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Herb Gardening
in the Low Desert
Mike & Carolyn Hills
Arizona Herb Association
&
Maricopa County
Master Gardeners
Mike C
a
r
ol
y
n
AZHerb.org
@HerbArizona
Facebook/ArizonaHerb
info@azherb.org
And, there’s ROSEMARY
….That’s for remembrance.
W.Shakespeare
http://www.nothyme.com/herbs/rosemary.cfm
Our Personal Soapbox
Sun Protection Tools
Arizona has the
highest
incidence of
skin cancer in
the USA, with
300+ sun days
per year
http:azcc.arizona.edu/prevent/
Skin_Prevent.htm
AZ Gardening Tools
Regular skin checkup
And, it’s not just about skin cancer
• Excess sun exposure can cause:
• premature aging
• wrinkled, leathery and rough skin
• sunburn
• skin cancer
Sun Protective Clothing
www.sunprotectiveclothing.com
BAKER
NURSERY and
Other Local,
Family Owned
Gardener
Friendly
Nurseries &
Garden Shops
PLUS,
Sports Stores
What We’ll Talk About Today
• Intro to MGs & AHA
• What’s an Herb?
• Where to Plant/How to Grow
• Top Reasons Why Herbs Die Here
• Recommended Gardens to Tour
• Recommended Books
What We’ll Talk About Today
• Where to Buy/Botanical Names
• Pop Quiz
• Garden Tour
• Break
• Parade of Herbs
• Summary
• Questions
Maricopa County
Master Gardeners
• 600 Volunteers who “help promote
environmentally responsible gardening &
landscaping in the Low Desert”
– Desert Garden Institute
– Ambassadors
– Speakers Bureau
– Hotline, Website, List Serve, Publications
• http://cals.arizona.edu/maricopa/garden/
• Garden Questions 602-470-8086
Maricopa County
Master Gardeners
• Become a Master Gardener Volunteer!
• Call 602-470-8086 for next training
• http://cals.arizona.edu/maricopa/garden/
html/mgs/mg-broch.htm
Arizona Herb Association
est. 1988
• 100-200 herb enthusiasts
• Meet 1st Thursday of each month
(except Summer) 7:00 p.m.
• Speakers on all aspects of herbs
• Demonstration Garden
• Scholarships & Public Service
• www.azherb.org for location & topic
• Or 602-470-8086 ext 830
Arizona Herb Association
Herb Demonstration Garden
Arizona Herb Association
Culinary Group
“Herb” vs. “Erb” (and “Yerba”)
• Oxford English Dictionary -- “Herb”
• Webster’s American Dictionary –
either pronunciation accepted.
• “Yerba” is the Spanish word for herb
– Yerba Anis (Mexican Tarragon)
– Yerba Mansa (Swamp Root)
– Yerba Buena (Spearmint)
What is an Herb?
• An Herb is a PLANT:
– Trees
– Shrubs and sub-shrubs
– Vines
– Woody-stemmed perennials
– Herbaceous plants
– annual, perennial and biennual
– Ferns
– Fungi (current research for sunscreen pill extract)
What is an Herb?
• A Herb is a USEFUL Plant:
– Culinary
– Medicinal
– Crafting
– Dyes
– Religious/Cultural/Ceremonial
– Beauty/Personal Care
– Aroma
What Part of the Herb is Used?
• Roots
• Stems
• Leaves
• Flowers
• Fruits
(Seeds or Bark = Spices)
Where do Herbs Come From?
Every Land Mass – Every Culture
Climate Origin Clues
for Growing Herbs
• Central Europe –
cool & moist
• Eurasia – cool and
moderate moisture
• Mediterranean –
dry & hot
• Africa – dry & hot
OR tropical & wet
• Central America –
tropical hot & wet
• South America –
variable – Where?
• Mexico – dry & hot OR
tropical & wet
• North America –
variable – Where?
• Southeast Asia –
tropical hot & wet
• China – variable –
Where?
Herbs are Easy to Grow in
the Low Desert
• Many popular & common herbs
originated in the Mediterranean or
North Africa, places with:
– hot climates
– low rainfall
– alkaline soils
• Just like Southwest
USA
Green French Lavender
Culinary Sage
Herbs are Easy to Grow in
the Low Desert
• Many other herbs originated in tropical
Southeast Asia, Equatorial Africa, or
tropical South & Central America.
• Love our heat, but need additional:
– organic matter
– water
– fertilizer
Lemongrass
Basil
Where Should You Plant Herbs?
Traditional Herb Garden
from “Practical Herb Garden” by J. Houdret
Where Should You Plant Herbs?
Cloister Garden
from “Practical Herb Garden” by J. Houdret
Where Should You Plant Herbs?
Tudor “Knot” Garden
from “Practical Herb Garden” by J. Houdret
Where Should You Plant Herbs?
Mesquite Herb Garden
Where Should You Plant Herbs?
Another Mesquite Herb Garden
Where Should You Plant Herbs?
Aloe vera in a Xeriscape Landscape
Where Should You Plant Herbs?
Chaparral Sage in a Landscape
Where Should You Plant Herbs?
African Blue Basil on a Patio
Where Should You Plant Herbs?
Apple Mint as Garden Art
Where Should You Plant Herbs?
Rosemary Trailing Over a Wall
Where Should You Plant Herbs?
Rosemary Trailing Over a Parking Garage
Where Should You Plant Herbs?
Rosemary at a Gas Station
Where Should You Plant Herbs?
Rosemary as a hedge
Where Should You Plant Herbs?
Breadseed (Opium) & California
Poppies in a Wildflower Mix
Where Should You Plant Herbs?
Breadseed Poppies in a Wildflower Mix
Where Should You Plant Herbs?
Yerba Mansa in a Pond Environment
Where Should You Plant Herbs?
Anywhere!!
Yerba Mansa in a Birdbath
Top Reasons Why Herbs Die
#1
• You planted at the wrong time!
• Our planting calendar is “backward”
Fall is primary planting season here
– Parsley
– Dill
– Fennel
– Cilantro
– Onions/Garlics
Top Reasons Why Herbs Die
#2
• You chose the wrong site for your variety.
Variegated Sage Can’t Survive full sun or bad drainage
Top Reasons Why Herbs Die
#3
• You over-watered!
French Lavender Dead from Root Rot
Top Reasons Why Herbs Die
#4
• Perennial/Bienniel elsewhere, Annual here!
Parsley Transplants Just Can’t Survive our Hot Summers
Photo Courtesy of
www.johnnyseeds.com
Plant
from
seed for
best
success!
Local Herb Gardens to Tour
• Desert Botanical Garden
• Boyce Thompson Arboretum
• Tucson Botanical Garden
• Arboretum at Flagstaff
• Tohono Chul Park – Tucson
• Maricopa County Extension
Beware of Most Herb Books
and Magazines
• Written in U.K. or Northeastern U.S.
• Poor guidelines for Low Desert
– planting/harvesting calendars
– sunlight/water requirements
• Great for photos, uses, history, design
ideas, recipes, etc.
• CHECK www.herbsociety.org
Recommended Gardening &
Herb Books
• Desert Gardening for
Beginners (Arizona
Master Gardener Press)
– How to grow vegetables,
flowers and herbs in an
arid climate
– Covers all the basics for
desert gardeners
Recommended Gardening &
Herb Books
• Gardening in the
Desert (Mary F. Irish,
U of A Press)
– How to grow vegetables,
flowers and herbs in an
arid climate
– Practical advice on
plants and gardening
practices for anyone who
lives in the Southwest
Recommended Gardening &
Herb Books
• Low-Desert Herb
Gardening Handbook
(Arizona Herb Association)
– Herb planting & harvesting
month by month
– Specifically written for low-
desert herb gardening
Recommended Gardening &
Herb Books
• Desert Landscaping for
Beginners (Arizona
Master Gardener Press)
– Tips and techniques for
success in an arid climate
– Ch. 12 - Rose Care
– Appendix B - Rose
Varieties for the Low
Desert
Recommended Gardening &
Herb Books
• Earth-Friendly Desert
Gardening (Arizona
Master Gardener Press)
– Environmentally
responsible
gardening & landscaping
in the low desert
– Growing in harmony with
nature saves time, money,
and resources
Shopping for Herbs to Plant
• “Big Box” Stores
– Good for “basic” herb plants/seeds... standard culinary
• Chain Nurseries
– Nice herb selection. Shop around!
• Local family-owned nursery
– If they don’t have it, they’ll order it! Wider selection
• Botanical Garden or Arboretum Plant Sale
– Interesting “native” or “regional” herbs
• Arizona Herb Association
– Hard-to-find herbs, cheap!
Shopping for Herbs to Plant
• Pinch, sniff and taste the culinary herbs!
• Won’t taste any different when growing
in your garden
• Make sure you like them before you buy!
• Catalog/Internet - Caution - wrong
planting season & transit damage
Botanical (Latin) Names
• Many unrelated plants have similar
common names
• One plant may have multiple
common names (different
languages/dialects)
• Learn the botanical name to be sure
you get the CORRECT PLANT
Botanical (Latin) Names
• Common Names Can Be Confusing!
• “Basil Mint”
• “Cinnamon Basil”
• “Oregano Thyme”
• “Cuban Oregano”
(also called “Spanish Thyme”)
– NOT Oregano
– NOT Thyme (Plectranthus amboinicus)
– NOT from Cuba
– NOT from Spain
Botanical (Latin) Names
• Common Names Can Be Confusing!
• Mexican Bush Oregano
– NOT Origanum (Lippia graveolens)
– But, does contain oregano essential oils
• “Real” Oreganos (Origanum spp.)
– Dittany of Crete
– Wooly Oregano
– Not recommended for cooking!!
• Mexican Tarragon
– Root beer Plant --Yerbanis --Pericon
– Winter Tarragon --Poor Man’s Tarragon
• Aztec/Nahuatl – Tzitziqui, Teyatli
• Chinese (Cantonese)
• 甜 菊萬壽 [tìhm maahn sauh gūk]
• Chinese (Mandarin)
• 甜 菊萬壽 [tián wàn shòu jú]
• Danish - Mexikansk Esdragon
• German - Samtblume, Winterestragon,
Mexicanischer Estragon
• French - Tagète, Estragon du Mexique
• English - Pericon, Mexican mint marigold,
Winter tarragon, Mexican tarragon, Sweet
mace, Spanish tarragon, Florida tarragon,
Texas tarragon
• Spanish/Mexican - Yauhtli, Pericón Amarillo,
Yerba Anis, Yerba Santa Maria, Anisillo
• Swedish - Mexikansk dragon
Botanical (Latin) Names
G E N U S
M e n t h a
F O R M
L . s t o e c h a s
f. le u c a n t h a
S U B S P E C I E S
L . s t o e c h a s
s u b s p .
p e d u n c u la t a
S P E C I E S
L . s t o e c h a s
C U L T I V A R
L . x in t e r m e d ia
'G r a p p e n h a ll'
C U L T I V A R
L . x in t e r m e d ia
'S e a l'
H Y B R I D
L . x in t e r m e d ia
S P E C I E S
L . la t ifo lia
C U L T I V A R
L . a n g u s t ifo lia
'H id c o t e '
C U L T I V A R
L . a n g u s t ifo lia
'M u n s t e a d '
S P E C I E S
L . a n g u s t ifo lia
V A R I E T Y
L . d e n t a t a
v a r . c a n d ic a n s
S P E C I E S
L . d e n t a t a
G E N U S
L a v a n d u la
G E N U S
A c h ille a
F A M I L Y
L A B I A T A E / L A M I A C E A E
Chart Courtesy of “Practical Herb Garden” by J. Houdret
Soil Preparation
• DRAINAGE is KEY!
