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Hepatitis - A
Submitted to –
mrs. Surabhi srivastava
assistant professor
Department of physiotherapy
shuats
Submitted by –
Shubham srivastava
(community medicine)
I’d no – 21bphy030
bpt – 3rd year
Hepatitis - a
► Hepatitis A is an inflammation of the liver that can cause mild to
severe illness.
• The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is transmitted through ingestion of
contaminated food and water or through direct contact with an
infectious person.
• Almost everyone recovers fully from hepatitis A with a lifelong
immunity. However, a very small proportion of people infected
with hepatitis A could die from fulminant hepatitis.
• The risk of hepatitis A infection is associated with a lack of safe
water and poor sanitation and hygiene (such as contaminated
and dirty hands).
• A safe and effective vaccine is available to prevent hepatitis A.
Overview
► Hepatitis A is an inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV).
► The virus is primarily spread when an uninfected (and unvaccinated) person ingests
food or water that is contaminated with the faeces of an infected person.
► The disease is closely associated with unsafe water or food, inadequate sanitation,
poor personal hygiene and oral-anal sex.
► Unlike hepatitis B and C, hepatitis A does not cause chronic liver disease but it can
cause debilitating symptoms and rarely fulminant hepatitis (acute liver failure),
which is often fatal.
► WHO estimates that in 2016, 7134 persons died from hepatitis A worldwide
(accounting for 0.5% of the mortality due to viral hepatitis).
► Hepatitis A viruses persist in the environment and can withstand food production
processes routinely used to inactivate or control bacterial pathogens.
Epidemiological determinants
.1.5 million clinical cases of hepatitis
A occur worldwide annually.
. Males are more affected than
females.
Symptoms
► The incubation period of hepatitis A is usually 14–28 days.
► Symptoms of hepatitis A range from mild to severe and can include
fever, malaise, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, nausea, abdominal
discomfort, dark-coloured urine and jaundice (a yellowing of the eyes
and skin). Not everyone who is infected will have all the symptoms.
► Infected children under 6 years of age do not usually experience
noticeable symptoms, and only 10% develop jaundice.
Diagnosis
Specific diagnosis is made by the detection of HAV-specific
immunoglobulin G (IgM) antibodies in the blood.
► Additional tests include reverse transcriptase polymerase chain
reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the hepatitis A virus RNA and may
require specialized laboratory facilities.
► Blood tests are used to look for signs of the hepatitis A virus in your
body.
► IgM (immunoglobulin M) antibodies. Your body makes these when
you’re first exposed to hepatitis A. They stay in your blood for about 3-6
months.
► IgG (immunoglobulin G) antibodies. These show up after the virus
has been in your body for a while. You may have them all your life.
They protect you against hepatitis A. If you test positive for them but not
for IgM antibodies, it means you had a hepatitis A infection in the past
or had vaccinations to protect against it.
Treatment
► There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A.
► Recovery from symptoms following infection may be
slow and can take several weeks or months.
► It is important to avoid unnecessary medications that
can adversely affect the liver, e.g. acetaminophen,
paracetamol.
► Hospitalization is unnecessary in the absence of acute
liver failure.
► Therapy is aimed at maintaining comfort and adequate
nutritional balance, including replacement of fluids that
are lost from vomiting and diarrhoea.
Prevention
► Improved sanitation, food safety and immunization are the
most effective ways to combat hepatitis A.
► The spread of hepatitis A can be reduced by:
• adequate supplies of safe drinking water;
• proper disposal of sewage within communities; and
• personal hygiene practices such as regular handwashing
before meals and after going to the bathroom.
► Several injectable inactivated hepatitis A vaccines are
available internationally. All provide similar protection from
the virus and have comparable side effects. No vaccine is
licensed for children younger than 1 year of age. In China, a
live attenuated vaccine is also available.
Hepatitis A Transmission Prevention
When you have hepatitis A, take these steps to avoid
giving it to others:
• Avoid all sexual activity.
• Wash your hands after you use the bathroom or
change diapers.
• Don’t prepare food for other people.
Hepatitis A Incubation Period
Once you're exposed to hepatitis A, the incubation
period, which is the duration between exposure to the
virus and the onset of symptoms, averages about 28
days.
Some people start to feel sick in as little as 15 days.
Others might not have symptoms until 50 days after
Hepatitis A Vaccine
The virus usually doesn't cause any long-term problems or
complications. The vaccine to prevent it is about 95% effective in
healthy adults and can work for more than 20 years. In children, it’s
about 85% effective and can last 15-20 years.
Experts recommend that certain people get vaccinated:
•Travelers to countries with more hepatitis A infections
•Children aged 13-23 months
•Families adopting children from countries where the virus is
common
•People who have a blood clotting problem
•People who have direct contact with a person with the virus
•People who use recreational drugs
•People who have long-term liver disease
The hepatitis A vaccine includes two injections 6 months apart. A
combination vaccine for hepatitis A and B has three shots over 6
months.
