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17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5)
HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS
1
17ARCH11I
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5)
Final report
2018 / 2019
HIGH RISE BUILDING Historical timeline,
architectural style, typology and material
Final Report
Report presented by:
Mohja Abdelhamied 138285
Nourhan Ahmed 129293
Raghda Mohamed 137224
Esraa Samy 00000
Wafaa Mohamed 132070
Sara Sobhy 000000
Year three architecture
British university in Egypt
Report presented to:
Dr. Ashraf Nessim
Dr. Khaled Dewider
Dr. Ahmed Faggal
Dr. Gehan Nagy
17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5)
HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS
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Abstract
This report focuses on the historical timeline of high-rise building. Firstly, it introduces the
meaning of high-rise building and the causes of making people refuging to invent high-rise
building. It discusses also the benefits of high-rise building. The main focus is on the
development of high-rise building and the transformation in the design and construction
starting from the first generation that uses stone and brick in the building leading to the forth
and fifth generation that reach a great progress in designing and constructing a high-rise
building. This information was gained from chapter one of High-Rise Security and Fire life
Safety Book by the late John T.O’ Hagan. Finally, the report ends by discussing different case
studies of high-rise buildings to show the development in the architectural style, material and
typology.
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Contents
Abstract.......................................................................................................................................2
Introduction.................................................................................................................................5
The causes for making people erected to high-rise buildings: - .................................................... 6
The first generation(1885-1916): ..................................................................................................7
Introduction............................................................................................................................. 7
Structure:............................................................................................................................. 7
Form and Shape:................................................................................................................... 7
Architecture styles:................................................................................................................ 8
Palazzo-style......................................................................................................................... 8
Materials:............................................................................................................................. 8
The Monadnock building:..........................................................................................................9
The northern half:................................................................................................................. 9
The southern half:............................................................................................................... 10
Architecture style:............................................................................................................... 11
The second generation of tall buildings:....................................................................................... 12
Introduction........................................................................................................................... 12
Pre-world war IIera/ Art Deco (1916 – 1940) ........................................................................ 12
Examples of high rise buildings during second generation:..................................................... 12
Characteristics:................................................................................................................... 13
Chrysler building..................................................................................................................... 13
Concept:............................................................................................................................. 14
Form and Style:................................................................................................................... 14
Structure:........................................................................................................................... 15
Function and Spaces:........................................................................................................... 16
Materials:........................................................................................................................... 18
Aesthetic Features and Ornamentation: ............................................................................... 18
Third Generation........................................................................................................................ 20
The concepts.......................................................................................................................... 20
Industrialism....................................................................................................................... 20
Minimalism and “less is more “............................................................................................ 20
International style of modern architecture:........................................................................... 21
Design features....................................................................................................................... 21
The Lake Shore Drive apartments ............................................................................................ 22
.......................................................................................................................................... 22
17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5)
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PlanAnalysis:...................................................................................................................... 22
Form and style .................................................................................................................... 24
Structure system:................................................................................................................ 25
Materials:........................................................................................................................... 26
Fourth generation....................................................................................................................... 26
Background Information: -....................................................................................................... 26
Pioneers:................................................................................................................................ 27
HSBC Hong Kong tower........................................................................................................... 28
Introduction........................................................................................................................ 28
Spaces................................................................................................................................ 28
Form and Style.................................................................................................................... 28
Structures:.......................................................................................................................... 29
Materials:........................................................................................................................... 29
The Fifth Generation from 1997 to the present ............................................................................ 30
Commerzbank (1997).............................................................................................................. 30
Architect............................................................................................................................. 30
Plan& spaces....................................................................................................................... 31
Form and Style.................................................................................................................... 31
Structure ............................................................................................................................ 32
Materials............................................................................................................................ 32
The 6th generation of high rise.................................................................................................... 33
Burj Khalifa............................................................................................................................. 33
Leap 1: Mobility in building.................................................................................................. 34
Leap 2: materials usedin building......................................................................................... 34
Leap 3: Heat........................................................................................................................ 34
Leap 4: speed in construction............................................................................................... 35
Leap 5: wind........................................................................................................................ 35
Leap 6: evacuation .............................................................................................................. 35
Plans :................................................................................................................................. 36
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Introduction
High-rise building is a building with more than 22.5m in height and is approximately seven
stories or higher (Craighead, 2009). The definition of high-rise buildings
is stated in the form of linear height even in feet or meters rather than
stories. Firstly, the idea of tall building came from the tower of babel
complex that helped in changing the thinking to erect higher and higher
buildings (Craighead, 2009). This tower was made by brick for stone and
asphalt for mortar. After that, in 1853, the invention of first elevator as
a new form of vertical transformation by an American, Elisha Grave Otis
as shown in figure 1 (Craighead, 2009). In 1871, Chicago was
completely destroyed because of using Timber as a material for houses, which helped in
making a fire. During 1870s, the invention of steel frames became to appear. Steel frames were
used to carry the weight of more floors, so walls acted as a purpose of insulating the building
by using clay tiles to the steel supports and used in a fireproof steel skeleton (Craighead, 2009).
The invention was not stopped also at this point, but they begun to use movable interior
partitioning, which helped in reducing the thickness of walls and increasing the floor space
(Craighead, 2009). All of these inventions created a great development in the forms of 5
generations over time that will be discussed well with their case studies.
FIGURE 1 FIRST ELEVATOR BY
ELISHA OTIS
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The causes for making people erected to high-rise buildings: -
1) The increased population leads to an increasing demand for tall buildings. The tall
building could take more people on a smaller land.
2) The expansion of cities has lead to the increased travel time, which resulted in losing
the fuel. Clustering of tall buildings in areas gave opportunity for open space.
3) Using the roman method of using piles as a foundation, which were driven into the
ground creates a strong infrastructure base that made high-rise buildings possible to
build instead of the Egyptian method of spread footing (Craighead, 2009).
4) The development from incandescent lamps and forced-air ventilation to the fluorescent
lights and air-conditioning systems during the 20th century helped in providing lighting
ventilating and heating for large buildings (Craighead, 2009).
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The first generation (1885-1916):
It was a consequence of progress in structural steel framing and the invention of elevator
(Oldfield, 2008). The buildings of this generation characterized by many features which will
be discussed in the following points:
Introduction
Structure:
Although these buildings have been used steel frames
(fig.2), the covering construction was still affected by
traditional load-bearing as it was completely concealed
(steel within the brick). (Oldfield, 2008).
Form and Shape:
The form of these buildings was distinguished by being solid,
bulky, compact and gravity-based form. Windows remained
small and punctured within walls (fig.3). (Oldfield, 2008)
FIGURE 2 FAIR STORE, DETAIL OF FIRE PROOF
AND STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION
FIGURE 3 MONTAUK BUILDING,
SHOW THE SOLID AND VOID RATIO
AND THECONCEPTOF
HEAVINESS(BASE) VS. LIGHTNESS
(CAPITAL)
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Architecture styles:
Palazzo-style
It is born in their attempt to balance between aesthetic aspects
with practical commercial design, providing large, square
buildings accommodating shops and cafes on the ground floor
and rentable offices on the upper floors (fig.4).
Modern style:
The idea of using steel and metal structures as a new building
material which lead to the beginning of modern architecture.