• Do NOT discard your native soil
• Add organic amendments
• Add phosphorous containing fertilizer
when preparing beds
• Only add Nitrogen fertilizers to tropical,
fast-growing herbs
• Add gravel, coarse sand, pumice to
increase drainage where needed
» SEE ROOT ROT PREVENTION HANDOUT
Watering Considerations
• Check references to see if your herb
choices are from dry or tropical areas
• Group the plants in the garden with
others with similar water needs
• Dry origin herbs will thrive on drip
irrigation, especially with more drainage
• Mulch around ROOTS to maintain
uniform moisture - do NOT mulch stems
• Adjust watering as seasons change
Note:
• We ain’t doctors!
• We ain’t herbalists!
• We ain’t naturopaths!
• We ain’t shamen!
• We ARE providing information on
historical and traditional uses of herbs.
Pop Quiz
Are These Herbs??
?
Mesquite
• Prosopis spp.
• YES!!
– Beans ground into a
nutritious flour,
beneficial to
diabetics
– Sap used as a dye by
Native Americans
– Bark boiled into a
medicinal tea by
Native Americans
Prickly Pear/Indian Fig Cactus
• Opuntia ficus-indica
• YES!!
– Pads used to treat
wounds and sunburn
– Pads and fruit are
eaten as a slow-
digesting
carbohydrate,
beneficial to
diabetics
– Cochineal scale host
Bermudagrass
• Cynodon dactylon
• YES!!
– Underground stems /
rhizomes used as
medicinal diuretic
– Used in Hindu
wedding ceremonies
Vinca-Madagascar
Periwinkle
• Catharanthus roseus
• YES!!
– Anti-witchcraft herb
– Contains vincamine
• dilates blood vessels
• reduces blood pressure
– Treats cardiovascular
disorders
– Research to treat
several viral diseases
Poppy-California
• Eschscholzia californica
• YES!!
– Sedative
– Topical pain reliever
– Relieves anxiety,
nervous tension &
insomnia
– Diuretic properties
– Promotes perspiration
– Edible seeds
Photo Courtesy of Sandy Wagner
Sage-Texas Ranger
• Leucophyllum
frutescens
• NO!! Got You!!
• Well, maybe......
Possible Native
American historical
medicinal uses......
Lemon
• Citrus limonum
• YES!!
– Juice is natural
antibiotic
– Oil from peel
removes sticky labels
– Many culinary uses
for juice and peel
– Leaves are a culinary
flavoring in soups &
stir fries
– Edible flower
Agave-Century Plant
• Agave americana
• YES!!
– Sap has anti-inflammatory
properties
• relieves burns, bites & stings
– Roots used for washing
clothes as a traditional
“soap” substitute
– Fibers woven into rope
– Powdered leaf makes snuffPhoto Courtesy Mountain States Wholesale Nursery
How Many Did You Get
Right??
? Are you already
suspecting that
you may be a
“secret “ herb
gardener,
unbeknownst to
yourself?
B R E A K
Let’s Look at Some Herbs!
• Remember -- pinch, sniff & taste the
culinary herbs!!
• All samples organically grown
• Parade of Herbs
Agave-Century Plant
• Agave americana
– N. American desert origin
– Full sun/drainage
– Sap has anti-inflammatory
properties
• relieves burns, bites &
stings
– Roots used for washing
clothes & as a traditional
“soap” substitute
– Fibers woven into rope
– Powdered leaf makes snuff
Photo Courtesy Mountain States Wholesale Nursery
Aloe
• Aloe vera or Aloe
barbadensis
– African desert origin
– Filtered shade
– Exceptional healing
properties
• apply externally to wounds,
burns, sunburn, eczema, etc.
– Anti-inflammatory & anti-
microbial agents
– Taken internally for
digestive tract problems
– Laxative properties
Arugula - “Rocket”
• Eruca vesicaria
subsp. Sativa
– Central Europe
– Garden soil & water
– edible flower
– fresh leaves as a
flavoring for salads
– seeds as mustard
substitute
Photo Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
Basil
• Ocimum basillicum
– Tropical Asia & Africa
– Add water, fertilizer & O.M.
– Prune blooms HARD & use
– Antidepressant, antiseptic,
soothing properties
– Fresh leaves rubbed on insect
bites and stings relieves
itching
– Made into a cough syrup
with honey
– Leaves used in steam
inhalations for decongestion
– Many culinary uses!
Basil - many varieties & flavors
Magical Michael African Variegated
Mrs. Burns’
Lemon
Bay-Greek Laurel
• Laurus nobilis
– Mediterranean origin
– Harm from salt & wind
– Deep irrigations helpful
– Very effective in
controlling bacterial
growth
– Culinary herb in soups,
stews and beans, plus
always used in bouquet
garni
Calendula-Pot Marigold
• Calendula officinalis
– Eurasia origin
– Garden soil and care
– Anti-inflammatory,
antiseptic properties
– Antibacterial and antifungal
– Ointment sooths irritated
chapped skin, eczema,
insect bites & sunburn
– “Poor man’s saffron”
– Petals used in salads for
peppery taste
– Used in some herbal teas
Photo Courtesy of Sandy Wagner
Caper
• Capparis spinosa
– Mediterranean
origin
– Frost sensitive
– edible flowers, buds
and young leaves
– contains anti-oxidant
flavinoid: Rutin
– researchers are
investigating the
potential as an
extract and a pulp in
cosmetics
Caper
Photo Courtesy of www.australiacapers.com.auPhoto A.H.A.
Cardamom
• Elettaria
cardamomum
– Tropical Asia
– Enriched soil, shade
– Antidepressant
properties
– Digestive aid
– Relieves hiccups
– Seeds are chewed to
freshen the breath
– Seeds are ground for
culinary spice use
Carnation
• Dianthus caryophyllus
– Eurasian origins
– Garden soil & care
– Historical medicinal uses
• not used for that today
– Fresh flowers added to
salads, floated in drinks
– Crystallized flowers
garnish cakes & dessertsPhoto Courtesy of www.thegardenhelper.com
Castor Bean
• Ricinus communis
• Asia & Africa
• Varied conditions
• Frost sensitive small tree
• POISONOUS!!!
– Castor oil is a laxative
– Castor oil also used in
contraceptive creams and
eye medications
– Used in insecticides &
lubricants
– Seeds ground into ricin, a
blood coagulant
Photo Courtesy of www.cambridge2000.com
Catmint
• Nepeta sibirica
or Nepeta mussinii
– Eurasian origin
– Garden soil & care
– Lowers fever, increases
perspiration, mildly
sedative
– Treats colds, influenza,
nervous tension, anxiety &
gastric upsets
– Applied externally to cuts
and bruises
– Stimulating, minty tea
– Edible flowers
Photo Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
Catnip
• Nepeta cataria
– Eurasian origin
– Garden soil & care
– Short-lived perennial
– Uses similar to
Catmint
– Also used as a salad
ingredient
– Relaxing tea herb -
Primary ingredient in
“Sleepytime” type
herbal teas
– Stimulant for some
felines, all speciesPhoto courtesy of www.ontariowildflowers.com
Chamomile
• Matricaria recutita
(German)/Annual &
Chamaemelum nobile
(Roman)/Perennial
• Central European origin
• Garden soil & care
• Shade required in heat
– Antiseptic, anti-
inflammatory
– Tea helps with nausea &
indigestion
– Tea promotes calm,
stress reduction and
sound sleep
– Edible flower
Photo Courtesy of Sandy Wagner
Chaste Tree (Vitex)
(Monk’s Pepper Tree)
• Vitex agnus-castus
– Mediterranean
– Landscape tree
– Relaxant
– Pain-relieving
properties
– Reduces libido
– Dried seeds used as
a substitute for black
peppercorns
Chaste Tree (Vitex)
Chervil
• Anthriscus
cerefolium
– Eurasian origin
– Garden soil & care
– Winter annual
– Mild digestive
properties
– Very delicate flavor
for salads & culinary
– Part of fines herbes
combination
Photo Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
Chicory
• Chichorium intybus
– Eurasian origins
– Improved garden soil
– Bitter tonic herb
– Dried, crushed root
made into infusions
for digestive upset &
to improve appetite
– Mild stimulant &
laxative
– Added to salads
Chili/Chile Peppers
Nahuatl/Aztec = Chilli Spanish = Chile
• Capsicum spp.
– Central & S. America
– Good soil, fert. & water
– Analgesic properties
– Increases perspiration
– Beneficial with heart
attack victims
– Many culinary uses
fresh or dried
Photos Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
Chives-Edible Blossom
• Allium
schoenoprasum
– Eurasia origins
– Improved garden soil
– No medical
applications
– Culinary uses
– Edible flower
Photos Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
Chives-Garlic
(Chives-Chinese)
• Allium tuberosum
– ALL GARDENS
SHOULD HAVE!!!
– Garden soil & care
– many culinary uses
fresh, as a garlic or
chives substitute
Cilantro(leaf-herb)/Coriander(seed-spice)
• Coriandrum sativum
• WINTER ANNUAL
• Eurasian origins
• Garden soil & care
– digestive aid
– appetite stimulant
– fungicidal and
antibacterial uses
– seed extract lowers
blood cholesterol
– Many culinary uses
around the world
Cilantro/Coriander-Vietnamese
• Polygonum
odoratum
• Tropical Asia
• Summer Harvest
• Garden soil & care
• Frost sensitive
– fresh leaves used as
a perennial
substitute for
cilantro in many
Asian recipes
Photo Courtesy of www.mountainvalleygrowers.com
Clematis Vine
• Clematis recta
• POISONOUS!!!
– Traditional and
historic medicinal
uses for a variety of
ailments
Photo Courtesy of www.ces.ncsu.edu
Coreopsis – Lance Leaved
• Coreopsis lanceolata
• N. American prairies
• Garden soil & care or
on drip in xeriscape
– traditional dye plant
for natural fibers -
cotton, wool and plant
fibers for linen and
baskets
Creosote
• Larrea tridentata
• N. American deserts
• Xeriscape planting
– anti-oxidant
properties
– cancer treatment
– immune system
stimulant
– general tonic
Dandelion
• Taraxacum officinale
• Garden soil and care
• Central Europe
– Medicinal tonics
– Diuretic and urinary
infections
– Appetite stimulant
– Digestive aid
– Edible leaf for salads
– Edible flower
– Flowers for wine
Photo Courtesy of Sandy Wagner
Datura-Sacred
(Jimson Weed - Devil’s Apple)
• Datura innoxia or Datura
wrightii or Datura
strammonium
• POISONOUS!!!
– N. American deserts
– Xeriscape plantings
– Traditional Native American
ceremonial and medicinal
uses
– EXTREMELY toxic
– Preferred food plant for larval
Hawk and Sphinx Moths
Devil’s Claw
• Proboscidea
louisianica
• N. American deserts
• Xeriscape plantings
– Dried black fibers
used in basket
weaving
– Traditional
medicinal uses
– Edible pods when
young and tender
Dianthus - (Clove Pink)
• Dianthus spp.
