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The Essence of Agile
        Agile Israel
       April 11, 2011

    Henrik Kniberg
    Agile/Lean coach
       www.crisp.se

              Board of
              directors




    henrik.kniberg@crisp.se
         070 4925284
What is all this stuff?!
                           TDD
                 Agile
                                   Scrum
       XP
                                  Continuous
                                  Integration
     Refa
         c   torin               Pair
                  g
                                        ming
Lean                             program


Henrik Kniberg                              2
Agile in a
nutshell

             3
             3
Agile Manifesto




                       www.agilemanifesto.org
             We are uncovering better ways of developing
             software by doing it and helping others do it.
                                Feb 11-13, 2001
                            Snowbird ski resort, Utah

                 Kent Beck                Ron Jeffries
                 Mike Beedle              Jon Kern
                 Arie van Bennekum        Brian Marick
                 Alistair Cockburn        Robert C. Martin
                 Ward Cunningham          Steve Mellor
                 Martin Fowler            Ken Schwaber
                 James Grenning           Jeff Sutherland
                 Jim Highsmith            Dave Thomas
                 Andrew Hunt
Henrik Kniberg                                                4
Agile Manifesto
                      www.agilemanifesto.org
            We are uncovering better ways of developing
            software by doing it and helping others do it.
             Through this work we have come to value:


Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
                  ‫אנשים ויחסי גומלין על פני תהליכים וכלים‬

Working software over comprehensive documentation
                     ‫תוכנה עובדת על פני תיעוד מפורט‬

  Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
              ‫שיתוף פעולה עם הלקוחות על פני משא ומתן חוזי‬

      Responding to change over following a plan
                ‫תגובה לשינויים על פני מעקב אחרי התוכנית‬

               That is, while there is value in the items on
             the right, we value the items on the left more.
Henrik Kniberg      ‫כלומר, בעוד שיש ערך לפריטים בצד שמאל‬       5
                    ‫.אנחנו מעריכים יותר את הפריטים בצד ימין‬
Principles behind the Agile Manifesto
!   Our highest priority is to satisfy the        !   Working software is the primary
    customer through early and continuous             measure of progress.
    delivery of valuable software.                !   Agile processes promote sustainable
!   Welcome changing requirements, even late          development. The sponsors, developers,
    in development. Agile processes harness           and users should be able to maintain a
    change for the customer's competitive             constant pace indefinitely.
    advantage.                                    !   Continuous attention to technical
!   Deliver working software frequently, from         excellence and good design enhances
    a couple of weeks to a couple of months,          agility.
    with a preference to the shorter timescale.   !   Simplicity--the art of maximizing the
!   Business people and developers must work          amount of work not done--is essential.
    together daily throughout the project.        !   The best architectures, requirements,
!   Build projects around motivated                   and designs emerge from self-organizing
    individuals. Give them the environment and        teams.
    support they need, and trust them to get      !   At regular intervals, the team reflects on
    the job done.                                     how to become more effective, then
!   The most efficient and effective method of        tunes and adjusts its behavior
    conveying information to and within a             accordingly.
    development team is face-to-face
    conversation.

                                                                                            6
Agile ”umbrella”




                                          FDD
                   DSDM

 Scrum        XP              Crystal




     Kanban         Sources:
                    3rd Annual ”State of Agile Development” Survey June-July 2008
                    •   3061 respondents
                    •   80 countries
                                                                         7
Traditional, predictive approach
                                Release


                                          Design spec



                                                  Requirements spec




                                                    Order



                                                                 C
D
                                Actual
P                               need
    P

            R
              11-04-11

        Henrik Kniberg                                                8
We tend to build the wrong thing
 Features and functions used in a typical system


         Half of the stuff we
               build is                  Always
             never used!                   7%
                                                    Often
                                                    13%
                Never




                                                                   Cost
                45%
                                                       Some-
                                                       times
                                                        16%

                                          Rarely
                                           19%
                                                                                   # of features
Sources:
Standish group study reported at XP2002 by Jim Johnson, Chairman          This graph courtesy of Mary Poppendieck



                                                         9
   Henrik Kniberg                                                                                                   9
Traditional projects are like a cannon ball
Assumptions:
!   The customer knows what he wants
!   The developers know how to build it
!   Nothing will change along the way




  Henrik Kniberg                              10
Agile is like a homing missile
Assumptions:
!   The customer discovers what he wants
!   The developers discover how to build it
!   Things change along the way