Classical style
The buildings was divided to three parts represent the classical
column (fig.5):
-The middle stories, sometimes with little ornaments, act as the
shaft
-the last floor or two, topped with an ornamented cornice,
represent the capital.
Materials:
This generation begun to use steel and metal structures as a new
building material in the sake of for large amount of spaces and
maximum amount of light. The exterior walls consisted of brick
and cast iron usually used for decorating (fig.6). FIGURE 6 WAINWRIGHTS BUILDING,SHOW
THE MASONRY CLADDINGAND DECORATIVE
ORNAMENTS
FIGURE4 FLATIRON BUILDING,
FIGURE 5 HETRIPARTITEORDER IN
THE HOMEINSURANCEBUILDING
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The Monadnock building:
-Loacation: Chicago
-Architect: Burnham & Root, Holabird & Roche
-Year: 1891; 1893
-Building function: Commercial office building
-No. of floor: 16 floors
Monadnock building is built in two phases:
The northern half:
Structure: It is the tallest load-bearing wall building.
The building weight is not only supported by the
exterior thick wall, but also by the hidden steel
framework (fig.9).
Materials: The exterior walls are consisted of purple-
brown brick (fig.10). The staircase railings are
decorated by aluminium (fig.11)
FIGURE 8 PICTURE OF THE MONADNOCK BUILDING
FIGURE 7 THE ELEVATION OF MONADNOCK
BUILDING SHOW THE DIFFERENCE ITS TWO
PARTS
FIGURE 10 : MASONRY CLADDING
FIGURE 11 ALUMINUM RAILING
FIGURE 9 THE SECTION OF NORTHERN
PART SHOWING THE LOAD-BEARING
STRUCTURE
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Form and shape: A solid, rectangular shape with chamfered
corners (fig.10).
Façade:
- Chamfered, cantilevered, oriel windows separated by thin
windows (fig.13).
-The entryways are small and single-height (fig.14).
The southern half:
The other half is relatively like the first, but different in the
following points:
Structure: steel frame construction which is reflected in
thin exterior wall and wide windows (fig.15).
The façade:
-It has the concept of horizontality in dividing the building
to emphasize the base and the capital cornice (fig.14).
FIGURE 12 THE ORIEL CHAMFERED
WINDOWS
FIGURE 13 THE NORTHERN ENTRYHALL
FIGURE 12 THE PLAN OF TWO
HALVES
FIGURE 14 SHOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
THE EXTERIOR WALLS THICKNESS OF BOTH
HALVES
FIGURE 15 THE BASE OF THE SOUTHERN
HALF
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-The building is topped by a
copper cornice ornamented by
ancient Egyptian ornament
(fig.17).
- Two story entrance way
(fig.18)
Materials: brick and terra cotta cladding.
Architecture style:
Palazzo-style
Since the ground floor is
containing restaurant and
group of shops and the offices
in the upper floors (fig.19)
Classical style
It is represented in the tripartite division of the building (fig.20).
FIGURE 17 ORNAMENTED
CORNICE
FIGURE 16 ENTRANCE WAY
FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19
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The second generationof tall buildings:
Introduction
Pre-world war II era/ Art Deco (1916 – 1940)
In 1915, after the completion of the Equitable building in Manhattan, there was a significant
problem remarked due to its massive volume which was blocking air and sun light from streets
and surrounding buildings. In response, authorities in New York city implemented the 1916
landmark zoning law which forced high rise buildings to step back every few stories to allow
sun light and air to penetrate to the street and surrounding buildings. Moreover, the Art Deco
style flourished during this era which characterized by geometric ornamentation and decorative
methods. Therefore, the subsequent set-backs prescribed by the landmark zoning law created
the familiar ziggurat form with its geometric ornaments which symbolized the Art Deco
architecture.
Examplesof high rise buildingsduringsecond generation:
FIGURE 20 SECOND GENERATION SKYSCRAPERS
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Characteristics:
STYLE:
o Art Deco with some features from classic architecture.
FORM:
o Ziggurat style.
o Vast wall surfaces with conventional windows.
o The use of geometric patterns to decorate interior and exterior walls.
STRUCTURE:
o Protected steel frame structures with more than 40 stories.
o Central service and circulation core
Chrysler building
Location: Manhattan, New York, NY, USA
Architect: William Van Alen
Project Year: 1930
Type: Office building
Height: 1,046 ft (318.5 m)
Floor count: 77
FIGURE 21 CHRYSLER BUILDING
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Concept:
The architect wanted the building to be the tallest in the world and to reflect the model of
Chrysler manufactured cars. Therefore, he started to increase the story numbers and modify
the form many times until he had the desired design and then he decorated it with eagles, car
wheals and radiator caps based on the Art Deco style.
FIGURE 22 THE DESIGN STAGES OF CHRYSLER BUILDING
Form and Style:
o Art Deco- style with ziggurat
form as the tower steps back
every few stories.
o A stylized sunburst motif on its
stepping spires with silvery metal
colour.
o The crown includes seven
concentric radiating terraced
arches with setbacks, mounted up
one behind another ad containing
triangular vaulted windows on the four facades of the crown.
FIGURE 23 THE BUILDING CROWN
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Structure:
o The structure of the building is a skeleton steel frames with relatively small span
distances.
o The ziggurat shape forced the service and circulation core to be in the center of the
building.
FIGURE 24 THE STRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING
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Function and Spaces:
o The tower is an office building with some activities spaces open to the public.
FIGURE 25 PLANS OF THE CHRYSLER BUILDING
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o The tower has entrances on three sides heading to the main lobby which is richly
decorated with numerous compositions of Art Deco in red and blue marble and steel.
FIGURE 26 THE MAIN LOBBY
o The shops, restaurants are open to the public as well as the observatory on the 71st
floor which includes a powerful telescope and a café.
FIGURE 27 THE OBSERVATION DECK
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Materials:
o Steel frames encased in concrete to protect it from fire.
o The interiors were cladded by marble and granite while the exterior walls were
cladded by stainless steel, masonry and bricks.
o The metal cladding refers to the cars as a symbol of machine age.
FIGURE 28 THE BUILDING’S INTERIORS
Aesthetic Features and Ornamentation:
o A series of sculptures resembled the American eagles stare out over the city.
FIGURE 29 THE AMERICAN EAGLE
o White and dark bricks of its facades emphasizes the horizontality of windows rows.
o The lower setbacks are decorated by ornaments resembled car wheels.
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o The area around the openings was richly decorated by geometric patterns of silvery
carved stone which represented the Art Deco style.
FIGURE 30 BRICKS AND CARVED STONES DECORATIONS
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Third Generation
The concepts
Industrialism
By the middle of 19th
century the society of the United States Begin to grow and called for new type
of buildings. Moreover, because of the steelproduction they started
to use steel in building structure especially for high rise building
like: 860-880 lake shore drive apartment.
Minimalism and “less is more “
Minimalism is a school where simplicity and purity are expressions of aesthetic beauty by the side of
functionalism. It minimizes form, unnecessary materials, decorative facades (ornamentation) and
color to their most basic levels. "Less is more" express the focus of Minimalism in search for the easy
way to accomplish a framework. Like: Barcelona
Pavilion.