• Eurasian origin
• Garden soil & care
– Traditional
medicinal use as
tonic, but not used
this way today
– Edible flower to
decorate salads,
cakes and ice cream
Photo Courtesy of www.flowersandfauna.com
Dill (Dill Weed)
• Anethum graveolens
• Central Europe
• Garden soil & care
– Dried seeds are the spice
“Dill Seed”
– Digestive aid
– Treatment for diarrhea
and dysentery
– Seeds chewed for bad
breath
– Fresh leaves used in
salads and cooking
Elephant Tree (Torote)
• Bursera microphylla
• N. American deserts
• Xeriscape landscape
• Frost sensitive
– Traditional incense
plant among Native
American tribes and
Mexican cultures
– Medicinal uses as
anti-microbial and
anti-fungus
Photo Courtesy of
www.desert-tropicals.com
Epasote/Epazote
• Chenopodium
ambrosiodes
• N. America &
Mexican origin
• Garden soil & care
– Aztecs used to treat
internal parasites
(“skunk sweat”)
– bitter, musky, “lemon
peel” flavor
– Digestive aid
– Natural Bean-O!
Photo Courtesy of
www.mountainvalleygrowers.com
Eucalyptus (Gum Tree)
• Eucalyptus spp.
• Australian –
varied climatic conditions
• Some prefer dry, some
prefer moist
• Many species, sizes and
bloom colors are well
adapted here
– Decongestant and
expectorant properties
– Antiseptic
– Topical for painful joints,
inflammation and arthritis
– Craft & floral uses
Evening Primrose
• Oenethera biennis
• N. American prairie
• Garden soil & care
– Seed oil has anti-oxidant
benefits
– Immune booster
– Menopause benefits
– High blood pressure
– Cosmetic uses for fresh
flowers
Photo Courtesy of www.usda.gov
Fennel
• Foeniculum vulgare
• Central Europe & Eurasia
• Garden soil & care
• PLANT IN FALL
– Dried seeds are used to treat
bad breath
– Seeds used to improve digestion
and aid indigestion
– Edible flower and leaves in
salds and cooking
– Flowers are host for beneficial
insects - ladybird beetles, lace
wings and butterflies
Feverfew
• Tanacetum parthenium
or Chrysanthemum
parthenium
• Mediterranean origin
• Garden soil & care
• Frost tender Perennial
– Migraine headache
treatment
– Fever reduce
– Rheumatism treatment
– Bitter salad leaf
Flax-Scarlet
• Linum grandiflorum
• Related to Linum
usitatissimum - source
of fiber for linen and
oil as linseed oil
– Central European
– Garden soil & care
– Winter annual
– seeds eaten for anti-
oxidant, essential fatty
acids & vitamins and
as a laxative
– sore throats and
gastric upset
Garlic-Culinary
• Allium sativum
• Many varieties and also
many related sub-species
grown
– Eurasian origin
– Garden soil & care
– Plant deep in Fall
– Harvest June – NO Water
– Immune system enhancer
– Antibiotic
– Lowers blood pressure
and cholesterol
– Many culinary uses
Garlic-Elephant
• Allium ampeloprasum
– Same origin, planting
and care
– Not garlic! It’s
actually a leek!
– Similar medicinal uses
and benefits to related
garlic
– Culinary substitute for
a more mild, less
pungent garlic taste
Photo Courtesy of www.elephantgarlic.com
Garlic-Society
• Tulbaghia violacea
– Mediterranean origin
– Garden soil & care
– Not garlic!
– Not culinary for most
people.
– Edible flowers
Ginger Root
• Zingiber officinale
– Tropical Asia
– Enriched soil & water
– Frost tender
– Anti-nausea for motion
sickness and
pregnancy
– Antiseptic and
expectorant
– Promotes sweating for
colds & flus
– Perfume industry and
food flavoring
– Many culinary uses
Globe Artichoke
• Cynara cardunculus
scolymus
– Eurasian origin
– Heat tender Perennial
– Drainage – Root Rot
– Leaves have some
beneficial constituents
for liver de-toxifier
– Lowers blood pressure
– EDIBLE flower bud
– Dried flower for craft
projects
Globe Artichoke
Attracts
Butterflies
Gotu Kola
• Hydrocotyle asiatica
major
– Southeast Asia
– Tropical conditions
– Prefers shade
– Memory enhancer
according to ancient
Chinese medicine
– Increases blood flow
to the brain
– Edible as bitter leaf
in salads
Grass-Bermuda (aka Devil’s Grass)
• Cynodon dactylon
– Asia & Africa
– Strong perennial
– Underground stems /
rhizomes used as
medicinal diuretic
– Surface stems /
stolons used in
Hindu wedding
ceremonies
Grass-Citronella
• Cymbopogon nardus
– Southeast Asia
– Enriched soil and
extra water
– Frost sensitive
– Essential oil used in
perfume trade
– Essential oil used as
insect repellant
– Craft projects and
potpourri uses
Grass-Lemon
• Cymbopogon
citratus
– Southeast Asia
– Enriched soil and
extra water
– Frost sensitive
– Topical antiseptic &
antibiotic uses
– Externally for
rheumatism
– Internally for gastric
upset & indigestion
– CULINARY uses
Grass-Lemon
Grass-Lemon
Grass-Palmarosa
“Rose Scented Grass”
• Cymbopogon
martinii motia
– Southeast Asia
– Enriched soil and
extra water
– Frost sensitive
– Topical antiseptic
and antibiotic uses
– Essential oil used in
perfume industry
– Craft uses for dried
floral and potpourri
Grass-Vetiver
• Vetivera zizanoides
– Southeast Asia
– Tolerates all soil and
water conditions
– Turns red in winter
– Traditional uses in
weaving reed mats
– Essential oil from roots
used widely in perfume
industry
– Insect repellant
– Dried stems and blooms
used in craft industry
Henna
• Lawsonia inermis
– N. African deserts
– Frost tender shrub
– Dried foliage used to
color hair, as well as
to improve hair health
– Natural dye plant for
cloth or other fiber or
temporary tattoos
Hibiscus (Spanish - Jamaica)
• Hibiscus spp.
– Tropical Americas
– VERY Prone to Root
Rot – Drainage
– Frost tender
– Natural lemon-tasting
tea of flowers
– Beneficial tonic
– Natural food colorant
Hollyhock
• Althaea rosea
– Central China origin
– Short-lived perennial
– Easy from seed in Spring
or Fall – rich soil
– Blooms second year
– Demulcent to sooth sore
throat
– Historical uses for chest
complaints
– Dye plant for natural
fibers and cloth
Honeysuckle
• Lonicera caprifolium
– N. America & Europe
– Frost tender vine
– Former use for
expectorant and
laxative properties
– Related Chinese
species used as toxin
cleanser
Photo Courtesy of www.davesgarden.com
Jerusalem Artichoke
• Helianthus tuberosus
– N. American prairies
– Perennial Sunflower
– 6-10 feet tall
– Tubers dried and used
as an edible starch
substitute, especially
for diabetics
– Tubers are edible fresh
in salads, steamed or
stir-fried
Lamb’s Ear
• Stachys byzantina
– Eurasian origin
– Root Rot Prone
– Filtered shade
– Traditional use for
headaches &
nervous tension
– Healing use in
lotions or ointments
Lavender-Desert
• Hyptis emoryi
• AZ NATIVE PLANT
– Well drained soil
– 5-8 feet tall
– Hummingbird attractant
– Substitute for
Mediterranean lavender
in all craft, cosmetic and
culinary uses
– Native American use in
tonic teas
Photo Courtesy of www.fireflyforest.com
Lavender
• Lavandula spp.
– Mediterranean origin
– VERY Prone to Root Rot –
DRAINAGE!!!
– Perennial plants 3-5 years
– Traditional use in headache
and nervous anxiety
preparations
– Cosmetic and personal care
uses, plus perfumes
– Culinary uses in baking,
salads, teas
– Dried craft uses
Lavandula multifida
Fernleaf Lavender
Lavender
….for the garden
and the xeriscape
landscape design
Lavender
Lavandula dentata-French Lavandula stoechas-Spanish
Photo Courtesy of www.mediterraneangardensociety.org
Hummingbird attractants
Lemon
• Citrus limonum
– Tropical Asia
– Frost sensitive
– Good drainage critical
– Juice is natural antibiotic
– Oil from peel removes
sticky labels
– Many culinary uses for
juice and peel
– Leaves are a culinary
flavoring in Asian soups
& stir fries
– Edible flower
Lemon Balm (aka Melissa)
• Melissa officinalis
– Eurasian origin
– Requires shade and enriched
soil with extra moisture
– Anti-viral preparations,
especially for the various
Herpes types
– Relaxing & sedative
properties
– Depression and headache
treatments
– Fresh leaves for lemon
flavor to salads, soups, etc.
– Dried leaves for teas
Photo Courtesy of www.desert-tropicals.com
Lemon Verbena
• Aloysia triphylla or
Aloysia citriodora
– Higher elevations of
Tropical America
– VERY Prone to Root Rot –
Drainage!!
– Frost sensitive
– Flavorful teas, as well as
other culinary uses
– Perfume industry
– Insect deterrant when dried
– Dried craft use in sachets &
potpourri
Photo Courtesy of www.desert-tropicals.com
Lion’s Tail / Lion’s Ear
• Leonotis leonaurus
– Tropical Asia & Africa
– Garden soil & care
– Perennial 2-3 years
– Readily re-seeds
– Seeds relished by birds
– Hummingbird Flowers
– Traditional medicinal and
skin tonic uses in Asia
– Smoked in its native South
Africa as a mild narcotic
– Dried flower and craft uses
Madder / Dyer’s Madder
• Rubia tinctorum
– Central European
– Improved soil & water
– VERY INVASIVE
– Traditional RED dye
plant - roots used
throughout Europe prior
to New World discovery
of Cochineal scale as
superior RED dye
Marjoram
• Origanum majorana
– Mediterranean
origin
– Drainage & Pruning
– Antiseptic properties
when used topically
– Internally for
relaxation and
nervous tension
– Many CULINARY
uses worldwide
Knot Marjoram
Sweet Marjoram
in Bloom
Mesquite
• Prosopis spp.
– North, South & Central
American deserts native
– Fast growing trees
– Do NOT stake and DO water
deeply for best growth
– Beans ground into a nutritious
flour, beneficial to diabetics
– Sap used as a dye by Native
Americans
– Bark &/or leaves boiled into a
medicinal tea by some Native
Americans
Milk Thistle
• Silybum marianum
– Eurasian origin
– Garden soil & care
– Winter/Spring
Annual
– Seeds used as a liver
de-toxifier
– Appetite stimulant
Photo Courtesy of www.nwcb.wa.gov
Mint
• Mentha spp.
– European & Medit.
– Garden soil & care
– Can be invasive
– Tea for colds & flu
– Useful for indigestion
– Breath freshener
– Decongestant &
antiseptic properties
– Insect repellant
– Many craft uses
– Many CULINARY
uses fresh and dried
Pineapple Mint
Mint – garden control
Mint
Moroccan Mint
Apple Mint
variegated
Orange
Mint
Mormon Tea
• Ephedra sp.
– N. American deserts
– Drainage critical
– Slow growing at first
– Contains pseudo-ephedrine
substances, useful in treating
respiratory problems
– Tonic, somewhat minty tasting
tea
– NOTE: The related Chinese
species contains ephedrine and
is illegal in USA
Nasturtium
• Tropaeolum majus
– Tropical C.&S. America
– Plant soaked seeds Fall
– Protect from frost
– Garden soil & care
– Seeds for antiseptic and
antibacterial properties
– Seeds used for upper
respiratory infections
– Fresh leaves and flowers
edible in salads and
appetizers
Photo Courtesy www.hear.org
Onion & Shallot
• Allium cepa
– European &
Mediterranean origins
– Plant in Sept/Oct/Nov
– Harvest June/July
– Antibiotic uses in
traditional medicine
– Respiratory benefits
– Many CULINARY uses
worldwide
– TOXIC to dogs
Onion & Shallot
Egyptian Walking Onion
Papago I’itoi Onion (shallot)
Every gardener should
have these!!!