   Henrik Kniberg                             11
Timeboxing                                                               A B
  Plan                                                                           C D
 (doomed to fail, but we don’t know it yet)
                                              Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4



  Traditional scenario                                                                                               A B
  ”We will deliver ABCD in 4 weeks”                                                         Oops, we’re late.
                                                                                                                     C D
            Scope

                                              Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8

      X X   Quality

    X
   Cost               Time


  Agile scenario
”We always deliver something every sprint (2 weeks)”            A            A B         A B E
”We think we can finish ABCD in 4 weeks, but we aren’t sure”
”We always deliver the most important items first”
                                                   Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6
          Scope
                                                   Oops, our velocity is lower than we thought.
                                                    It looks like we’ll only finish AB by week 4.
          Quality                                             What should we do now?
 Cost               Time

                                                                                                                12
Henrik Kniberg
Planning is easier with frequent releases




Henrik Kniberg                              13
Scrum in a
nutshell

         14  14
Split your organization

        Scrum in a nutshell
  Split your product


                             Large group spending a long time building a huge thing
                             Small team spending a little time building a small thing
                                  ... but integrating regularly to see the whole
                                         Optimize process
Optimize business value

  $$$

                    Split time
                   January                                                               April

   $




        Henrik Kniberg                                                                  15
Scrum overview – structure
                  Product                                              Cross-functional,
                  Backlog                                              self-organizing Team
                                                                       -  How much to pull in
Stakeholders                                                           -  How to build it
                                                                       -  Quality
                                               Sprint                  -  Sustainable pace
                                               Backlog         Team

    Users


                  PO
   Helpdesk                                                           SM
                  Direct communication
 Operations

                        Product owner
                        -  Vision: Where are we going & why?           Scrum Master
 Management             -  ROI                                         -  Process leader/coach
                        -  Priorities & tradeoffs                      -  Impediment remover

    ... etc ...




Henrik Kniberg                                                                      16
Backlog management                                                                                                                          Estimate stories
                                                                                                                              As a buyer
                                                                                                                                                            2
                                                                                                                              I want to save my shopping cart
                                                                                                                                                                As a booker
                                                                                                                                                                I want to receive notifications when
                                                                                                                                                                new slots appear in the calendar
                                                                                                                                                                                                       5
      Write user stories                                                                                                      so that I can continue shopping
                                                                                                                              later
                                                                                                                                                                so that I don't have to keep
                                                                                                                                                                checking manually




                                                                       As a buyer                                                                       2       2
           asdf kjsk
           flkjs df sd fk
                                asdf kjsk
                                flkjs df sd fk
                                                 asdf kjsk
                                                 flkjs df sd fk          As a buyer
                                                                       I want to save my shopping cart                                                                  5
                                                                                                                                                       2
                                                                       soIthat a can continue shopping later
                                                                            As I buyer
                                                      asdf kjsk
                                                      flkjs df sd fk
                                                                           want to save my shopping cart
                                                                                                                                                                       3
               asdf kjsk


                                                                         soIthat I can continue shopping later
                                                                             want to save my shopping cart
               flkjs df sd fk
                    asdf kjsk
                   flkjs df sd fk
                        asdf kjsk
                        flkjs df sd fk                                                                                                                          ?
                                                                            so that I can continue shopping later




Break down big stories                                                                           Prioritize
                                                                         REgister new        3        REgister new       3
                                                                             user                         user

                                                                         Edit existing       5        Edit existing      5                                                Velocity-based
                                                                                                                                                                             forecast
                                                                             user                         user
                                                                                                                                 High prio stories
  Administrate                                                                                                                   small enough to
     users                  13                                                  Find        3        View Invoice in HTML,         fit in a sprint
                                                                                                                                                                       April
                                                                                user                 PDF, or Excel format


View Invoice in HTML,
PDF, or Excel format
                                                                              Delete        5        As a helpdesk operator
                                                                                                      I want to see who is                                             May
                                                                               user                         logged in

As a helpdesk operator
 I want to see who is
       logged in
                                                                         View Invoice in HTML,              Find         3                                             June
                                                                         PDF, or Excel format               user
   Operations                                                                                                                                                           Later
     manual
                                                                        As a helpdesk operator
                                                                         I want to see who is
                                                                                                        Operations
                                                                               logged in                  manual                                                                    Realistic
100 simultaneous                                                                                                                                                                planning horizon
                                                                                                                                   Low prio stories
      users                                                                Operations                100 simultaneous                not broken
                                                                             manual                        users                      down yet