FIGURE 31 STEEL FRAME OF LAKE
SHORE APARTMENT DURING
CONSTRUCTION
FIGURE 32 BARCELONA PAVILION
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Internationalstyle of modern architecture:
It was appeared in Europe and brought to United States in 20th
century. The features of this Style
structures are rectilinear structures; light, neat plane surfaces that have been totally take off utilized
ornamentation and beautification; open inside spaces; and a visually weightless quality like the
seagram building
Design features
 Open floor plans
 Large fixed glass panel
 Steel frame structure
 Rigid frame
 Tube frame structure
FIGURE 33 THE SEAGRAMBUILDING AND IT'S PLAN
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The Lake Shore Drive apartments
 Address: 880 N Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, USA
 Area:4,900 m²
 Year built: 1949 – 1951
 Architect: Ludwing mies van der rohe.
 Building type: residential building
 Height: 26 floors
Plan Analysis:
Mies van der rohe designed the two buildings differently, as in 860 building each floor contain of 4
apartments and each apartment divided into 6 rooms. mies designed the common large space which
has the living room and the dining room.
FIGURE 36 BUILDING APARTMENT PLAN
FIGURE 34 860-880 LAKE SHORE DRIVE
BUILDINGS
FIGURE 35 BUILDING FLOOR PLAN
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While in 880 building the area of an apartment in each floor was half the area of an apartment in 860
building, it has in each floor 8 apartments and each apartment have three and half rooms. Throughout
years most of the apartments attached together to give more space to the living rooms.
FIGURE 37 BUILDING APARTMENT PLAN FIGURE 38 BUILDING FLOOR PLAN
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Form and style
The buildings were the first expression of the second Chicago school
of architecture and the first step toward industrialization.
The buildings are very simple rectangular forms with rigid frame
which are built perpendicular to each other. The buildings facades
were lack of ornamentation which were very odd in this era as they
used ornamentation on the façade of the buildings.
structure was hidden within architecture’, this term expressed in
this building in different ways,as the steelframe of the structure
system was exposed on the façade of the building.
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Structuresystem:
The structure system that was used is the steelskeletal rigid frame
that appear on the exterior façade which the architect wanted the
inner structure to appear. A dark painted steel sheets covering the
insulated columns and beams.
Each facade is subdivided into four window units by three wide-
spine steelmullions. Inside these divisions aluminum-confined floor-
to-roof windows are set. A large glass panel were placed on the
aluminum frame.
I- beamed are welded to the mullions and columns just for
decorative as it is false structure which is more aesthetic than
functional. The buildings are separated into 5 bays cross and 3
bays deep.
FIGURE 39 THE STEEL STRUCTURE
SYSTEM OF THE LAKE SHORE
FIGURE 40 THE WELDED I- BEAM
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Materials:
The materials that were used in constructed the towers are the Steel that was used in the structure of
the building, aluminum that is used in the construction of the frame of the windows, glass for the
openings of the facades.
Fourth generation
Background Information: -
The third generation saw the arising of Chicago
second school of architecture which was after the
Second World War. The origins of the school
emerged in the 1920s. During this era the architects
wanted to head towards the modernity and make use
of all the new chances available and to forget about
the past. There was two events that shaped the
architecture of this era: The world war and the great
depression. The world war caused immigration of
citizens from several countries, the United States
hosted immigrants from different countries. As a
result of this many architects and artists from Europe was attracted to the united states
bringing with them their styles of architecture and this takes us to the pioneers. (The
Guardian, 2015)
FIGURE41 LAKE SHORE DRIVE APARTMENT
BUILDING
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Pioneers:
Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe was the first and most important pioneer in that time. He is a
German architect that came to Chicago in 1938
with the desire of modernism against tradition in
America. Rohe was the catalyst of emerging
Chicago second school of architecture. The
function and style of this school was residential
towers in the 1940s and office buildings in the
1950s. He was a pioneer in the development of
European modernism and came to Chicago to run Armour Institute of Technology which is
now Illinois Institute of Technology where he was a director until 1958. Walter
Gropius (1883-1969) (Visual arts, 2012)
Materials used are Glass, steel and reinforced concrete, the new materials helped in arising of
aesthesis and use of different claddings. The usage of these materials were decided upon the
concerns of life and fire safety related to the high rise buildings. This generation was mostly
using the structures types of tube and core. Reinforced concrete and steel framed types were
also used in this generation. The types of structures used are:
Steel framed core construction
Steel framed tube construction
Reinforced concrete construction
Steel framed reinforced concrete construction
(Craighead, G. 2009.)
FIGURE 33 MIES VAN DER ROHE
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HSBC Hong Kong tower
Introduction
With the handover of Hong Kong to Beijing looming, HSBC's
board wanted a dominant symbol of the political power assigned
to their bank. Norman foster was an English architect that started
in 1960s High tech architecture. (The guardian).
Spaces
The tower is consisted of three individual towers which are twenty nine,
thirty six and forty four stories high and this creates floors of varying
width and depth and allow making a roof garden. There is a ten story
atrium between the towers in which the services is pushed into giving
more spaces into the stories. Some stories are double height which is
used in welcoming people (reception and enquiries) and a picnic spot at
the ground level.
Form and Style
The tower is consisted of three towers with different heights and
connected with bridges for circulation. The three towers are around
an atrium. The style of this building is High Tech which is
introduced by Sir Norman Foster and have certain features.
FIGURE 42 NIGHT VISION OF HSBC
BANK
FIGURE 43 HSBC
PLAN
FIGURE 44 HSBC ATRIUM
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Structures:
The structure of the tower depends mainly on prefabricated structures
due to the excess of million square feet to be built on. Pairs of steel
masts are arranged into three bays making three towers which makes the
three individual towers.
Materials:
Steel and glass ( Foster and Partners, 2018)
FIGURE 45 HSBC
TOWERS
FIGURE 46 SECTION OF HSBC BANK
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The Fifth Generationfrom 1997 to the present
The deference between fourth and fifth generation is that in fourth generation the aim is to
enhance energy performance, but in fifth generation the aim is to reduce energy consumption.
Tall buildings in this generation are characterized by having a high surface area to volume
ratio. It is also characterized by allowing natural and mixed-mode ventilation to go through
the building and trying to explore sources with low and zero carbon. The first tall building
achieving these characteristics was Commerzbank in Frankfurt 1997 and also frank Lloyd
wright’s price tower in Oklahoma 1956.
Commerzbank (1997)
FIGURE 47 THE COMMERZBANK IN FRANKFURT
Architect
Norman Foster, in Frankfurt, Germany.
Commerzbank is considered the tallest building in Europe that provides that it is possible to create a
sustainable and energy consumption system at the scale of skyscraper.
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Plan& spaces
The plan takes the shape of triangle with a central atrium space. The elevators, stairs and mechanical
systems were pushed to the outer space for atrium.
The atrium is used to bring lights directly to the heart of the building
FIGURE 48 THE PLAN OF COMMERZBANK
Form and Style
The form of the building helped to penetrate light into the central space (atrium) during summer and
winter.
Winter gardens around the façade create voids that are
helped in allowing natural lighting and ventilation to go
through the building and also it hasdifferent functions such
as offices that are at the center of the building can provide
light and view through garden and also garden spaces
create more green for the users, which it could help for
create good environment.
Both centralatrium and winter garden provide light, glass roof at the atrium provide vertical light and
winter garden façades provide horizontal lights.