Spanish priests gave
them to the Tohono
O’odham farming
tribes around 1700 AD
Plant Fall/early Spring
Dig as green onions all
Winter/Spring
May/June allow plants
to dry down – NO water
Harvest June/July a 25-
50 times increase
Oregano-Cuban
• Plectranthus
amboinicus
– Caribbean Mexico &
C. America origin
– Extremely frost
sensitive – protect!!
– Enriched soil & water
– Traditional medicinal
uses throughout
Caribbean
– Culinary use fresh as a
substitute for European
Oregano
Oregano-Dittany of Crete
• Origanum
dictamnus
– Mediterranean
origin
– Drainage critical
– Filtered shade best
– Traditional
medicinal uses
rarely practiced now
– Decorative and dried
craft uses
Oregano-Mexican Bush
• Lippia graveolens
– Southwest USA & Mexican
deserts
– Very frost sensitive
– Large shrub to 6 feet
– Traditional Native American
uses in several medicines
– Major component in most dried,
culinary packaged Oregano
– Excellent in all CULINARY
uses fresh or dried
Oregano-Native American
(Beebalm/Bergamot)
• Monarda spp.
– N. American prairies,
meadows and forests
– Enriched soil & water
– Traditional uses in
topical treatments as
antibiotic & antiseptic
– Relaxing tea
– Replacement for English
tea imports during
American Revolution
– Culinary uses in cooking
meats and vegetables
Photo Courtesy of www.desert-tropicals.com
Oregano-Rosemarymint
• Poliomintha
maderensis
cv. ‘Lavender Spice’
– Mexican native
– Filtered shade
– Prune hard after bloom
– Traditional medicinal
and ceremonial uses
among Native
Americans
– Culinary uses in
preparation of meats
– Excellent edible flower
and leaf in salads
Photo Courtesy Mountain States Wholesale Nursery
Oregano-Syrian (Bible Hyssop)
• Organum maru
or Origanum syriaca
– N. African origin
– Drainage important
– Semi-dormant Winter
– Loves hot weather
– Historic uses as a topical
antiseptic tea
– Culinary uses as a strong
oregano for meats, dried
beans & vegetable dishes
Oregano-Wooly
• Origanum
rotundifolium x
dictamnus
– Mediterranean origin
– Drainage critical
– Prefers heat & filtered
or afternoon shade
– Traditional medicinal
uses, no longer
practiced
– Crafting and dried
floral uses
Papaya
• Carica papaya
– Tropical Americas origins
– Frost sensitive
– Drainage critical
– SALT sensitive
– Many traditional medicinal
uses, both internal and
topical
– Wart removal, and also used
as skin treatment for freckles
& sun damage
– Insecticide uses
– Contains “papain”, a natural
digestive and meat tenderizer
– Edible fruit
Parsley
• Petroselinum crispum
– Eurasian origins
– Biennial at best, usually
Winter annual
– Best planted Fall from
pre-soaked seed
– Blooms attract ladybugs
– Traditional medicinal
and tonic uses
– Rich source of vitamin
A & C, plus anti-
oxidants
– Culinary uses fresh and
cooked, plus seed
Photo Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
Passion Vine
• Passiflora incarnata
– N., C. & S. American
native species
– Enriched soil & water
– Frost tender
– Butterfly attractant
– Religious significance in
Native & Christian
religious ceremonies
– Traditional medicinal uses
– Aphrodisiac
– Edible flower & fruit
Patchouli
• Pogostemon cablin or
Pogostemon
heyneanyus
– Southeast Asian origin
– Frost & Salt sensitive
– Filtered shade
– Historic medicinal and
insect repellant uses
– Cosmetic and body
care uses
– Perfume industry
Photo Courtesy of www.oller.net
Poppy-Breadseed
• Papaver somniferum
– Eurasian origins
– Garden soil & care
– Winter ANNUAL
– Readily re-seeds Fall
– Edible seeds for baking,
salads, etc. (no alkaloid)
– Sap collected as base for
heroin, opium and related
illegal narcotics, but the
flower can be grown for
decorative use
– Traditional medicinal uses
for pain and sedative
Poppy -
Breadseed
Food and
Medicine
“Poppies, my
pretty……”
Poppy-
California & Mexican Gold
• Eschscholzia californica &
Eschscholzia mexicana
– N. American native
– Winter ANNUAL
– Varied soil & water
– Sedative
– Topical pain reliever
– Relieves anxiety, nervous tension
& insomnia
– Diuretic properties
– Promotes perspiration
– Edible seeds
Prickly Pear/Indian Fig Cactus
• Opuntia ficus-indica
– Mexico & N. America
– Frost sensitive
– Full sun – good drainage
– Pads used to treat wounds
and sunburn
– Pads and fruit are eaten as a
slow-digesting
carbohydrate, beneficial to
diabetics
– Cochineal scale host
Rose
• Rosa spp.
– Europe, Eurasia, China
and N. America
– Garden soil & care
– Prune HARD in January
– Local Rose Societies
– Many species and
hybrids and varieties
– Traditional uses in
medicinal and personal
care products
– Edible flowers fresh or
in jams and teas
– Edible fruit with high
Vitamin C
Rosemary
• Rosemary officinalis
– Mediterranean origin
– Drainage critical
– Variable cold tolerance
– Historical association
with memory/learning
– Improves blood flow in
the brain
– Myth and legend relates
to friendship
– Hair & scalp tonic
– Many culinary uses!
Rosemary – many varieties & uses
‘Tuscan’
‘Huntington Blue’
‘Arp’
‘Madelene Hill’
‘Spice Islands’
Saffron Crocus
• Crocus sativus
• Eurasia & Meditteranean
• Drainage critical
• Improved soil, some shade
• NOTE - leaves show in
Spring, bulb is dormant in
Summer and flowers appear in
Fall – mark planting well
– Medicinal uses as a
digestive aid
– Improves circulation &
blood pressure
– Many CULINARY uses
Photo Courtesy of www-ang.kfunigraz.ac.at
Sage-Culinary
• Salvia officinalis
• NOT all salvias are
edible or same uses
– Mediterranean origin
– DRAINAGE Critical
– Frost sensitive
– Traditional medicinal
uses as topical antiseptic
– Cold & Flu treatment
– Perfume and personal
care uses
– CULINARY uses in
cooking and teas
Berggarten Sage
Sage-Culinary
Variegated Sage Purple Sage
Sage Blooms
Sage-Chaparral or Cleveland
• Salvia clevelandii
• EXCELLENT xeriscape
plant for low water use
– Texas & Mexico native
– DRAINAGE critical
– Prune hard after bloom
– similar historic medicinal
uses to Culinary Sage
– Also used in teas and
cooking, although flavor
is different
– Craft, potpourri and dried
floral uses
– Hummingbird attractant
Sage-Jerusalem
• Phlomis fruticosa
– Mediterranean native
– Drainage critical
– Prune hard after bloom
– Traditional medicinal
preparations as topical
antiseptic
– Primarily crafter and
dried floral plant
– Bright yellow blooms in
Spring / early Summer
Sage-Mexican Bush
• Salvia leucantha
– Mexican native plant
– Tolerates wide range of
soils and water
– Frost sensitive
– Historic and current
medicinal uses among
Native American tribes
throughout Central
America & Mexico
– Ceremonial uses in Day of
the Dead ceremonies in
parts of Mexico
– Dried floral and craft uses,
plus HUMMINGBIRDS
Sage-Pineapple
• Salvia elegans
– Tropical Americas
– VERY Frost tender
– Improved soil/water
– Good drainage
– History of similar
medicinal uses to
other sages
– Edible flowers and
leaves for salads
– Some culinary uses
– HUMMINGBIRDS
Sage-Russian
• Perovskia atriplicifolia
– Eurasian origin
– Winter dormant
– Drainage important
– Prune hard after bloom
– Historic and traditional
medicinal uses, rarely
practiced currently
– Crafter and dried floral
uses now
Salad Burnet
• Poterium sanguisorba
or Pimpinella
saxifraga
– Eurasian origin
– Afternoon shade
– Garden soil & care
– Historic use as a
digestive aid after meals
– Seeds used in medicinal
preparations
– Edible flower and leaves
for salads
Scented Geranium
• Pelargonium spp.
– Southern Africa origin
– Garden soil & care
– Frost sensitive
– Smaller leaved varieties better
as container plants
– Medicinal uses in South Africa
in teas and topical solutions
– Dried craft uses
– Perfume industry
– Culinary uses in cakes and teas
Sesame
• Sesamum indicum
• Africa & Asia origin
• Spring/Summer ANNUAL
• Plant after last frost
• 4-8 feet tall
• Seeds ripen all summer
• Sesame oil & seeds used in
cooking
– Rich in vitamins &
minerals
• eneficial for problem skin
(eczema and psoriasis)
– helps protect against
harmful sun rays
Sorrel
• Rumex acetosa
– Central Europe
– Shade in Summer
– Garden soil & care
– Short-lived perennial
– Rheumatism and
arthritis sufferers
should NOT consume
– Edible leaves for
salads, soups, etc. and
steamed as a “green”
Photo Courtesy of www.sandmountainherbs.com
Southernwood-Powis Castle
• Artemisia abrotanum
‘powis castle’
– Mediterranean origin
– Drainage critical
– Prune hard in Spring
– Appetite stimulant and
tonic as a mild tea
– Historic medicinal uses
as de-wormer
– Insect repellant
– Dried craft projects
Statice-Sea Lavender
• Statice caroliniana
or Statice limonium
– Eurasia origin
– Garden soil & care
– Perennial bloomer
– dried floral and
crafting plant
Stevia
• Stevia rebaudiana
– Central America
– Filtered shade
– Enriched soil/water
– Natural plant
sweetener from the
dried and powdered
leaves, or as liquid
extract drops
– ZERO calories
– Can substitute for
sugar in all uses,
including cookingPhoto Courtesy www.mountainvalleygrowers.com
Sunflower
• Helianthus annus
• North American native plant
• Garden soil & care
• Plant seeds EARLY Fall or
EARLY Spring
• Seeds ripen Summer
– seeds and oil loaded with
vitamin E
– Antioxidant
– Seed hulls a traditional
dye source for Hopi
– Traditionally used for
coughs and bronchitis
Tarragon-French
• Artemisia dracunculus
var. sativa
• CAUTION – French only
from cuttings or root
divisions - SEEDS are only
for “Russian Tarragon” with
NO flavor at all
– Eurasian native
– Frost and Heat sensitive
– Drainage critical
– Fresh or dried use as
culinary herb
Photo Courtesy of www.mobot.org
Tarragon-Mexican
• Tagetes lucida
• Many Common names due
to the popularity of this herb
– Mexico & C. America origin
– Tropical – frost tender
– Blooms Oct.-January
– Enriched soil / extra water
– Traditional medicinal tea uses
in Mexican & Central
American homes
– Culinary substitute for French
Tarragon in recipes
– Excellent in teas – ice or hot
Thyme
• Thymus spp.
• MANY species and
varieties & flavors
– Mediterranean origin
– Drainage critical
– Prune regularly
– Antiseptic and
antibiotic uses
– Coughs and colds
– Beneficial mouthwash
and for teeth/gums
– CULINARY uses
Thyme-Conehead
• Coriothymus capitalus
• Or Thymbra capitata
‘Conehead Thyme’
• Mediterranean origin
• Drainage critical
• Blooms all summer
• Source of much of the
packaged commercial
thyme & thyme oil in retail
markets
– Contains thymol as key
constituent for health &
antiseptic benefits
– CULINARY uses fresh
or dried - very strong
Vinca-
Madagascar Periwinkle
• Catharanthus roseus
• Madagascar Island
• Garden soil & care
• Tender perennial
• Re-seeds readily
– Anti-witchcraft herb
– Contains vincamine
• dilates blood vessels
• reduces blood pressure
– Treats cardiovascular
disorders
– Research to treat several
viral diseases
Viola / Pansy / Sweet Violet
• Viola spp.