Hepatitis A vaccine side effects
It's unlikely you'll have serious side effects
from the hepatitis A vaccine -- they're very
rare. You might have mild side effects,
including:
• Fever
• Headache
• Tiredness
• Soreness or redness at the injection spot
Thank you

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Hepatitis A, Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj

  • 1. Hepatitis - A Submitted to – mrs. Surabhi srivastava assistant professor Department of physiotherapy shuats Submitted by – Shubham srivastava (community medicine) I’d no – 21bphy030 bpt – 3rd year
  • 2. Hepatitis - a ► Hepatitis A is an inflammation of the liver that can cause mild to severe illness. • The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is transmitted through ingestion of contaminated food and water or through direct contact with an infectious person. • Almost everyone recovers fully from hepatitis A with a lifelong immunity. However, a very small proportion of people infected with hepatitis A could die from fulminant hepatitis. • The risk of hepatitis A infection is associated with a lack of safe water and poor sanitation and hygiene (such as contaminated and dirty hands). • A safe and effective vaccine is available to prevent hepatitis A.
  • 3. Overview ► Hepatitis A is an inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). ► The virus is primarily spread when an uninfected (and unvaccinated) person ingests food or water that is contaminated with the faeces of an infected person. ► The disease is closely associated with unsafe water or food, inadequate sanitation, poor personal hygiene and oral-anal sex. ► Unlike hepatitis B and C, hepatitis A does not cause chronic liver disease but it can cause debilitating symptoms and rarely fulminant hepatitis (acute liver failure), which is often fatal. ► WHO estimates that in 2016, 7134 persons died from hepatitis A worldwide (accounting for 0.5% of the mortality due to viral hepatitis). ► Hepatitis A viruses persist in the environment and can withstand food production processes routinely used to inactivate or control bacterial pathogens.
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  • 5. Epidemiological determinants .1.5 million clinical cases of hepatitis A occur worldwide annually. . Males are more affected than females.
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  • 7. Symptoms ► The incubation period of hepatitis A is usually 14–28 days. ► Symptoms of hepatitis A range from mild to severe and can include fever, malaise, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark-coloured urine and jaundice (a yellowing of the eyes and skin). Not everyone who is infected will have all the symptoms. ► Infected children under 6 years of age do not usually experience noticeable symptoms, and only 10% develop jaundice.
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  • 9. Diagnosis Specific diagnosis is made by the detection of HAV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgM) antibodies in the blood. ► Additional tests include reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the hepatitis A virus RNA and may require specialized laboratory facilities. ► Blood tests are used to look for signs of the hepatitis A virus in your body. ► IgM (immunoglobulin M) antibodies. Your body makes these when you’re first exposed to hepatitis A. They stay in your blood for about 3-6 months. ► IgG (immunoglobulin G) antibodies. These show up after the virus has been in your body for a while. You may have them all your life. They protect you against hepatitis A. If you test positive for them but not for IgM antibodies, it means you had a hepatitis A infection in the past or had vaccinations to protect against it.
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  • 12. Treatment ► There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A. ► Recovery from symptoms following infection may be slow and can take several weeks or months. ► It is important to avoid unnecessary medications that can adversely affect the liver, e.g. acetaminophen, paracetamol. ► Hospitalization is unnecessary in the absence of acute liver failure. ► Therapy is aimed at maintaining comfort and adequate nutritional balance, including replacement of fluids that are lost from vomiting and diarrhoea.
  • 13. Prevention ► Improved sanitation, food safety and immunization are the most effective ways to combat hepatitis A. ► The spread of hepatitis A can be reduced by: • adequate supplies of safe drinking water; • proper disposal of sewage within communities; and • personal hygiene practices such as regular handwashing before meals and after going to the bathroom. ► Several injectable inactivated hepatitis A vaccines are available internationally. All provide similar protection from the virus and have comparable side effects. No vaccine is licensed for children younger than 1 year of age. In China, a live attenuated vaccine is also available.
  • 14. Hepatitis A Transmission Prevention When you have hepatitis A, take these steps to avoid giving it to others: • Avoid all sexual activity. • Wash your hands after you use the bathroom or change diapers. • Don’t prepare food for other people. Hepatitis A Incubation Period Once you're exposed to hepatitis A, the incubation period, which is the duration between exposure to the virus and the onset of symptoms, averages about 28 days. Some people start to feel sick in as little as 15 days. Others might not have symptoms until 50 days after
  • 15. Hepatitis A Vaccine The virus usually doesn't cause any long-term problems or complications. The vaccine to prevent it is about 95% effective in healthy adults and can work for more than 20 years. In children, it’s about 85% effective and can last 15-20 years. Experts recommend that certain people get vaccinated: •Travelers to countries with more hepatitis A infections •Children aged 13-23 months •Families adopting children from countries where the virus is common •People who have a blood clotting problem •People who have direct contact with a person with the virus •People who use recreational drugs •People who have long-term liver disease The hepatitis A vaccine includes two injections 6 months apart. A combination vaccine for hepatitis A and B has three shots over 6 months.
  • 16. Hepatitis A vaccine side effects It's unlikely you'll have serious side effects from the hepatitis A vaccine -- they're very rare. You might have mild side effects, including: • Fever • Headache • Tiredness • Soreness or redness at the injection spot
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