FIGURE 49 WINTER GARDEN IN
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Structure
The system used in the building was rigid structural
system provided by an equilateral triangle.
It exists cores at each corner, which provide the vertical
load support for the entire structure.
The 8 floors were made by vierendeel trusses from the
garden to the core.
Materials
The building was made by steel using rigid structure connections.
The glass, where is putted at the facades was made to get fresh air and exhaust of old air.
FIGURE 50 RIGID FRAME STRUCTURE
FIGURE 51 THE CONNECTIONS OF
FIGURE 52 THE WINDOWS AT
THE
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33
The 6th generation of high rise
After the war II until now the construction had been improvement. They focused to solve the
main problems that had affected hardly in the past. They interested in construction and fire
system and wind resistance. They used steel-framed construction and reinforced concrete .
FIGURE 54 THE TALLEST HIGH RISE IN THE WORLD
Burj Khalifa
Location: Dubai, united Arab
Year of built: 2004-2010
Contain 2 towers, podium construction, 160 levels, and
6 garages
Area: 4000000 sq.
FIGURE 53 BURJ KHALIFA
FIGURE 55 PLACES OF ELEVATORS
17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5)
HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS
34
Leap 1: Mobility in building
A majorobstacle inthe face of skyscrapersisthe stairs.The capacity of the Burj Khalifais30,000
people.Parallel tosmall city, itisthe biggestchallenge withthe large numbersof 53 different
elevatorsmovingataspeedof more than 35 kilometersperhour andclimbing120 floorsinlessthan
50 seconds.itcouldholdweight42 people. The elevatorisinstalledbythe springof powercars
placedonthe roomof thisspringisconnectedtoa setof iron fittingsonbothsidesof the elevator.
The nettingmoves ona rail installedinaserratedline whenthe rope breaks.The chainispractically
releasedandthe springleansanddrivesthe stacks.
Leap 2: materials used in building
The designers used 30000 tons of steel and cement and
made flexible joints between the wall absorbs movement
so as not to damage the entire wall as the joints expand
and contract with passing
Leap 3: Heat
The building is designed with a glass wall so it allows large light to enter the building but
enters the sun. The purpose is to absorb the heat so the situation will become annoying and
air conditioners should be used with temperatures up to 40 and 90% humidity in a harsh
environment. : The outer panel covered with metal prevents the entry of ultraviolet light,
while the inner panel covered with silver, which prevents infrared radiation, which emits
from the desert sands and was used 30000 board
FIGURE 56 EXPLANATION OF MATERIALS USED
FIGURE 57 CLADDING SYSTEM AT
MECHANICALLEVEL
FIGURE 58 CLADDING SYSTEM
17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5)
HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS
35
Leap 4: speed in construction
Use the Cladding system in construction or "quick construction". The process begins at the
bottom of the building. Collecting the steel cages that become supporting the floors of the
tower, lifting the steel cages and inserting them with special molds. The quick construction
blocks. The cement is placed. After 12 hours the mold is ready to move. To climb to the next
round
Leap 5: wind
The tower is 828 meters long, so a steel exterior structure is not enough, so the building is
designed in a flat, every section of the tower designed to reverse the wind to break the force
of the vortices and neutralize the wind effect of the building
FIGURE 60 RESISTS WIND LOAD
Leap 6: evacuation
Because it is the largest tower in the world so there must be a way to evacuate in the case of
fire, the work of the pillars of cement fire-resistant, but not enough, how people will get out
in the presence of fire answer will not come out.
Burj Khalifa has 9 private rooms, built of reinforced concrete and fire-resistant doors. Each
room has a private air outlet pumped through fire-resistant pipes. There is a room on every 30
floors
FIGURE 59 LOWER SHAPE DEIGN
17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5)
HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS
36
Plans:
FIGURE 61 GROUND FLOOR PLANFIGURE 62 TYPICAL OFFICE FLOOR PLAN
FIGURE 64 TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL FLOOR
FIGURE 63 TYPICAL HOTEL FLOOR
FIGURE 65 PODIUM PLANFIGURE 66 – PODIUM LEVEL 1
17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5)
HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS
37
Conclusionand recommendation:
The development of tall buildings has been passed through five generation, each one has
different style, technology, materials and features which are concluded in the following table:
Generation Buildings Material Structure Style Form
First
generation
-Montauk
building
1882
-Monadnock
building
1893
-Home
insurance
building
1885
-Bricks
-Stone
- cast iron
for
decorating
-Load
bearing wall
system and
steel frame
-Palazzo-
style
-Modern
style
-Classical
style
-Solid, bulky
and compact
-Small
windows
Second
generation
-Chrysler
building
1930
-500 5th
avenue 1931
-Stainless -
steel
-Marble
-Stone
-protected
steel frame
-Central core
-Art deco
with some
features of
classical
style
-Ziggurat
form
-Vast wall
with
conventional
windows
-Geometric
shapes in
decorating
Third
generation
-river place
tower 1967
-Lake shore
building
1949
-Seagram
building
1958
-Steel
frames
- glass panel
-
Prefabricated
steel musts
and frames
-High-tech
style
-Symmetrical
-Open and
flexible plans
Fourth
generation
-Hotel arts
1994
-HSBC
building
1986
- Steel
framing
-Reinforced
concrete
cladding
system
Piles
structure
system
-High-tech
style
-
Geomagnetic
plan
Fifth
generation
-Commerz
bank 1997
-National
commercial
bank 1984
-Burj
Khalifa 2010
-Steel
-Glass panel
-Zero carbon
material
-Rigid
structure
system
-Verendeel
trusses
-High-tech
style
-Sustainable
architecture
-High surface
area to
volume ratio
-Slender
shape
17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5)
HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS
38
The history of high rise buildings prove that the era and technology can have a great impact
on architectural style and form of that time, such as the Chicago fire and using steel as a new
building material, the invention of elevator and the birth of the tall building and the relation
between sustainability and green buildings, so this topic must be more researched and
discussed to discover between society, technology and architectural styles.
17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5)
HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS
39
References:
Craighead, G. (2009). High-rise security and fire life safety. Oxford, USA: ButterworthHeinemann. -
Oldfield, P. (2009, octobar 25). Five-energy-generations-of-tall-buildings. Retrieved March 15, 2010
from CTBUH Research Paper:http://global.ctbuh.org/resources/papers/download/403-five-
generations-of-tallbuildings-an-historical-analysis-of-energy-consumption-in-high-rise-buildings.pdf
Oldfield, P. (2008). Five energy generation of tall buildings. Chicago: Council on tall building and
urban habitat.