– Europe, Eurasia, North
America, Mediterranean
– Garden soil & care
– Filtered to Full Shade
– Many traditional
medicinal uses as anti-
inflammatory
– Expectorant
– Skin care & Perfume
– Edible flower & leaves
in salads
Photo Courtesy of www.gardenguides.com
Yarrow
• Achillea spp.
• Gold, White, Pastels
– Europe, Eurasia,
North America
– Filtered shade
– Enriched soil, water
– Historic use in
antiseptic medicinals
and insecticides
– Current use as dried
floral and craft plant
Photo Courtesy of Sandy Wagner
Yerba Mansa – “Swamp Root”
• Anemopsis californica
• Native Arizona/Calif.
wetlands plant – endangered
• Moist conditions
• Filtered shade
• Long history of use in many
different medicines, both
internal and topically
• Roots used for mouth and
wound treatment
• Popular pond plant
What Did We Learn?
• Hundreds of herbs can easily be grown
in the Low Desert landscape & garden
• Our seasons are different
• Our soils are “interesting”
• Our waters are salty
• Plant herbs in the right season & the
right location for a successful garden!
Questions??

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Herb Gardening in the Low Desert

  • 1. Herb Gardening in the Low Desert Mike & Carolyn Hills Arizona Herb Association & Maricopa County Master Gardeners
  • 4. And, there’s ROSEMARY ….That’s for remembrance. W.Shakespeare http://www.nothyme.com/herbs/rosemary.cfm
  • 5. Our Personal Soapbox Sun Protection Tools Arizona has the highest incidence of skin cancer in the USA, with 300+ sun days per year http:azcc.arizona.edu/prevent/ Skin_Prevent.htm
  • 7. And, it’s not just about skin cancer • Excess sun exposure can cause: • premature aging • wrinkled, leathery and rough skin • sunburn • skin cancer
  • 8. Sun Protective Clothing www.sunprotectiveclothing.com BAKER NURSERY and Other Local, Family Owned Gardener Friendly Nurseries & Garden Shops PLUS, Sports Stores
  • 9. What We’ll Talk About Today • Intro to MGs & AHA • What’s an Herb? • Where to Plant/How to Grow • Top Reasons Why Herbs Die Here • Recommended Gardens to Tour • Recommended Books
  • 10. What We’ll Talk About Today • Where to Buy/Botanical Names • Pop Quiz • Garden Tour • Break • Parade of Herbs • Summary • Questions
  • 11. Maricopa County Master Gardeners • 600 Volunteers who “help promote environmentally responsible gardening & landscaping in the Low Desert” – Desert Garden Institute – Ambassadors – Speakers Bureau – Hotline, Website, List Serve, Publications • http://cals.arizona.edu/maricopa/garden/ • Garden Questions 602-470-8086
  • 12. Maricopa County Master Gardeners • Become a Master Gardener Volunteer! • Call 602-470-8086 for next training • http://cals.arizona.edu/maricopa/garden/ html/mgs/mg-broch.htm
  • 13. Arizona Herb Association est. 1988 • 100-200 herb enthusiasts • Meet 1st Thursday of each month (except Summer) 7:00 p.m. • Speakers on all aspects of herbs • Demonstration Garden • Scholarships & Public Service • www.azherb.org for location & topic • Or 602-470-8086 ext 830
  • 14. Arizona Herb Association Herb Demonstration Garden
  • 16. “Herb” vs. “Erb” (and “Yerba”) • Oxford English Dictionary -- “Herb” • Webster’s American Dictionary – either pronunciation accepted. • “Yerba” is the Spanish word for herb – Yerba Anis (Mexican Tarragon) – Yerba Mansa (Swamp Root) – Yerba Buena (Spearmint)
  • 17. What is an Herb? • An Herb is a PLANT: – Trees – Shrubs and sub-shrubs – Vines – Woody-stemmed perennials – Herbaceous plants – annual, perennial and biennual – Ferns – Fungi (current research for sunscreen pill extract)
  • 18. What is an Herb? • A Herb is a USEFUL Plant: – Culinary – Medicinal – Crafting – Dyes – Religious/Cultural/Ceremonial – Beauty/Personal Care – Aroma
  • 19. What Part of the Herb is Used? • Roots • Stems • Leaves • Flowers • Fruits (Seeds or Bark = Spices)
  • 20. Where do Herbs Come From? Every Land Mass – Every Culture
  • 21. Climate Origin Clues for Growing Herbs • Central Europe – cool & moist • Eurasia – cool and moderate moisture • Mediterranean – dry & hot • Africa – dry & hot OR tropical & wet • Central America – tropical hot & wet • South America – variable – Where? • Mexico – dry & hot OR tropical & wet • North America – variable – Where? • Southeast Asia – tropical hot & wet • China – variable – Where?
  • 22. Herbs are Easy to Grow in the Low Desert • Many popular & common herbs originated in the Mediterranean or North Africa, places with: – hot climates – low rainfall – alkaline soils • Just like Southwest USA Green French Lavender Culinary Sage
  • 23. Herbs are Easy to Grow in the Low Desert • Many other herbs originated in tropical Southeast Asia, Equatorial Africa, or tropical South & Central America. • Love our heat, but need additional: – organic matter – water – fertilizer Lemongrass Basil
  • 24. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Traditional Herb Garden from “Practical Herb Garden” by J. Houdret
  • 25. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Cloister Garden from “Practical Herb Garden” by J. Houdret
  • 26. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Tudor “Knot” Garden from “Practical Herb Garden” by J. Houdret
  • 27. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Mesquite Herb Garden
  • 28. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Another Mesquite Herb Garden
  • 29. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Aloe vera in a Xeriscape Landscape
  • 30. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Chaparral Sage in a Landscape
  • 31. Where Should You Plant Herbs? African Blue Basil on a Patio
  • 32. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Apple Mint as Garden Art
  • 33. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Rosemary Trailing Over a Wall
  • 34. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Rosemary Trailing Over a Parking Garage
  • 35. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Rosemary at a Gas Station
  • 36. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Rosemary as a hedge
  • 37. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Breadseed (Opium) & California Poppies in a Wildflower Mix
  • 38. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Breadseed Poppies in a Wildflower Mix
  • 39. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Yerba Mansa in a Pond Environment
  • 40. Where Should You Plant Herbs? Anywhere!! Yerba Mansa in a Birdbath
  • 41. Top Reasons Why Herbs Die #1 • You planted at the wrong time! • Our planting calendar is “backward” Fall is primary planting season here – Parsley – Dill – Fennel – Cilantro – Onions/Garlics
  • 42. Top Reasons Why Herbs Die #2 • You chose the wrong site for your variety. Variegated Sage Can’t Survive full sun or bad drainage
  • 43. Top Reasons Why Herbs Die #3 • You over-watered! French Lavender Dead from Root Rot
  • 44. Top Reasons Why Herbs Die #4 • Perennial/Bienniel elsewhere, Annual here! Parsley Transplants Just Can’t Survive our Hot Summers Photo Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com Plant from seed for best success!
  • 45. Local Herb Gardens to Tour • Desert Botanical Garden • Boyce Thompson Arboretum • Tucson Botanical Garden • Arboretum at Flagstaff • Tohono Chul Park – Tucson • Maricopa County Extension
  • 46. Beware of Most Herb Books and Magazines • Written in U.K. or Northeastern U.S. • Poor guidelines for Low Desert – planting/harvesting calendars – sunlight/water requirements • Great for photos, uses, history, design ideas, recipes, etc. • CHECK www.herbsociety.org
  • 47. Recommended Gardening & Herb Books • Desert Gardening for Beginners (Arizona Master Gardener Press) – How to grow vegetables, flowers and herbs in an arid climate – Covers all the basics for desert gardeners
  • 48. Recommended Gardening & Herb Books • Gardening in the Desert (Mary F. Irish, U of A Press) – How to grow vegetables, flowers and herbs in an arid climate – Practical advice on plants and gardening practices for anyone who lives in the Southwest
  • 49. Recommended Gardening & Herb Books • Low-Desert Herb Gardening Handbook (Arizona Herb Association) – Herb planting & harvesting month by month – Specifically written for low- desert herb gardening
  • 50. Recommended Gardening & Herb Books • Desert Landscaping for Beginners (Arizona Master Gardener Press) – Tips and techniques for success in an arid climate – Ch. 12 - Rose Care – Appendix B - Rose Varieties for the Low Desert
  • 51. Recommended Gardening & Herb Books • Earth-Friendly Desert Gardening (Arizona Master Gardener Press) – Environmentally responsible gardening & landscaping in the low desert – Growing in harmony with nature saves time, money, and resources
  • 52. Shopping for Herbs to Plant • “Big Box” Stores – Good for “basic” herb plants/seeds... standard culinary • Chain Nurseries – Nice herb selection. Shop around! • Local family-owned nursery – If they don’t have it, they’ll order it! Wider selection • Botanical Garden or Arboretum Plant Sale – Interesting “native” or “regional” herbs • Arizona Herb Association – Hard-to-find herbs, cheap!
  • 53. Shopping for Herbs to Plant • Pinch, sniff and taste the culinary herbs! • Won’t taste any different when growing in your garden • Make sure you like them before you buy! • Catalog/Internet - Caution - wrong planting season & transit damage
  • 54. Botanical (Latin) Names • Many unrelated plants have similar common names • One plant may have multiple common names (different languages/dialects) • Learn the botanical name to be sure you get the CORRECT PLANT
  • 55. Botanical (Latin) Names • Common Names Can Be Confusing! • “Basil Mint” • “Cinnamon Basil” • “Oregano Thyme” • “Cuban Oregano” (also called “Spanish Thyme”) – NOT Oregano – NOT Thyme (Plectranthus amboinicus) – NOT from Cuba – NOT from Spain
  • 56. Botanical (Latin) Names • Common Names Can Be Confusing! • Mexican Bush Oregano – NOT Origanum (Lippia graveolens) – But, does contain oregano essential oils • “Real” Oreganos (Origanum spp.) – Dittany of Crete – Wooly Oregano – Not recommended for cooking!! • Mexican Tarragon – Root beer Plant --Yerbanis --Pericon – Winter Tarragon --Poor Man’s Tarragon
  • 57. • Aztec/Nahuatl – Tzitziqui, Teyatli • Chinese (Cantonese) • 甜 菊萬壽 [tìhm maahn sauh gūk] • Chinese (Mandarin) • 甜 菊萬壽 [tián wàn shòu jú] • Danish - Mexikansk Esdragon • German - Samtblume, Winterestragon, Mexicanischer Estragon • French - Tagète, Estragon du Mexique • English - Pericon, Mexican mint marigold, Winter tarragon, Mexican tarragon, Sweet mace, Spanish tarragon, Florida tarragon, Texas tarragon • Spanish/Mexican - Yauhtli, Pericón Amarillo, Yerba Anis, Yerba Santa Maria, Anisillo • Swedish - Mexikansk dragon
  • 58. Botanical (Latin) Names G E N U S M e n t h a F O R M L . s t o e c h a s f. le u c a n t h a S U B S P E C I E S L . s t o e c h a s s u b s p . p e d u n c u la t a S P E C I E S L . s t o e c h a s C U L T I V A R L . x in t e r m e d ia 'G r a p p e n h a ll' C U L T I V A R L . x in t e r m e d ia 'S e a l' H Y B R I D L . x in t e r m e d ia S P E C I E S L . la t ifo lia C U L T I V A R L . a n g u s t ifo lia 'H id c o t e ' C U L T I V A R L . a n g u s t ifo lia 'M u n s t e a d ' S P E C I E S L . a n g u s t ifo lia V A R I E T Y L . d e n t a t a v a r . c a n d ic a n s S P E C I E S L . d e n t a t a G E N U S L a v a n d u la G E N U S A c h ille a F A M I L Y L A B I A T A E / L A M I A C E A E Chart Courtesy of “Practical Herb Garden” by J. Houdret
  • 59. Soil Preparation • DRAINAGE is KEY! • Do NOT discard your native soil • Add organic amendments • Add phosphorous containing fertilizer when preparing beds • Only add Nitrogen fertilizers to tropical, fast-growing herbs • Add gravel, coarse sand, pumice to increase drainage where needed » SEE ROOT ROT PREVENTION HANDOUT
  • 60. Watering Considerations • Check references to see if your herb choices are from dry or tropical areas • Group the plants in the garden with others with similar water needs • Dry origin herbs will thrive on drip irrigation, especially with more drainage • Mulch around ROOTS to maintain uniform moisture - do NOT mulch stems • Adjust watering as seasons change
  • 61. Note: • We ain’t doctors! • We ain’t herbalists! • We ain’t naturopaths! • We ain’t shamen! • We ARE providing information on historical and traditional uses of herbs.