                                                                                                                                                                                    17
                                                                         100 simultaneous
                                                                               users
                                                                                                           Delete
                                                                                                            user
                                                                                                                         5
Typical sprint
        Product
        Backlog




                                                                          release
PO
                                                                           1.3.0


                                             Daily
                                             Scrum


                              Week 1           Week 2       Week 3



                                   Sprint-                           Demo/Review
 Sprint plan
 (Task board / Scrum board)       planning                           Retrospective

                                                 Timeline




     Henrik Kniberg                                                           18
Velocity
                 V= 8                  V= 7                    V= 9

 1       2                   2                 1       1   2
     2       3           1         3    1          2       2    1
Sprint 1                Sprint 2              Sprint 3




                                               Likely future velocity:
                                               7-9 per sprint



Henrik Kniberg                                                           19
Scope


Release planning – example                 Quality

                                    Cost             Time
•  Today is Aug 6
•  Sprint length = 2 weeks
•  Velocity = 30 - 40
                             300
  What will be done            PO
    by X-mas?
              (10 sprints)   400




 2007-09-28                                  20
XP in a
nutshell

           21
            21
Scrum                                      Scrum
”wraps”                 Team
                                                          Daily Scrum



XP                                              XP                       Sprint
                                                                        backlog
                                                Whole
                                                team

                                                              Coding              Burndown
                              Collective                                            chart
                              ownership         TDD          standard
       Product
       backlog

                   Customer
                     tests            Pair               Refactoring      Planning Sprint
     Product                      programming                               game Planning
      owner                                                                       meeting

                          Continuous            Simple      Sustainable
                          Integration           design         Pace


                                            Metaphor


                                             Small
                                            releases
                   ScrumMaster
                                                           Sprint
                                                           Review
      2007-09-28

 Henrik Kniberg                                                                              22
Feedback
loops             Sprint review

                  Daily Scrum

                   Continuous
                   integration


                     Unit test


                      Pair
                  programming

 Henrik Kniberg                   23
Kanban in a
nutshell

Henrik Kniberg   24
Kanban in SW development
!       Visualize the workflow                                                                                                                          Pioneered by
                                                                                                                                                        David Anderson
                                                                                                                                                        in 2004
!       Limit WIP (work in progress)
!       Measure & optimize flow
!       Explicit policies (definition of Done, WIP limits, etc)
                  Backlog                       Dev                   UAT                  Deploy Done
                    5                            3                     2                     3
                      orem ips                                dolor                dolor     orem ips
                     sit amet
                               um dolor          orem ipsum           orem ipsum                      um dolor
                              , co nse                        nse                  nse      sit amet
                     ctetur                      sit amet, co         sit amet, co                   , co nse
                                                                                            ctetur
                                                 cte tur              cte tur                                                     dolor
                                                                                                                                     orem ipsum dolor
                                                                                                                     orem ipsum
                                                                                                                               co nse amet, co nse
                                                                                                                                     sit
                                                                                                                     sit amet,
                                                                                                                                     ctetur
                                                                                                                      ctetur
                     orem ipsum dolor            orem ipsum dolor     orem ipsum dolor
                     sit amet, co nse            sit amet, co nse     sit amet, co nse
                     ctetur                                           ctetur                                                   orem ipsum dolor
                                                 ctetur
                                                                                                                               sit amet, co nse
                                                                                                                               ctetur
                             orem ipsum dolor                                                                     orem ips
                             sit amet, co nse                                                                              um dolor
                                                                                                                 sit amet
                             ctetur                                                                                       , co nse
                                                                                                                 ctetur
                                                                                                                              orem ipsum dolor
                                                                                                                              sit amet, co nse
                    orem ipsum dolor                                                                                          ctetur
                    sit amet, co nse
                    ctetur




                                          FLOW                 Avg lead time:12 days



Henrik Kniberg                                                                                                                                              25
”One day in Kanban land”
                 http://blog.crisp.se/henrikkniberg/tags/kanban/




Henrik Kniberg                                                     26
Scenario 1 – one piece flow


                                                  Dev
            Backlog                  Next             3          In production :o)
                                        2
                                            Ongoing       Done
                     A
                             B
             G

                         C
             F
                             D
         H
                     I
        J        L               E
        M            K




Henrik Kniberg                                                                       27
Scenario 1 – one piece flow


                                                  Dev
            Backlog                  Next             3          In production :o)
                                        2
                                            Ongoing       Done

                                        A
             G
                                        B
                         C
             F
                             D
         H
                     I
        J        L               E
        M            K




Henrik Kniberg                                                                       28
Scenario 1 – one piece flow


                                                  Dev
            Backlog                  Next             3          In production :o)
                                        2
                                            Ongoing       Done

                                              A
             G
                                        B
                         C
             F
                             D
         H
                     I
        J        L               E
        M            K




Henrik Kniberg                                                                       29
Scenario 1 – one piece flow


                                          Dev
            Backlog          Next             3          In production :o)
                                2
                                    Ongoing       Done

                                C                  A
             G
                                D     B

             F

         H
                     I
        J        L       E
        M            K




Henrik Kniberg                                                               30
Scenario 1 – one piece flow.