archiseek. (2014). 1951 – 860-880 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois . Retrieved from archiseek:
http://archiseek.com/2009/1951-860-880-lake-shore-drive-chicago-illinois/
Canvas Network. (2013). Architecture and the Industrial Revolution. Retrieved from Canvas
Network: https://learn.canvas.net/courses/24/pages/m9-architecture-and-the-industrial-revolution
Illinois Institue of Technology . (2015). 860-880 Lake Shore Apartment. Retrieved from Mies Van
Der Rohe Society : http://miessociety.org/mies/projects/860-880-lake-shore-apartments/
Lake Shore Drive Apartment . (2014). Retrieved from slide share :
https://www.slideshare.net/sumashukla37/lake-shore-apartments
Visual arts cork. (2015). International Style of Modern Architecture. Retrieved from Visual arts cork:
http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/architecture/international-style.htm
Visual Arts Cork. (2016). Second Chicago School (c.1940-75). Retrieved from Visual Arts Cork:
http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/architecture/second-chicago-school.htm

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High rise historical timeline, architectural style, typology and materials

  • 1. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 1 17ARCH11I ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) Final report 2018 / 2019 HIGH RISE BUILDING Historical timeline, architectural style, typology and material Final Report Report presented by: Mohja Abdelhamied 138285 Nourhan Ahmed 129293 Raghda Mohamed 137224 Esraa Samy 00000 Wafaa Mohamed 132070 Sara Sobhy 000000 Year three architecture British university in Egypt Report presented to: Dr. Ashraf Nessim Dr. Khaled Dewider Dr. Ahmed Faggal Dr. Gehan Nagy
  • 2. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 2 Abstract This report focuses on the historical timeline of high-rise building. Firstly, it introduces the meaning of high-rise building and the causes of making people refuging to invent high-rise building. It discusses also the benefits of high-rise building. The main focus is on the development of high-rise building and the transformation in the design and construction starting from the first generation that uses stone and brick in the building leading to the forth and fifth generation that reach a great progress in designing and constructing a high-rise building. This information was gained from chapter one of High-Rise Security and Fire life Safety Book by the late John T.O’ Hagan. Finally, the report ends by discussing different case studies of high-rise buildings to show the development in the architectural style, material and typology.
  • 3. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 3 Contents Abstract.......................................................................................................................................2 Introduction.................................................................................................................................5 The causes for making people erected to high-rise buildings: - .................................................... 6 The first generation(1885-1916): ..................................................................................................7 Introduction............................................................................................................................. 7 Structure:............................................................................................................................. 7 Form and Shape:................................................................................................................... 7 Architecture styles:................................................................................................................ 8 Palazzo-style......................................................................................................................... 8 Materials:............................................................................................................................. 8 The Monadnock building:..........................................................................................................9 The northern half:................................................................................................................. 9 The southern half:............................................................................................................... 10 Architecture style:............................................................................................................... 11 The second generation of tall buildings:....................................................................................... 12 Introduction........................................................................................................................... 12 Pre-world war IIera/ Art Deco (1916 – 1940) ........................................................................ 12 Examples of high rise buildings during second generation:..................................................... 12 Characteristics:................................................................................................................... 13 Chrysler building..................................................................................................................... 13 Concept:............................................................................................................................. 14 Form and Style:................................................................................................................... 14 Structure:........................................................................................................................... 15 Function and Spaces:........................................................................................................... 16 Materials:........................................................................................................................... 18 Aesthetic Features and Ornamentation: ............................................................................... 18 Third Generation........................................................................................................................ 20 The concepts.......................................................................................................................... 20 Industrialism....................................................................................................................... 20 Minimalism and “less is more “............................................................................................ 20 International style of modern architecture:........................................................................... 21 Design features....................................................................................................................... 21 The Lake Shore Drive apartments ............................................................................................ 22 .......................................................................................................................................... 22
  • 4. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 4 PlanAnalysis:...................................................................................................................... 22 Form and style .................................................................................................................... 24 Structure system:................................................................................................................ 25 Materials:........................................................................................................................... 26 Fourth generation....................................................................................................................... 26 Background Information: -....................................................................................................... 26 Pioneers:................................................................................................................................ 27 HSBC Hong Kong tower........................................................................................................... 28 Introduction........................................................................................................................ 28 Spaces................................................................................................................................ 28 Form and Style.................................................................................................................... 28 Structures:.......................................................................................................................... 29 Materials:........................................................................................................................... 29 The Fifth Generation from 1997 to the present ............................................................................ 30 Commerzbank (1997).............................................................................................................. 30 Architect............................................................................................................................. 30 Plan& spaces....................................................................................................................... 31 Form and Style.................................................................................................................... 31 Structure ............................................................................................................................ 32 Materials............................................................................................................................ 32 The 6th generation of high rise.................................................................................................... 33 Burj Khalifa............................................................................................................................. 33 Leap 1: Mobility in building.................................................................................................. 34 Leap 2: materials usedin building......................................................................................... 34 Leap 3: Heat........................................................................................................................ 34 Leap 4: speed in construction............................................................................................... 35 Leap 5: wind........................................................................................................................ 35 Leap 6: evacuation .............................................................................................................. 35 Plans :................................................................................................................................. 36
  • 5. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 5 Introduction High-rise building is a building with more than 22.5m in height and is approximately seven stories or higher (Craighead, 2009). The definition of high-rise buildings is stated in the form of linear height even in feet or meters rather than stories. Firstly, the idea of tall building came from the tower of babel complex that helped in changing the thinking to erect higher and higher buildings (Craighead, 2009). This tower was made by brick for stone and asphalt for mortar. After that, in 1853, the invention of first elevator as a new form of vertical transformation by an American, Elisha Grave Otis as shown in figure 1 (Craighead, 2009). In 1871, Chicago was completely destroyed because of using Timber as a material for houses, which helped in making a fire. During 1870s, the invention of steel frames became to appear. Steel frames were used to carry the weight of more floors, so walls acted as a purpose of insulating the building by using clay tiles to the steel supports and used in a fireproof steel skeleton (Craighead, 2009). The invention was not stopped also at this point, but they begun to use movable interior partitioning, which helped in reducing the thickness of walls and increasing the floor space (Craighead, 2009). All of these inventions created a great development in the forms of 5 generations over time that will be discussed well with their case studies. FIGURE 1 FIRST ELEVATOR BY ELISHA OTIS
  • 6. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 6 The causes for making people erected to high-rise buildings: - 1) The increased population leads to an increasing demand for tall buildings. The tall building could take more people on a smaller land. 2) The expansion of cities has lead to the increased travel time, which resulted in losing the fuel. Clustering of tall buildings in areas gave opportunity for open space. 3) Using the roman method of using piles as a foundation, which were driven into the ground creates a strong infrastructure base that made high-rise buildings possible to build instead of the Egyptian method of spread footing (Craighead, 2009). 4) The development from incandescent lamps and forced-air ventilation to the fluorescent lights and air-conditioning systems during the 20th century helped in providing lighting ventilating and heating for large buildings (Craighead, 2009).
