Italy 0 Attitude: 0 Individualism 0 Because of trade 0 Secularism advantages and 0 Classical Values financial genius 0 Humanism: government 0 Patrons were those who need to change instead of paid artists so they people (Utopia) could develop art 0 Theory of State 0 Legitimacy 0 Sovereignity 0 Territory Fernanda Hernández
  • 24. Renaissance Cause Effect Wealth in Italy because Economical Cities developed artists of financial genius & More Stable trade economical system Surplus of agriculture Important families Political Theory of State supported artirsts States unified (patrons) Kingdoms settle Rainnasance Attitude Social Cultural advances in art Urban towns and and literature middle class Rise from obscurantism Fernanda Hernández
  • 25.
  • 26. Age of Explotarion Mercantilism Motivations 0 To improve economy trough God trade, countries only let their conquered lands to Glory trade with them. Gold Fernanda Hernández
  • 27. Explorers Origin Discovered/conquere d Vasco da Gama Portugal Indian Sea Alvarez Cabral Portugal Brazil Columbus Spain America Cortés Spain Mexico Magallanes Spain Cirvumnavigate the world Pizarro Spain Peru Walter Raleighs England Carolina Coast Fernanda Hernández
  • 28. Tordecillas 0 Treaty that separated Spain & Portugal territories 0 Allowed other countries to attack Portugal. Fernanda Hernández
  • 29. Age of Explorations Cause Effect New inventions Mercantilism got more Good trade = money Economical money to European States Exchange of products Countries wanted Countries gained new control Political territories in America Countries wanted to America changed of prove their power government Church wanted to Racial mixture spread christianity Social America was subject of Explorers wanted glory slavery & poverty & adventure Fernanda Hernández
  • 30. Japan 0 Protugal arrived 0 Jesuitst wanted to convert people to Chriatianity 0 They had a Feudal system: Peasants Samurais Daimyos Shogun Fernanda Hernández
  • 31. Reformation Cause Effect Church was getting all Money was now in the money Economy hands of kings Church left without taxation = has to beg for money Church Corruption Separation of States Country leaders tired Political from Church to follow orders from Many religions created Church Change of point of view Church starts from the Renaissance Social Inquisition to keep They wanted the followers promise of eternal life People change of religion Fernanda Hernández
  • 32. Reformants Causes Major ch. Luther – Lutheranism - Church selling Posted 95 thesis Germany indulgencies Faith gets you to heaven Calvin – Calvinism - French lawyer, tired of Spread through Europe France corruption Predestination He wanted no politics in religion Henry – Anglican He wanted to divorce Same beliefs of RCC, Church - England different leadership Loyola – Jesuir Order - Church needed to Orderof misionaires Spain preserve followers Went to many places to preach Fernanda Hernández
  • 33. Henry’s Succesors Edward • Sick boy, died shortly afterwards Mary • Catholic Bloody Mary Elizabeth • Virgin Queen, Succesful ruler Fernanda Hernández
  • 34. CounterReform 0 Council of Trent 0 Reunion to decide what does the church believe in 0 Completely separated RCC from Protestants 0 Jesuit Order 0 Attempet to gain back followers 0 Index 0 Books that catholics should not read 0 Inquisition 0 Savage acts to asure people won’t go to other church Fernanda Hernández
  • 35. Absolutism Cause Effect Surplus in wealth Empoverishment of because fo trade Economical common people Money owned by the State wasted a lot of state- not the church money in luxuries Reformation gived State gain strenght as a power to monarchs Political central government Raison d’etat allowed Conflicts between them to do what they countries (provocated wanted by kings) Common people was Huge gap between rich ignorant so didn’t Social and poor complain Social unconfort for Renaissance ideals of poverty individualism Fernanda Hernández
  • 36. Luis XIV 0 Started governing at age 5 0 “Sun King” 0 “founder” of Royal Absolutism 0 Removed aristocrats from states to form a central gov 0 Palace of Versailles: kept his court close to him Fernanda Hernández
  • 37. Elizabeth I 0 Used her status of unmarried queen in her favour 0 Avoided religious wars 0 Supported arts 0 Let people had the religion they pleased Fernanda Hernández
  • 38. Peter the Great 0 Modernized Russia from middle ages 0 Brought experts from Europe 0 Supported arts & education 0 Made great navy 0 Saage & brutal leader Fernanda Hernández