                                           Dev
            Backlog          Next             3          In production :o)
                                2
                                    Ongoing       Done

                                       C                        A
             G
                                D                   B

             F

         H
                     I
        J        L       E
        M            K




Henrik Kniberg                                                               31
Scenario 2 – Deployment problem


                                                   Dev
            Backlog                   Next             3          In production :o)
                                         2
                                 PO          Ongoing       Done
                     A
                             B
             G

                         C
             F
                             D
         H
                     I
        J        L               E
        M            K




Henrik Kniberg                                                                        32
Scenario 2 – Deployment problem


                                                   Dev
            Backlog                   Next             3          In production :o)
                                         2
                                 PO          Ongoing       Done

                                        A
             G
                                        B
                         C
             F
                             D
         H
                     I
        J        L               E
        M            K




Henrik Kniberg                                                                        33
Scenario 2 – Deployment problem


                                           Dev
            Backlog           Next             3          In production :o)
                                 2
                         PO          Ongoing       Done

                                 C     A
             G
                                 D     B

             F

         H
                     I
        J        L       E
        M            K




Henrik Kniberg                                                                34
Scenario 2 – Deployment problem


                                            Dev
            Backlog           Next             3          In production :o)
                                 2
                         PO          Ongoing       Done

                                        C           A
             G
                                 D     B

             F

         H
                     I
        J        L       E
        M            K




Henrik Kniberg                                                                35
Scenario 2 – Deployment problem


                                            Dev
            Backlog           Next             3          In production :o)
                                 2
                         PO          Ongoing       Done

                                        C           A
             G
                                 D
                                       !?            B

             F

         H
                     I
        J        L       E
        M            K




Henrik Kniberg                                                                36
Scenario 2 – Deployment problem


                                             Dev
            Backlog           Nexet             3          In production :o)
                                 2
                         PO           Ongoing       Done


             G                          !?           A

                                 D                    B

             F
                                 E                    C
         H
                     I
        J        L
        M            K




Henrik Kniberg                                                                 37
Scenario 2 – Deployment problem


                                           Dev
            Backlog           Next             3          In production :o)
                                 2
                         PO          Ongoing       Done

                                                    A
             G
                                 D                   B

             F
                                 E                   C
         H
                     I
        J        L
        M            K




Henrik Kniberg                                                                38
Scenario 2 – Deployment problem


                                           Dev
            Backlog           Next             3          In production :o)
                                 2
                         PO          Ongoing       Done

                                                                 A
             G
                                 D                                B

             F
                                 E                   C
         H
                     I
        J        L
        M            K




Henrik Kniberg                                                                39
Scenario 2 – Deployment problem


                                           Dev
            Backlog           Next             3          In production :o)
                                 2
                         PO          Ongoing       Done

                                       D                         A
             G
                                                                  B
                                       E
             F
                                                     C
         H
                     I
        J        L
        M            K




Henrik Kniberg                                                                40
Evolve your own unique system!




                                 Some of these photos courtesy of
                                 David Anderson, Mattias Skarin,
                                 and various other people
  Henrik Kniberg                                         41
Case study:
Cross
functional
teams
          42  42
Before
                                                                    Design-ready games   Production-ready games
                              Game backlog
                                                                             15            12
                                  8
                                           Lisa
                    Concept                              Graphics   Sound                       Integr. &
       Sam                               assigns                                   Dev
                     pres.                                design    design                       deploy
                                        resources
 2d          1m                 6m                  1w                       6m          6m
       2h              4h                    1d            1m        3w             3m           3w
                                                                                  (1m+2m)
3 m value added time         Process
                       = 12% cycle
  25 m cycle time            efficiency