  • 62. Pop Quiz Are These Herbs?? ?
  • 63. Mesquite • Prosopis spp. • YES!! – Beans ground into a nutritious flour, beneficial to diabetics – Sap used as a dye by Native Americans – Bark boiled into a medicinal tea by Native Americans
  • 64. Prickly Pear/Indian Fig Cactus • Opuntia ficus-indica • YES!! – Pads used to treat wounds and sunburn – Pads and fruit are eaten as a slow- digesting carbohydrate, beneficial to diabetics – Cochineal scale host
  • 65. Bermudagrass • Cynodon dactylon • YES!! – Underground stems / rhizomes used as medicinal diuretic – Used in Hindu wedding ceremonies
  • 66. Vinca-Madagascar Periwinkle • Catharanthus roseus • YES!! – Anti-witchcraft herb – Contains vincamine • dilates blood vessels • reduces blood pressure – Treats cardiovascular disorders – Research to treat several viral diseases
  • 67. Poppy-California • Eschscholzia californica • YES!! – Sedative – Topical pain reliever – Relieves anxiety, nervous tension & insomnia – Diuretic properties – Promotes perspiration – Edible seeds Photo Courtesy of Sandy Wagner
  • 68. Sage-Texas Ranger • Leucophyllum frutescens • NO!! Got You!! • Well, maybe...... Possible Native American historical medicinal uses......
  • 69. Lemon • Citrus limonum • YES!! – Juice is natural antibiotic – Oil from peel removes sticky labels – Many culinary uses for juice and peel – Leaves are a culinary flavoring in soups & stir fries – Edible flower
  • 70. Agave-Century Plant • Agave americana • YES!! – Sap has anti-inflammatory properties • relieves burns, bites & stings – Roots used for washing clothes as a traditional “soap” substitute – Fibers woven into rope – Powdered leaf makes snuffPhoto Courtesy Mountain States Wholesale Nursery
  • 71. How Many Did You Get Right?? ? Are you already suspecting that you may be a “secret “ herb gardener, unbeknownst to yourself?
  • 72. B R E A K
  • 73. Let’s Look at Some Herbs! • Remember -- pinch, sniff & taste the culinary herbs!! • All samples organically grown • Parade of Herbs
  • 74. Agave-Century Plant • Agave americana – N. American desert origin – Full sun/drainage – Sap has anti-inflammatory properties • relieves burns, bites & stings – Roots used for washing clothes & as a traditional “soap” substitute – Fibers woven into rope – Powdered leaf makes snuff Photo Courtesy Mountain States Wholesale Nursery
  • 75. Aloe • Aloe vera or Aloe barbadensis – African desert origin – Filtered shade – Exceptional healing properties • apply externally to wounds, burns, sunburn, eczema, etc. – Anti-inflammatory & anti- microbial agents – Taken internally for digestive tract problems – Laxative properties
  • 76. Arugula - “Rocket” • Eruca vesicaria subsp. Sativa – Central Europe – Garden soil & water – edible flower – fresh leaves as a flavoring for salads – seeds as mustard substitute Photo Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
  • 77. Basil • Ocimum basillicum – Tropical Asia & Africa – Add water, fertilizer & O.M. – Prune blooms HARD & use – Antidepressant, antiseptic, soothing properties – Fresh leaves rubbed on insect bites and stings relieves itching – Made into a cough syrup with honey – Leaves used in steam inhalations for decongestion – Many culinary uses!
  • 78. Basil - many varieties & flavors Magical Michael African Variegated Mrs. Burns’ Lemon
  • 79. Bay-Greek Laurel • Laurus nobilis – Mediterranean origin – Harm from salt & wind – Deep irrigations helpful – Very effective in controlling bacterial growth – Culinary herb in soups, stews and beans, plus always used in bouquet garni
  • 80. Calendula-Pot Marigold • Calendula officinalis – Eurasia origin – Garden soil and care – Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic properties – Antibacterial and antifungal – Ointment sooths irritated chapped skin, eczema, insect bites & sunburn – “Poor man’s saffron” – Petals used in salads for peppery taste – Used in some herbal teas Photo Courtesy of Sandy Wagner
  • 81. Caper • Capparis spinosa – Mediterranean origin – Frost sensitive – edible flowers, buds and young leaves – contains anti-oxidant flavinoid: Rutin – researchers are investigating the potential as an extract and a pulp in cosmetics
  • 82. Caper Photo Courtesy of www.australiacapers.com.auPhoto A.H.A.
  • 83. Cardamom • Elettaria cardamomum – Tropical Asia – Enriched soil, shade – Antidepressant properties – Digestive aid – Relieves hiccups – Seeds are chewed to freshen the breath – Seeds are ground for culinary spice use
  • 84. Carnation • Dianthus caryophyllus – Eurasian origins – Garden soil & care – Historical medicinal uses • not used for that today – Fresh flowers added to salads, floated in drinks – Crystallized flowers garnish cakes & dessertsPhoto Courtesy of www.thegardenhelper.com
  • 85. Castor Bean • Ricinus communis • Asia & Africa • Varied conditions • Frost sensitive small tree • POISONOUS!!! – Castor oil is a laxative – Castor oil also used in contraceptive creams and eye medications – Used in insecticides & lubricants – Seeds ground into ricin, a blood coagulant Photo Courtesy of www.cambridge2000.com
  • 86. Catmint • Nepeta sibirica or Nepeta mussinii – Eurasian origin – Garden soil & care – Lowers fever, increases perspiration, mildly sedative – Treats colds, influenza, nervous tension, anxiety & gastric upsets – Applied externally to cuts and bruises – Stimulating, minty tea – Edible flowers Photo Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
  • 87. Catnip • Nepeta cataria – Eurasian origin – Garden soil & care – Short-lived perennial – Uses similar to Catmint – Also used as a salad ingredient – Relaxing tea herb - Primary ingredient in “Sleepytime” type herbal teas – Stimulant for some felines, all speciesPhoto courtesy of www.ontariowildflowers.com
  • 88. Chamomile • Matricaria recutita (German)/Annual & Chamaemelum nobile (Roman)/Perennial • Central European origin • Garden soil & care • Shade required in heat – Antiseptic, anti- inflammatory – Tea helps with nausea & indigestion – Tea promotes calm, stress reduction and sound sleep – Edible flower Photo Courtesy of Sandy Wagner
  • 89. Chaste Tree (Vitex) (Monk’s Pepper Tree) • Vitex agnus-castus – Mediterranean – Landscape tree – Relaxant – Pain-relieving properties – Reduces libido – Dried seeds used as a substitute for black peppercorns
  • 91. Chervil • Anthriscus cerefolium – Eurasian origin – Garden soil & care – Winter annual – Mild digestive properties – Very delicate flavor for salads & culinary – Part of fines herbes combination Photo Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
  • 92. Chicory • Chichorium intybus – Eurasian origins – Improved garden soil – Bitter tonic herb – Dried, crushed root made into infusions for digestive upset & to improve appetite – Mild stimulant & laxative – Added to salads
  • 93. Chili/Chile Peppers Nahuatl/Aztec = Chilli Spanish = Chile • Capsicum spp. – Central & S. America – Good soil, fert. & water – Analgesic properties – Increases perspiration – Beneficial with heart attack victims – Many culinary uses fresh or dried Photos Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
  • 94. Chives-Edible Blossom • Allium schoenoprasum – Eurasia origins – Improved garden soil – No medical applications – Culinary uses – Edible flower Photos Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
  • 95. Chives-Garlic (Chives-Chinese) • Allium tuberosum – ALL GARDENS SHOULD HAVE!!! – Garden soil & care – many culinary uses fresh, as a garlic or chives substitute
  • 96. Cilantro(leaf-herb)/Coriander(seed-spice) • Coriandrum sativum • WINTER ANNUAL • Eurasian origins • Garden soil & care – digestive aid – appetite stimulant – fungicidal and antibacterial uses – seed extract lowers blood cholesterol – Many culinary uses around the world
  • 97. Cilantro/Coriander-Vietnamese • Polygonum odoratum • Tropical Asia • Summer Harvest • Garden soil & care • Frost sensitive – fresh leaves used as a perennial substitute for cilantro in many Asian recipes Photo Courtesy of www.mountainvalleygrowers.com
  • 98. Clematis Vine • Clematis recta • POISONOUS!!! – Traditional and historic medicinal uses for a variety of ailments Photo Courtesy of www.ces.ncsu.edu
  • 99. Coreopsis – Lance Leaved • Coreopsis lanceolata • N. American prairies • Garden soil & care or on drip in xeriscape – traditional dye plant for natural fibers - cotton, wool and plant fibers for linen and baskets
  • 100. Creosote • Larrea tridentata • N. American deserts • Xeriscape planting – anti-oxidant properties – cancer treatment – immune system stimulant – general tonic
  • 101. Dandelion • Taraxacum officinale • Garden soil and care • Central Europe – Medicinal tonics – Diuretic and urinary infections – Appetite stimulant – Digestive aid – Edible leaf for salads – Edible flower – Flowers for wine Photo Courtesy of Sandy Wagner
  • 102. Datura-Sacred (Jimson Weed - Devil’s Apple) • Datura innoxia or Datura wrightii or Datura strammonium • POISONOUS!!! – N. American deserts – Xeriscape plantings – Traditional Native American ceremonial and medicinal uses – EXTREMELY toxic – Preferred food plant for larval Hawk and Sphinx Moths
  • 103. Devil’s Claw • Proboscidea louisianica • N. American deserts • Xeriscape plantings – Dried black fibers used in basket weaving – Traditional medicinal uses – Edible pods when young and tender
  • 104. Dianthus - (Clove Pink) • Dianthus spp. • Eurasian origin • Garden soil & care – Traditional medicinal use as tonic, but not used this way today – Edible flower to decorate salads, cakes and ice cream Photo Courtesy of www.flowersandfauna.com
  • 105. Dill (Dill Weed) • Anethum graveolens • Central Europe • Garden soil & care – Dried seeds are the spice “Dill Seed” – Digestive aid – Treatment for diarrhea and dysentery – Seeds chewed for bad breath – Fresh leaves used in salads and cooking
  • 106. Elephant Tree (Torote) • Bursera microphylla • N. American deserts • Xeriscape landscape • Frost sensitive – Traditional incense plant among Native American tribes and Mexican cultures – Medicinal uses as anti-microbial and anti-fungus Photo Courtesy of www.desert-tropicals.com
  • 107. Epasote/Epazote • Chenopodium ambrosiodes • N. America & Mexican origin • Garden soil & care – Aztecs used to treat internal parasites (“skunk sweat”) – bitter, musky, “lemon peel” flavor – Digestive aid – Natural Bean-O! Photo Courtesy of www.mountainvalleygrowers.com
  • 108. Eucalyptus (Gum Tree) • Eucalyptus spp. • Australian – varied climatic conditions • Some prefer dry, some prefer moist • Many species, sizes and bloom colors are well adapted here – Decongestant and expectorant properties – Antiseptic – Topical for painful joints, inflammation and arthritis – Craft & floral uses