  • 7. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 7 The first generation (1885-1916): It was a consequence of progress in structural steel framing and the invention of elevator (Oldfield, 2008). The buildings of this generation characterized by many features which will be discussed in the following points: Introduction Structure: Although these buildings have been used steel frames (fig.2), the covering construction was still affected by traditional load-bearing as it was completely concealed (steel within the brick). (Oldfield, 2008). Form and Shape: The form of these buildings was distinguished by being solid, bulky, compact and gravity-based form. Windows remained small and punctured within walls (fig.3). (Oldfield, 2008) FIGURE 2 FAIR STORE, DETAIL OF FIRE PROOF AND STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION FIGURE 3 MONTAUK BUILDING, SHOW THE SOLID AND VOID RATIO AND THECONCEPTOF HEAVINESS(BASE) VS. LIGHTNESS (CAPITAL)
  • 8. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 8 Architecture styles: Palazzo-style It is born in their attempt to balance between aesthetic aspects with practical commercial design, providing large, square buildings accommodating shops and cafes on the ground floor and rentable offices on the upper floors (fig.4). Modern style: The idea of using steel and metal structures as a new building material which lead to the beginning of modern architecture. Classical style The buildings was divided to three parts represent the classical column (fig.5): -The middle stories, sometimes with little ornaments, act as the shaft -the last floor or two, topped with an ornamented cornice, represent the capital. Materials: This generation begun to use steel and metal structures as a new building material in the sake of for large amount of spaces and maximum amount of light. The exterior walls consisted of brick and cast iron usually used for decorating (fig.6). FIGURE 6 WAINWRIGHTS BUILDING,SHOW THE MASONRY CLADDINGAND DECORATIVE ORNAMENTS FIGURE4 FLATIRON BUILDING, FIGURE 5 HETRIPARTITEORDER IN THE HOMEINSURANCEBUILDING
  • 9. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 9 The Monadnock building: -Loacation: Chicago -Architect: Burnham & Root, Holabird & Roche -Year: 1891; 1893 -Building function: Commercial office building -No. of floor: 16 floors Monadnock building is built in two phases: The northern half: Structure: It is the tallest load-bearing wall building. The building weight is not only supported by the exterior thick wall, but also by the hidden steel framework (fig.9). Materials: The exterior walls are consisted of purple- brown brick (fig.10). The staircase railings are decorated by aluminium (fig.11) FIGURE 8 PICTURE OF THE MONADNOCK BUILDING FIGURE 7 THE ELEVATION OF MONADNOCK BUILDING SHOW THE DIFFERENCE ITS TWO PARTS FIGURE 10 : MASONRY CLADDING FIGURE 11 ALUMINUM RAILING FIGURE 9 THE SECTION OF NORTHERN PART SHOWING THE LOAD-BEARING STRUCTURE
  • 10. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 10 Form and shape: A solid, rectangular shape with chamfered corners (fig.10). Façade: - Chamfered, cantilevered, oriel windows separated by thin windows (fig.13). -The entryways are small and single-height (fig.14). The southern half: The other half is relatively like the first, but different in the following points: Structure: steel frame construction which is reflected in thin exterior wall and wide windows (fig.15). The façade: -It has the concept of horizontality in dividing the building to emphasize the base and the capital cornice (fig.14). FIGURE 12 THE ORIEL CHAMFERED WINDOWS FIGURE 13 THE NORTHERN ENTRYHALL FIGURE 12 THE PLAN OF TWO HALVES FIGURE 14 SHOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE EXTERIOR WALLS THICKNESS OF BOTH HALVES FIGURE 15 THE BASE OF THE SOUTHERN HALF
  • 11. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 11 -The building is topped by a copper cornice ornamented by ancient Egyptian ornament (fig.17). - Two story entrance way (fig.18) Materials: brick and terra cotta cladding. Architecture style: Palazzo-style Since the ground floor is containing restaurant and group of shops and the offices in the upper floors (fig.19) Classical style It is represented in the tripartite division of the building (fig.20). FIGURE 17 ORNAMENTED CORNICE FIGURE 16 ENTRANCE WAY FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19
  • 12. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 12 The second generationof tall buildings: Introduction Pre-world war II era/ Art Deco (1916 – 1940) In 1915, after the completion of the Equitable building in Manhattan, there was a significant problem remarked due to its massive volume which was blocking air and sun light from streets and surrounding buildings. In response, authorities in New York city implemented the 1916 landmark zoning law which forced high rise buildings to step back every few stories to allow sun light and air to penetrate to the street and surrounding buildings. Moreover, the Art Deco style flourished during this era which characterized by geometric ornamentation and decorative methods. Therefore, the subsequent set-backs prescribed by the landmark zoning law created the familiar ziggurat form with its geometric ornaments which symbolized the Art Deco architecture. Examplesof high rise buildingsduringsecond generation: FIGURE 20 SECOND GENERATION SKYSCRAPERS
  • 13. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 13 Characteristics: STYLE: o Art Deco with some features from classic architecture. FORM: o Ziggurat style. o Vast wall surfaces with conventional windows. o The use of geometric patterns to decorate interior and exterior walls. STRUCTURE: o Protected steel frame structures with more than 40 stories. o Central service and circulation core Chrysler building Location: Manhattan, New York, NY, USA Architect: William Van Alen Project Year: 1930 Type: Office building Height: 1,046 ft (318.5 m) Floor count: 77 FIGURE 21 CHRYSLER BUILDING
  • 14. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 14 Concept: The architect wanted the building to be the tallest in the world and to reflect the model of Chrysler manufactured cars. Therefore, he started to increase the story numbers and modify the form many times until he had the desired design and then he decorated it with eagles, car wheals and radiator caps based on the Art Deco style. FIGURE 22 THE DESIGN STAGES OF CHRYSLER BUILDING Form and Style: o Art Deco- style with ziggurat form as the tower steps back every few stories. o A stylized sunburst motif on its stepping spires with silvery metal colour. o The crown includes seven concentric radiating terraced arches with setbacks, mounted up one behind another ad containing triangular vaulted windows on the four facades of the crown. FIGURE 23 THE BUILDING CROWN
  • 15. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 15 Structure: o The structure of the building is a skeleton steel frames with relatively small span distances. o The ziggurat shape forced the service and circulation core to be in the center of the building. FIGURE 24 THE STRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING
  • 16. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 16 Function and Spaces: o The tower is an office building with some activities spaces open to the public. FIGURE 25 PLANS OF THE CHRYSLER BUILDING
  • 17. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 17 o The tower has entrances on three sides heading to the main lobby which is richly decorated with numerous compositions of Art Deco in red and blue marble and steel. FIGURE 26 THE MAIN LOBBY o The shops, restaurants are open to the public as well as the observatory on the 71st floor which includes a powerful telescope and a café. FIGURE 27 THE OBSERVATION DECK
  • 18. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 18 Materials: o Steel frames encased in concrete to protect it from fire. o The interiors were cladded by marble and granite while the exterior walls were cladded by stainless steel, masonry and bricks. o The metal cladding refers to the cars as a symbol of machine age. FIGURE 28 THE BUILDING’S INTERIORS Aesthetic Features and Ornamentation: o A series of sculptures resembled the American eagles stare out over the city. FIGURE 29 THE AMERICAN EAGLE o White and dark bricks of its facades emphasizes the horizontality of windows rows. o The lower setbacks are decorated by ornaments resembled car wheels.