                                                                                                            43
Before
                                                                        Design-ready games    Production-ready games
                              Game backlog
                                                                                 15             12
                                  8
                                           Lisa
                    Concept                                Graphics     Sound                        Integr. &
       Sam                               assigns                                        Dev
                     pres.                                  design      design                        deploy
                                        resources
  2d         1m                 6m                  1w                           6m           6m
       2h              4h                    1d              1m          3w              3m           3w
                             Process                                                  (1m+2m)
3 m value added time
                       = 12% cycle
  25 m cycle time            efficiency



After                                                  Game team
                                                    (graphics, sound,
                                                     dev, integrate)
Cross-functional game team

   3-4 m cycle time = 6-8x faster
                                                    3-4 months


                                                                                                                 44
Specialist teams & handovers
                                                   We’re slow!
I’m fast!                    6 months



        Joe                      Dave               Lisa          Release


Cross-functional teams
            3 months


                                             We’re alot faster!
            Joe
                                     I’m a bit
              Dave                    slower


                  Lisa             Release


  January     February   March      April    May       June        July


 Henrik Kniberg                                                             45
Kanban – ”evolution over revolution”
                                                                                                                              Integrate!
  Next! Graphics!                                                              Sound!                            Development! & deploy! Done!!
   3         2                                                                      3                                2          1!
                            Doing!                 Done!                       Doing!                 Done!      Doing!                   Done!                     Doing!              2009-08-20!
2009-09-03!
                                                                                                                                        2009-08-27!                                       orem olor sit amet, co
 ipsum dolor sit am                                2009-09-01!                2009-08-30!                                                                         2009-08-26!
                     et,                                                                                      2009-08-27!                orem ipsum dolor sit                             nse ctetur adi pis
 co nse ctetur adi
              !
 cing elit nisl
                   pis                              orem ipsum dolor sit
                                                    amet, co nse ctetur
                                                                              orem ipsum dolor sit
                                                                              amet, co adi pis cing             orem ipsum dolor
                                                                                                                                  sit    amet, adi pis cing
                                                                                                                                                !                  orem adi pis           cing elit nisl !
                                                                         !
                                                    adi pis cing elit nisl    elit nisl!                        amet, ctetur adi
                                                                                                                             !
                                                                                                                cing elit nisl
                                                                                                                                 pis     elit nisl
                                                                                                                                                                   cing elit nisl   !
                                                                                                                                                                                        2009-08-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                     !

                                                                             2009-08-29!                                                                                                               dolor sit
2009-09-03!                2009-09-02!                                                                                                                                                    orem ipsum
  ipsum dolor sit amet,     orem ipsum dolor sit                              orem ipsum dolor sit
                                                                              amet, nse ctetur adi
                                                                                                                                                                                          amet, co nse
                                                                                                                                                                                           adi pis cing
                                                                                                                                                                                                        ctetur
                                                                                                                                                                                                        elit nisl   !
  co nse ctetur adi pis
  cing elit nisl  !         amet, nse ctetur adi
                                       !
                            pis elit nisl                                                     !
                                                                              pis cing elit nisl                                                                                        2009-08-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                     !
                                                                                                                                                                                         orem ipsum
                                                                                                                                                                                         amet, co!  dolor sit




                           Definition of Done:!                                  Definition of Done:!         Definition of Done:!                              Definition of Done:!
                           • …!                                                  • …!                         • …!                                              • …..!




              Henrik Kniberg                                                                                                                                                            46
Final points



          47   47
Working smart is more important than
    working hard
 Big team working hard




                           Working ”smart” is enabled by:
                           •  Clear goal
                           •  Transparency
                           •  Direct contact with customers
                           •  Focus
                           •  Fast feedback
Small team working smart




    Henrik Kniberg                                     48
Distinguish between…

 Using the tool wrong                Using the wrong tool




                        Neither of these
                        problems are caused by
                        the tool
                                                 49


Henrik Kniberg                                              49
The important thing is not your process.
  Essential skills needed                                        The important thing is
  regardless of process                                 your process for improving your process


 Splitting the system into              Craftsmanship        Retrospectives
 useful pieces




As a buyer
I want to save my shopping cart
so that I can continue shopping later




     Henrik Kniberg                                                                     50

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Henrik Kniberg - Essence of Agile