  • 109. Evening Primrose • Oenethera biennis • N. American prairie • Garden soil & care – Seed oil has anti-oxidant benefits – Immune booster – Menopause benefits – High blood pressure – Cosmetic uses for fresh flowers Photo Courtesy of www.usda.gov
  • 110. Fennel • Foeniculum vulgare • Central Europe & Eurasia • Garden soil & care • PLANT IN FALL – Dried seeds are used to treat bad breath – Seeds used to improve digestion and aid indigestion – Edible flower and leaves in salds and cooking – Flowers are host for beneficial insects - ladybird beetles, lace wings and butterflies
  • 111. Feverfew • Tanacetum parthenium or Chrysanthemum parthenium • Mediterranean origin • Garden soil & care • Frost tender Perennial – Migraine headache treatment – Fever reduce – Rheumatism treatment – Bitter salad leaf
  • 112. Flax-Scarlet • Linum grandiflorum • Related to Linum usitatissimum - source of fiber for linen and oil as linseed oil – Central European – Garden soil & care – Winter annual – seeds eaten for anti- oxidant, essential fatty acids & vitamins and as a laxative – sore throats and gastric upset
  • 113. Garlic-Culinary • Allium sativum • Many varieties and also many related sub-species grown – Eurasian origin – Garden soil & care – Plant deep in Fall – Harvest June – NO Water – Immune system enhancer – Antibiotic – Lowers blood pressure and cholesterol – Many culinary uses
  • 114. Garlic-Elephant • Allium ampeloprasum – Same origin, planting and care – Not garlic! It’s actually a leek! – Similar medicinal uses and benefits to related garlic – Culinary substitute for a more mild, less pungent garlic taste Photo Courtesy of www.elephantgarlic.com
  • 115. Garlic-Society • Tulbaghia violacea – Mediterranean origin – Garden soil & care – Not garlic! – Not culinary for most people. – Edible flowers
  • 116. Ginger Root • Zingiber officinale – Tropical Asia – Enriched soil & water – Frost tender – Anti-nausea for motion sickness and pregnancy – Antiseptic and expectorant – Promotes sweating for colds & flus – Perfume industry and food flavoring – Many culinary uses
  • 117. Globe Artichoke • Cynara cardunculus scolymus – Eurasian origin – Heat tender Perennial – Drainage – Root Rot – Leaves have some beneficial constituents for liver de-toxifier – Lowers blood pressure – EDIBLE flower bud – Dried flower for craft projects
  • 119. Gotu Kola • Hydrocotyle asiatica major – Southeast Asia – Tropical conditions – Prefers shade – Memory enhancer according to ancient Chinese medicine – Increases blood flow to the brain – Edible as bitter leaf in salads
  • 120. Grass-Bermuda (aka Devil’s Grass) • Cynodon dactylon – Asia & Africa – Strong perennial – Underground stems / rhizomes used as medicinal diuretic – Surface stems / stolons used in Hindu wedding ceremonies
  • 121. Grass-Citronella • Cymbopogon nardus – Southeast Asia – Enriched soil and extra water – Frost sensitive – Essential oil used in perfume trade – Essential oil used as insect repellant – Craft projects and potpourri uses
  • 122. Grass-Lemon • Cymbopogon citratus – Southeast Asia – Enriched soil and extra water – Frost sensitive – Topical antiseptic & antibiotic uses – Externally for rheumatism – Internally for gastric upset & indigestion – CULINARY uses
  • 125. Grass-Palmarosa “Rose Scented Grass” • Cymbopogon martinii motia – Southeast Asia – Enriched soil and extra water – Frost sensitive – Topical antiseptic and antibiotic uses – Essential oil used in perfume industry – Craft uses for dried floral and potpourri
  • 126. Grass-Vetiver • Vetivera zizanoides – Southeast Asia – Tolerates all soil and water conditions – Turns red in winter – Traditional uses in weaving reed mats – Essential oil from roots used widely in perfume industry – Insect repellant – Dried stems and blooms used in craft industry
  • 127. Henna • Lawsonia inermis – N. African deserts – Frost tender shrub – Dried foliage used to color hair, as well as to improve hair health – Natural dye plant for cloth or other fiber or temporary tattoos
  • 128. Hibiscus (Spanish - Jamaica) • Hibiscus spp. – Tropical Americas – VERY Prone to Root Rot – Drainage – Frost tender – Natural lemon-tasting tea of flowers – Beneficial tonic – Natural food colorant
  • 129. Hollyhock • Althaea rosea – Central China origin – Short-lived perennial – Easy from seed in Spring or Fall – rich soil – Blooms second year – Demulcent to sooth sore throat – Historical uses for chest complaints – Dye plant for natural fibers and cloth
  • 130. Honeysuckle • Lonicera caprifolium – N. America & Europe – Frost tender vine – Former use for expectorant and laxative properties – Related Chinese species used as toxin cleanser Photo Courtesy of www.davesgarden.com
  • 131. Jerusalem Artichoke • Helianthus tuberosus – N. American prairies – Perennial Sunflower – 6-10 feet tall – Tubers dried and used as an edible starch substitute, especially for diabetics – Tubers are edible fresh in salads, steamed or stir-fried
  • 132. Lamb’s Ear • Stachys byzantina – Eurasian origin – Root Rot Prone – Filtered shade – Traditional use for headaches & nervous tension – Healing use in lotions or ointments
  • 133. Lavender-Desert • Hyptis emoryi • AZ NATIVE PLANT – Well drained soil – 5-8 feet tall – Hummingbird attractant – Substitute for Mediterranean lavender in all craft, cosmetic and culinary uses – Native American use in tonic teas Photo Courtesy of www.fireflyforest.com
  • 134. Lavender • Lavandula spp. – Mediterranean origin – VERY Prone to Root Rot – DRAINAGE!!! – Perennial plants 3-5 years – Traditional use in headache and nervous anxiety preparations – Cosmetic and personal care uses, plus perfumes – Culinary uses in baking, salads, teas – Dried craft uses Lavandula multifida Fernleaf Lavender
  • 135. Lavender ….for the garden and the xeriscape landscape design
  • 136. Lavender Lavandula dentata-French Lavandula stoechas-Spanish Photo Courtesy of www.mediterraneangardensociety.org Hummingbird attractants
  • 137. Lemon • Citrus limonum – Tropical Asia – Frost sensitive – Good drainage critical – Juice is natural antibiotic – Oil from peel removes sticky labels – Many culinary uses for juice and peel – Leaves are a culinary flavoring in Asian soups & stir fries – Edible flower
  • 138. Lemon Balm (aka Melissa) • Melissa officinalis – Eurasian origin – Requires shade and enriched soil with extra moisture – Anti-viral preparations, especially for the various Herpes types – Relaxing & sedative properties – Depression and headache treatments – Fresh leaves for lemon flavor to salads, soups, etc. – Dried leaves for teas Photo Courtesy of www.desert-tropicals.com
  • 139. Lemon Verbena • Aloysia triphylla or Aloysia citriodora – Higher elevations of Tropical America – VERY Prone to Root Rot – Drainage!! – Frost sensitive – Flavorful teas, as well as other culinary uses – Perfume industry – Insect deterrant when dried – Dried craft use in sachets & potpourri Photo Courtesy of www.desert-tropicals.com
  • 140. Lion’s Tail / Lion’s Ear • Leonotis leonaurus – Tropical Asia & Africa – Garden soil & care – Perennial 2-3 years – Readily re-seeds – Seeds relished by birds – Hummingbird Flowers – Traditional medicinal and skin tonic uses in Asia – Smoked in its native South Africa as a mild narcotic – Dried flower and craft uses
  • 141. Madder / Dyer’s Madder • Rubia tinctorum – Central European – Improved soil & water – VERY INVASIVE – Traditional RED dye plant - roots used throughout Europe prior to New World discovery of Cochineal scale as superior RED dye
  • 142. Marjoram • Origanum majorana – Mediterranean origin – Drainage & Pruning – Antiseptic properties when used topically – Internally for relaxation and nervous tension – Many CULINARY uses worldwide Knot Marjoram Sweet Marjoram in Bloom
  • 143. Mesquite • Prosopis spp. – North, South & Central American deserts native – Fast growing trees – Do NOT stake and DO water deeply for best growth – Beans ground into a nutritious flour, beneficial to diabetics – Sap used as a dye by Native Americans – Bark &/or leaves boiled into a medicinal tea by some Native Americans
  • 144. Milk Thistle • Silybum marianum – Eurasian origin – Garden soil & care – Winter/Spring Annual – Seeds used as a liver de-toxifier – Appetite stimulant Photo Courtesy of www.nwcb.wa.gov
  • 145. Mint • Mentha spp. – European & Medit. – Garden soil & care – Can be invasive – Tea for colds & flu – Useful for indigestion – Breath freshener – Decongestant & antiseptic properties – Insect repellant – Many craft uses – Many CULINARY uses fresh and dried Pineapple Mint
  • 146. Mint – garden control
  • 148. Mormon Tea • Ephedra sp. – N. American deserts – Drainage critical – Slow growing at first – Contains pseudo-ephedrine substances, useful in treating respiratory problems – Tonic, somewhat minty tasting tea – NOTE: The related Chinese species contains ephedrine and is illegal in USA
  • 149. Nasturtium • Tropaeolum majus – Tropical C.&S. America – Plant soaked seeds Fall – Protect from frost – Garden soil & care – Seeds for antiseptic and antibacterial properties – Seeds used for upper respiratory infections – Fresh leaves and flowers edible in salads and appetizers Photo Courtesy www.hear.org
  • 150. Onion & Shallot • Allium cepa – European & Mediterranean origins – Plant in Sept/Oct/Nov – Harvest June/July – Antibiotic uses in traditional medicine – Respiratory benefits – Many CULINARY uses worldwide – TOXIC to dogs
  • 151. Onion & Shallot Egyptian Walking Onion
  • 152. Papago I’itoi Onion (shallot) Every gardener should have these!!! Spanish priests gave them to the Tohono O’odham farming tribes around 1700 AD Plant Fall/early Spring Dig as green onions all Winter/Spring May/June allow plants to dry down – NO water Harvest June/July a 25- 50 times increase
  • 153. Oregano-Cuban • Plectranthus amboinicus – Caribbean Mexico & C. America origin – Extremely frost sensitive – protect!! – Enriched soil & water – Traditional medicinal uses throughout Caribbean – Culinary use fresh as a substitute for European Oregano
  • 154. Oregano-Dittany of Crete • Origanum dictamnus – Mediterranean origin – Drainage critical – Filtered shade best – Traditional medicinal uses rarely practiced now – Decorative and dried craft uses
  • 155. Oregano-Mexican Bush • Lippia graveolens – Southwest USA & Mexican deserts – Very frost sensitive – Large shrub to 6 feet – Traditional Native American uses in several medicines – Major component in most dried, culinary packaged Oregano – Excellent in all CULINARY uses fresh or dried
  • 156. Oregano-Native American (Beebalm/Bergamot) • Monarda spp. – N. American prairies, meadows and forests – Enriched soil & water – Traditional uses in topical treatments as antibiotic & antiseptic – Relaxing tea – Replacement for English tea imports during American Revolution – Culinary uses in cooking meats and vegetables Photo Courtesy of www.desert-tropicals.com