  • 19. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 19 o The area around the openings was richly decorated by geometric patterns of silvery carved stone which represented the Art Deco style. FIGURE 30 BRICKS AND CARVED STONES DECORATIONS
  • 20. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 20 Third Generation The concepts Industrialism By the middle of 19th century the society of the United States Begin to grow and called for new type of buildings. Moreover, because of the steelproduction they started to use steel in building structure especially for high rise building like: 860-880 lake shore drive apartment. Minimalism and “less is more “ Minimalism is a school where simplicity and purity are expressions of aesthetic beauty by the side of functionalism. It minimizes form, unnecessary materials, decorative facades (ornamentation) and color to their most basic levels. "Less is more" express the focus of Minimalism in search for the easy way to accomplish a framework. Like: Barcelona Pavilion. FIGURE 31 STEEL FRAME OF LAKE SHORE APARTMENT DURING CONSTRUCTION FIGURE 32 BARCELONA PAVILION
  • 21. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 21 Internationalstyle of modern architecture: It was appeared in Europe and brought to United States in 20th century. The features of this Style structures are rectilinear structures; light, neat plane surfaces that have been totally take off utilized ornamentation and beautification; open inside spaces; and a visually weightless quality like the seagram building Design features  Open floor plans  Large fixed glass panel  Steel frame structure  Rigid frame  Tube frame structure FIGURE 33 THE SEAGRAMBUILDING AND IT'S PLAN
  • 22. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 22 The Lake Shore Drive apartments  Address: 880 N Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, USA  Area:4,900 m²  Year built: 1949 – 1951  Architect: Ludwing mies van der rohe.  Building type: residential building  Height: 26 floors Plan Analysis: Mies van der rohe designed the two buildings differently, as in 860 building each floor contain of 4 apartments and each apartment divided into 6 rooms. mies designed the common large space which has the living room and the dining room. FIGURE 36 BUILDING APARTMENT PLAN FIGURE 34 860-880 LAKE SHORE DRIVE BUILDINGS FIGURE 35 BUILDING FLOOR PLAN
  • 23. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 23 While in 880 building the area of an apartment in each floor was half the area of an apartment in 860 building, it has in each floor 8 apartments and each apartment have three and half rooms. Throughout years most of the apartments attached together to give more space to the living rooms. FIGURE 37 BUILDING APARTMENT PLAN FIGURE 38 BUILDING FLOOR PLAN
  • 24. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 24 Form and style The buildings were the first expression of the second Chicago school of architecture and the first step toward industrialization. The buildings are very simple rectangular forms with rigid frame which are built perpendicular to each other. The buildings facades were lack of ornamentation which were very odd in this era as they used ornamentation on the façade of the buildings. structure was hidden within architecture’, this term expressed in this building in different ways,as the steelframe of the structure system was exposed on the façade of the building.
  • 25. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 25 Structuresystem: The structure system that was used is the steelskeletal rigid frame that appear on the exterior façade which the architect wanted the inner structure to appear. A dark painted steel sheets covering the insulated columns and beams. Each facade is subdivided into four window units by three wide- spine steelmullions. Inside these divisions aluminum-confined floor- to-roof windows are set. A large glass panel were placed on the aluminum frame. I- beamed are welded to the mullions and columns just for decorative as it is false structure which is more aesthetic than functional. The buildings are separated into 5 bays cross and 3 bays deep. FIGURE 39 THE STEEL STRUCTURE SYSTEM OF THE LAKE SHORE FIGURE 40 THE WELDED I- BEAM
  • 26. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 26 Materials: The materials that were used in constructed the towers are the Steel that was used in the structure of the building, aluminum that is used in the construction of the frame of the windows, glass for the openings of the facades. Fourth generation Background Information: - The third generation saw the arising of Chicago second school of architecture which was after the Second World War. The origins of the school emerged in the 1920s. During this era the architects wanted to head towards the modernity and make use of all the new chances available and to forget about the past. There was two events that shaped the architecture of this era: The world war and the great depression. The world war caused immigration of citizens from several countries, the United States hosted immigrants from different countries. As a result of this many architects and artists from Europe was attracted to the united states bringing with them their styles of architecture and this takes us to the pioneers. (The Guardian, 2015) FIGURE41 LAKE SHORE DRIVE APARTMENT BUILDING
  • 27. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 27 Pioneers: Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe was the first and most important pioneer in that time. He is a German architect that came to Chicago in 1938 with the desire of modernism against tradition in America. Rohe was the catalyst of emerging Chicago second school of architecture. The function and style of this school was residential towers in the 1940s and office buildings in the 1950s. He was a pioneer in the development of European modernism and came to Chicago to run Armour Institute of Technology which is now Illinois Institute of Technology where he was a director until 1958. Walter Gropius (1883-1969) (Visual arts, 2012) Materials used are Glass, steel and reinforced concrete, the new materials helped in arising of aesthesis and use of different claddings. The usage of these materials were decided upon the concerns of life and fire safety related to the high rise buildings. This generation was mostly using the structures types of tube and core. Reinforced concrete and steel framed types were also used in this generation. The types of structures used are: Steel framed core construction Steel framed tube construction Reinforced concrete construction Steel framed reinforced concrete construction (Craighead, G. 2009.) FIGURE 33 MIES VAN DER ROHE
  • 28. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 28 HSBC Hong Kong tower Introduction With the handover of Hong Kong to Beijing looming, HSBC's board wanted a dominant symbol of the political power assigned to their bank. Norman foster was an English architect that started in 1960s High tech architecture. (The guardian). Spaces The tower is consisted of three individual towers which are twenty nine, thirty six and forty four stories high and this creates floors of varying width and depth and allow making a roof garden. There is a ten story atrium between the towers in which the services is pushed into giving more spaces into the stories. Some stories are double height which is used in welcoming people (reception and enquiries) and a picnic spot at the ground level. Form and Style The tower is consisted of three towers with different heights and connected with bridges for circulation. The three towers are around an atrium. The style of this building is High Tech which is introduced by Sir Norman Foster and have certain features. FIGURE 42 NIGHT VISION OF HSBC BANK FIGURE 43 HSBC PLAN FIGURE 44 HSBC ATRIUM
  • 29. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 29 Structures: The structure of the tower depends mainly on prefabricated structures due to the excess of million square feet to be built on. Pairs of steel masts are arranged into three bays making three towers which makes the three individual towers. Materials: Steel and glass ( Foster and Partners, 2018) FIGURE 45 HSBC TOWERS FIGURE 46 SECTION OF HSBC BANK
  • 30. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 30 The Fifth Generationfrom 1997 to the present The deference between fourth and fifth generation is that in fourth generation the aim is to enhance energy performance, but in fifth generation the aim is to reduce energy consumption. Tall buildings in this generation are characterized by having a high surface area to volume ratio. It is also characterized by allowing natural and mixed-mode ventilation to go through the building and trying to explore sources with low and zero carbon. The first tall building achieving these characteristics was Commerzbank in Frankfurt 1997 and also frank Lloyd wright’s price tower in Oklahoma 1956. Commerzbank (1997) FIGURE 47 THE COMMERZBANK IN FRANKFURT Architect Norman Foster, in Frankfurt, Germany. Commerzbank is considered the tallest building in Europe that provides that it is possible to create a sustainable and energy consumption system at the scale of skyscraper.