  • 157. Oregano-Rosemarymint • Poliomintha maderensis cv. ‘Lavender Spice’ – Mexican native – Filtered shade – Prune hard after bloom – Traditional medicinal and ceremonial uses among Native Americans – Culinary uses in preparation of meats – Excellent edible flower and leaf in salads Photo Courtesy Mountain States Wholesale Nursery
  • 158. Oregano-Syrian (Bible Hyssop) • Organum maru or Origanum syriaca – N. African origin – Drainage important – Semi-dormant Winter – Loves hot weather – Historic uses as a topical antiseptic tea – Culinary uses as a strong oregano for meats, dried beans & vegetable dishes
  • 159. Oregano-Wooly • Origanum rotundifolium x dictamnus – Mediterranean origin – Drainage critical – Prefers heat & filtered or afternoon shade – Traditional medicinal uses, no longer practiced – Crafting and dried floral uses
  • 160. Papaya • Carica papaya – Tropical Americas origins – Frost sensitive – Drainage critical – SALT sensitive – Many traditional medicinal uses, both internal and topical – Wart removal, and also used as skin treatment for freckles & sun damage – Insecticide uses – Contains “papain”, a natural digestive and meat tenderizer – Edible fruit
  • 161. Parsley • Petroselinum crispum – Eurasian origins – Biennial at best, usually Winter annual – Best planted Fall from pre-soaked seed – Blooms attract ladybugs – Traditional medicinal and tonic uses – Rich source of vitamin A & C, plus anti- oxidants – Culinary uses fresh and cooked, plus seed Photo Courtesy of www.johnnyseeds.com
  • 162. Passion Vine • Passiflora incarnata – N., C. & S. American native species – Enriched soil & water – Frost tender – Butterfly attractant – Religious significance in Native & Christian religious ceremonies – Traditional medicinal uses – Aphrodisiac – Edible flower & fruit
  • 163. Patchouli • Pogostemon cablin or Pogostemon heyneanyus – Southeast Asian origin – Frost & Salt sensitive – Filtered shade – Historic medicinal and insect repellant uses – Cosmetic and body care uses – Perfume industry Photo Courtesy of www.oller.net
  • 164. Poppy-Breadseed • Papaver somniferum – Eurasian origins – Garden soil & care – Winter ANNUAL – Readily re-seeds Fall – Edible seeds for baking, salads, etc. (no alkaloid) – Sap collected as base for heroin, opium and related illegal narcotics, but the flower can be grown for decorative use – Traditional medicinal uses for pain and sedative
  • 167. Poppy- California & Mexican Gold • Eschscholzia californica & Eschscholzia mexicana – N. American native – Winter ANNUAL – Varied soil & water – Sedative – Topical pain reliever – Relieves anxiety, nervous tension & insomnia – Diuretic properties – Promotes perspiration – Edible seeds
  • 168. Prickly Pear/Indian Fig Cactus • Opuntia ficus-indica – Mexico & N. America – Frost sensitive – Full sun – good drainage – Pads used to treat wounds and sunburn – Pads and fruit are eaten as a slow-digesting carbohydrate, beneficial to diabetics – Cochineal scale host
  • 169. Rose • Rosa spp. – Europe, Eurasia, China and N. America – Garden soil & care – Prune HARD in January – Local Rose Societies – Many species and hybrids and varieties – Traditional uses in medicinal and personal care products – Edible flowers fresh or in jams and teas – Edible fruit with high Vitamin C
  • 170. Rosemary • Rosemary officinalis – Mediterranean origin – Drainage critical – Variable cold tolerance – Historical association with memory/learning – Improves blood flow in the brain – Myth and legend relates to friendship – Hair & scalp tonic – Many culinary uses!
  • 171. Rosemary – many varieties & uses ‘Tuscan’ ‘Huntington Blue’ ‘Arp’ ‘Madelene Hill’ ‘Spice Islands’
  • 172. Saffron Crocus • Crocus sativus • Eurasia & Meditteranean • Drainage critical • Improved soil, some shade • NOTE - leaves show in Spring, bulb is dormant in Summer and flowers appear in Fall – mark planting well – Medicinal uses as a digestive aid – Improves circulation & blood pressure – Many CULINARY uses Photo Courtesy of www-ang.kfunigraz.ac.at
  • 173. Sage-Culinary • Salvia officinalis • NOT all salvias are edible or same uses – Mediterranean origin – DRAINAGE Critical – Frost sensitive – Traditional medicinal uses as topical antiseptic – Cold & Flu treatment – Perfume and personal care uses – CULINARY uses in cooking and teas Berggarten Sage
  • 175. Sage-Chaparral or Cleveland • Salvia clevelandii • EXCELLENT xeriscape plant for low water use – Texas & Mexico native – DRAINAGE critical – Prune hard after bloom – similar historic medicinal uses to Culinary Sage – Also used in teas and cooking, although flavor is different – Craft, potpourri and dried floral uses – Hummingbird attractant
  • 176. Sage-Jerusalem • Phlomis fruticosa – Mediterranean native – Drainage critical – Prune hard after bloom – Traditional medicinal preparations as topical antiseptic – Primarily crafter and dried floral plant – Bright yellow blooms in Spring / early Summer
  • 177. Sage-Mexican Bush • Salvia leucantha – Mexican native plant – Tolerates wide range of soils and water – Frost sensitive – Historic and current medicinal uses among Native American tribes throughout Central America & Mexico – Ceremonial uses in Day of the Dead ceremonies in parts of Mexico – Dried floral and craft uses, plus HUMMINGBIRDS
  • 178. Sage-Pineapple • Salvia elegans – Tropical Americas – VERY Frost tender – Improved soil/water – Good drainage – History of similar medicinal uses to other sages – Edible flowers and leaves for salads – Some culinary uses – HUMMINGBIRDS
  • 179. Sage-Russian • Perovskia atriplicifolia – Eurasian origin – Winter dormant – Drainage important – Prune hard after bloom – Historic and traditional medicinal uses, rarely practiced currently – Crafter and dried floral uses now
  • 180. Salad Burnet • Poterium sanguisorba or Pimpinella saxifraga – Eurasian origin – Afternoon shade – Garden soil & care – Historic use as a digestive aid after meals – Seeds used in medicinal preparations – Edible flower and leaves for salads
  • 181. Scented Geranium • Pelargonium spp. – Southern Africa origin – Garden soil & care – Frost sensitive – Smaller leaved varieties better as container plants – Medicinal uses in South Africa in teas and topical solutions – Dried craft uses – Perfume industry – Culinary uses in cakes and teas
  • 182. Sesame • Sesamum indicum • Africa & Asia origin • Spring/Summer ANNUAL • Plant after last frost • 4-8 feet tall • Seeds ripen all summer • Sesame oil & seeds used in cooking – Rich in vitamins & minerals • eneficial for problem skin (eczema and psoriasis) – helps protect against harmful sun rays
  • 183. Sorrel • Rumex acetosa – Central Europe – Shade in Summer – Garden soil & care – Short-lived perennial – Rheumatism and arthritis sufferers should NOT consume – Edible leaves for salads, soups, etc. and steamed as a “green” Photo Courtesy of www.sandmountainherbs.com
  • 184. Southernwood-Powis Castle • Artemisia abrotanum ‘powis castle’ – Mediterranean origin – Drainage critical – Prune hard in Spring – Appetite stimulant and tonic as a mild tea – Historic medicinal uses as de-wormer – Insect repellant – Dried craft projects
  • 185. Statice-Sea Lavender • Statice caroliniana or Statice limonium – Eurasia origin – Garden soil & care – Perennial bloomer – dried floral and crafting plant
  • 186. Stevia • Stevia rebaudiana – Central America – Filtered shade – Enriched soil/water – Natural plant sweetener from the dried and powdered leaves, or as liquid extract drops – ZERO calories – Can substitute for sugar in all uses, including cookingPhoto Courtesy www.mountainvalleygrowers.com
  • 187. Sunflower • Helianthus annus • North American native plant • Garden soil & care • Plant seeds EARLY Fall or EARLY Spring • Seeds ripen Summer – seeds and oil loaded with vitamin E – Antioxidant – Seed hulls a traditional dye source for Hopi – Traditionally used for coughs and bronchitis
  • 188. Tarragon-French • Artemisia dracunculus var. sativa • CAUTION – French only from cuttings or root divisions - SEEDS are only for “Russian Tarragon” with NO flavor at all – Eurasian native – Frost and Heat sensitive – Drainage critical – Fresh or dried use as culinary herb Photo Courtesy of www.mobot.org
  • 189. Tarragon-Mexican • Tagetes lucida • Many Common names due to the popularity of this herb – Mexico & C. America origin – Tropical – frost tender – Blooms Oct.-January – Enriched soil / extra water – Traditional medicinal tea uses in Mexican & Central American homes – Culinary substitute for French Tarragon in recipes – Excellent in teas – ice or hot
  • 190. Thyme • Thymus spp. • MANY species and varieties & flavors – Mediterranean origin – Drainage critical – Prune regularly – Antiseptic and antibiotic uses – Coughs and colds – Beneficial mouthwash and for teeth/gums – CULINARY uses
  • 191. Thyme-Conehead • Coriothymus capitalus • Or Thymbra capitata ‘Conehead Thyme’ • Mediterranean origin • Drainage critical • Blooms all summer • Source of much of the packaged commercial thyme & thyme oil in retail markets – Contains thymol as key constituent for health & antiseptic benefits – CULINARY uses fresh or dried - very strong
  • 192. Vinca- Madagascar Periwinkle • Catharanthus roseus • Madagascar Island • Garden soil & care • Tender perennial • Re-seeds readily – Anti-witchcraft herb – Contains vincamine • dilates blood vessels • reduces blood pressure – Treats cardiovascular disorders – Research to treat several viral diseases
  • 193. Viola / Pansy / Sweet Violet • Viola spp. – Europe, Eurasia, North America, Mediterranean – Garden soil & care – Filtered to Full Shade – Many traditional medicinal uses as anti- inflammatory – Expectorant – Skin care & Perfume – Edible flower & leaves in salads Photo Courtesy of www.gardenguides.com
  • 194. Yarrow • Achillea spp. • Gold, White, Pastels – Europe, Eurasia, North America – Filtered shade – Enriched soil, water – Historic use in antiseptic medicinals and insecticides – Current use as dried floral and craft plant Photo Courtesy of Sandy Wagner
  • 195. Yerba Mansa – “Swamp Root” • Anemopsis californica • Native Arizona/Calif. wetlands plant – endangered • Moist conditions • Filtered shade • Long history of use in many different medicines, both internal and topically • Roots used for mouth and wound treatment • Popular pond plant
  • 196. What Did We Learn? • Hundreds of herbs can easily be grown in the Low Desert landscape & garden • Our seasons are different • Our soils are “interesting” • Our waters are salty • Plant herbs in the right season & the right location for a successful garden!