  • 31. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 31 Plan& spaces The plan takes the shape of triangle with a central atrium space. The elevators, stairs and mechanical systems were pushed to the outer space for atrium. The atrium is used to bring lights directly to the heart of the building FIGURE 48 THE PLAN OF COMMERZBANK Form and Style The form of the building helped to penetrate light into the central space (atrium) during summer and winter. Winter gardens around the façade create voids that are helped in allowing natural lighting and ventilation to go through the building and also it hasdifferent functions such as offices that are at the center of the building can provide light and view through garden and also garden spaces create more green for the users, which it could help for create good environment. Both centralatrium and winter garden provide light, glass roof at the atrium provide vertical light and winter garden façades provide horizontal lights. FIGURE 49 WINTER GARDEN IN
  • 32. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 32 Structure The system used in the building was rigid structural system provided by an equilateral triangle. It exists cores at each corner, which provide the vertical load support for the entire structure. The 8 floors were made by vierendeel trusses from the garden to the core. Materials The building was made by steel using rigid structure connections. The glass, where is putted at the facades was made to get fresh air and exhaust of old air. FIGURE 50 RIGID FRAME STRUCTURE FIGURE 51 THE CONNECTIONS OF FIGURE 52 THE WINDOWS AT THE
  • 33. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 33 The 6th generation of high rise After the war II until now the construction had been improvement. They focused to solve the main problems that had affected hardly in the past. They interested in construction and fire system and wind resistance. They used steel-framed construction and reinforced concrete . FIGURE 54 THE TALLEST HIGH RISE IN THE WORLD Burj Khalifa Location: Dubai, united Arab Year of built: 2004-2010 Contain 2 towers, podium construction, 160 levels, and 6 garages Area: 4000000 sq. FIGURE 53 BURJ KHALIFA FIGURE 55 PLACES OF ELEVATORS
  • 34. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 34 Leap 1: Mobility in building A majorobstacle inthe face of skyscrapersisthe stairs.The capacity of the Burj Khalifais30,000 people.Parallel tosmall city, itisthe biggestchallenge withthe large numbersof 53 different elevatorsmovingataspeedof more than 35 kilometersperhour andclimbing120 floorsinlessthan 50 seconds.itcouldholdweight42 people. The elevatorisinstalledbythe springof powercars placedonthe roomof thisspringisconnectedtoa setof iron fittingsonbothsidesof the elevator. The nettingmoves ona rail installedinaserratedline whenthe rope breaks.The chainispractically releasedandthe springleansanddrivesthe stacks. Leap 2: materials used in building The designers used 30000 tons of steel and cement and made flexible joints between the wall absorbs movement so as not to damage the entire wall as the joints expand and contract with passing Leap 3: Heat The building is designed with a glass wall so it allows large light to enter the building but enters the sun. The purpose is to absorb the heat so the situation will become annoying and air conditioners should be used with temperatures up to 40 and 90% humidity in a harsh environment. : The outer panel covered with metal prevents the entry of ultraviolet light, while the inner panel covered with silver, which prevents infrared radiation, which emits from the desert sands and was used 30000 board FIGURE 56 EXPLANATION OF MATERIALS USED FIGURE 57 CLADDING SYSTEM AT MECHANICALLEVEL FIGURE 58 CLADDING SYSTEM
  • 35. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 35 Leap 4: speed in construction Use the Cladding system in construction or "quick construction". The process begins at the bottom of the building. Collecting the steel cages that become supporting the floors of the tower, lifting the steel cages and inserting them with special molds. The quick construction blocks. The cement is placed. After 12 hours the mold is ready to move. To climb to the next round Leap 5: wind The tower is 828 meters long, so a steel exterior structure is not enough, so the building is designed in a flat, every section of the tower designed to reverse the wind to break the force of the vortices and neutralize the wind effect of the building FIGURE 60 RESISTS WIND LOAD Leap 6: evacuation Because it is the largest tower in the world so there must be a way to evacuate in the case of fire, the work of the pillars of cement fire-resistant, but not enough, how people will get out in the presence of fire answer will not come out. Burj Khalifa has 9 private rooms, built of reinforced concrete and fire-resistant doors. Each room has a private air outlet pumped through fire-resistant pipes. There is a room on every 30 floors FIGURE 59 LOWER SHAPE DEIGN
  • 36. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 36 Plans: FIGURE 61 GROUND FLOOR PLANFIGURE 62 TYPICAL OFFICE FLOOR PLAN FIGURE 64 TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL FLOOR FIGURE 63 TYPICAL HOTEL FLOOR FIGURE 65 PODIUM PLANFIGURE 66 – PODIUM LEVEL 1
  • 37. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 37 Conclusionand recommendation: The development of tall buildings has been passed through five generation, each one has different style, technology, materials and features which are concluded in the following table: Generation Buildings Material Structure Style Form First generation -Montauk building 1882 -Monadnock building 1893 -Home insurance building 1885 -Bricks -Stone - cast iron for decorating -Load bearing wall system and steel frame -Palazzo- style -Modern style -Classical style -Solid, bulky and compact -Small windows Second generation -Chrysler building 1930 -500 5th avenue 1931 -Stainless - steel -Marble -Stone -protected steel frame -Central core -Art deco with some features of classical style -Ziggurat form -Vast wall with conventional windows -Geometric shapes in decorating Third generation -river place tower 1967 -Lake shore building 1949 -Seagram building 1958 -Steel frames - glass panel - Prefabricated steel musts and frames -High-tech style -Symmetrical -Open and flexible plans Fourth generation -Hotel arts 1994 -HSBC building 1986 - Steel framing -Reinforced concrete cladding system Piles structure system -High-tech style - Geomagnetic plan Fifth generation -Commerz bank 1997 -National commercial bank 1984 -Burj Khalifa 2010 -Steel -Glass panel -Zero carbon material -Rigid structure system -Verendeel trusses -High-tech style -Sustainable architecture -High surface area to volume ratio -Slender shape
  • 38. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 38 The history of high rise buildings prove that the era and technology can have a great impact on architectural style and form of that time, such as the Chicago fire and using steel as a new building material, the invention of elevator and the birth of the tall building and the relation between sustainability and green buildings, so this topic must be more researched and discussed to discover between society, technology and architectural styles.
  • 39. 17 ARCH11l ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (5) HIGH RISE BUILDING HISTORICAL TIMELINE, ARCHITECTURAL STYLE, TYPOLOGY AND MATERIALS 39 References: Craighead, G. (2009). High-rise security and fire life safety. Oxford, USA: ButterworthHeinemann. - Oldfield, P. (2009, octobar 25). Five-energy-generations-of-tall-buildings. Retrieved March 15, 2010 from CTBUH Research Paper:http://global.ctbuh.org/resources/papers/download/403-five- generations-of-tallbuildings-an-historical-analysis-of-energy-consumption-in-high-rise-buildings.pdf Oldfield, P. (2008). Five energy generation of tall buildings. Chicago: Council on tall building and urban habitat. archiseek. (2014). 1951 – 860-880 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois . Retrieved from archiseek: http://archiseek.com/2009/1951-860-880-lake-shore-drive-chicago-illinois/ Canvas Network. (2013). Architecture and the Industrial Revolution. Retrieved from Canvas Network: https://learn.canvas.net/courses/24/pages/m9-architecture-and-the-industrial-revolution Illinois Institue of Technology . (2015). 860-880 Lake Shore Apartment. Retrieved from Mies Van Der Rohe Society : http://miessociety.org/mies/projects/860-880-lake-shore-apartments/ Lake Shore Drive Apartment . (2014). Retrieved from slide share : https://www.slideshare.net/sumashukla37/lake-shore-apartments Visual arts cork. (2015). International Style of Modern Architecture. Retrieved from Visual arts cork: http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/architecture/international-style.htm Visual Arts Cork. (2016). Second Chicago School (c.1940-75). Retrieved from Visual Arts Cork: http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/architecture/second-chicago-school.htm