  • 1. The Essence of Agile Agile Israel April 11, 2011 Henrik Kniberg Agile/Lean coach www.crisp.se Board of directors henrik.kniberg@crisp.se 070 4925284
  • 2. What is all this stuff?! TDD Agile Scrum XP Continuous Integration Refa c torin Pair g ming Lean program Henrik Kniberg 2
  • 4. Agile Manifesto www.agilemanifesto.org We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Feb 11-13, 2001 Snowbird ski resort, Utah Kent Beck Ron Jeffries Mike Beedle Jon Kern Arie van Bennekum Brian Marick Alistair Cockburn Robert C. Martin Ward Cunningham Steve Mellor Martin Fowler Ken Schwaber James Grenning Jeff Sutherland Jim Highsmith Dave Thomas Andrew Hunt Henrik Kniberg 4
  • 5. Agile Manifesto www.agilemanifesto.org We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools ‫אנשים ויחסי גומלין על פני תהליכים וכלים‬ Working software over comprehensive documentation ‫תוכנה עובדת על פני תיעוד מפורט‬ Customer collaboration over contract negotiation ‫שיתוף פעולה עם הלקוחות על פני משא ומתן חוזי‬ Responding to change over following a plan ‫תגובה לשינויים על פני מעקב אחרי התוכנית‬ That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. Henrik Kniberg ‫כלומר, בעוד שיש ערך לפריטים בצד שמאל‬ 5 ‫.אנחנו מעריכים יותר את הפריטים בצד ימין‬
  • 6. Principles behind the Agile Manifesto !   Our highest priority is to satisfy the !   Working software is the primary customer through early and continuous measure of progress. delivery of valuable software. !   Agile processes promote sustainable !   Welcome changing requirements, even late development. The sponsors, developers, in development. Agile processes harness and users should be able to maintain a change for the customer's competitive constant pace indefinitely. advantage. !   Continuous attention to technical !   Deliver working software frequently, from excellence and good design enhances a couple of weeks to a couple of months, agility. with a preference to the shorter timescale. !   Simplicity--the art of maximizing the !   Business people and developers must work amount of work not done--is essential. together daily throughout the project. !   The best architectures, requirements, !   Build projects around motivated and designs emerge from self-organizing individuals. Give them the environment and teams. support they need, and trust them to get !   At regular intervals, the team reflects on the job done. how to become more effective, then !   The most efficient and effective method of tunes and adjusts its behavior conveying information to and within a accordingly. development team is face-to-face conversation. 6
  • 7. Agile ”umbrella” FDD DSDM Scrum XP Crystal Kanban Sources: 3rd Annual ”State of Agile Development” Survey June-July 2008 •  3061 respondents •  80 countries 7
  • 8. Traditional, predictive approach Release Design spec Requirements spec Order C D Actual P need P R 11-04-11 Henrik Kniberg 8
  • 9. We tend to build the wrong thing Features and functions used in a typical system Half of the stuff we build is Always never used! 7% Often 13% Never Cost 45% Some- times 16% Rarely 19% # of features Sources: Standish group study reported at XP2002 by Jim Johnson, Chairman This graph courtesy of Mary Poppendieck 9 Henrik Kniberg 9
  • 10. Traditional projects are like a cannon ball Assumptions: !   The customer knows what he wants !   The developers know how to build it !   Nothing will change along the way Henrik Kniberg 10
  • 11. Agile is like a homing missile Assumptions: !   The customer discovers what he wants !   The developers discover how to build it !   Things change along the way Henrik Kniberg 11
  • 12. Timeboxing A B Plan C D (doomed to fail, but we don’t know it yet) Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Traditional scenario A B ”We will deliver ABCD in 4 weeks” Oops, we’re late. C D Scope Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 X X Quality X Cost Time Agile scenario ”We always deliver something every sprint (2 weeks)” A A B A B E ”We think we can finish ABCD in 4 weeks, but we aren’t sure” ”We always deliver the most important items first” Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Scope Oops, our velocity is lower than we thought. It looks like we’ll only finish AB by week 4. Quality What should we do now? Cost Time 12 Henrik Kniberg
  • 13. Planning is easier with frequent releases Henrik Kniberg 13
  • 15. Split your organization Scrum in a nutshell Split your product Large group spending a long time building a huge thing Small team spending a little time building a small thing ... but integrating regularly to see the whole Optimize process Optimize business value $$$ Split time January April $ Henrik Kniberg 15
  • 16. Scrum overview – structure Product Cross-functional, Backlog self-organizing Team -  How much to pull in Stakeholders -  How to build it -  Quality Sprint -  Sustainable pace Backlog Team Users PO Helpdesk SM Direct communication Operations Product owner -  Vision: Where are we going & why? Scrum Master Management -  ROI -  Process leader/coach -  Priorities & tradeoffs -  Impediment remover ... etc ... Henrik Kniberg 16
  • 17. Backlog management Estimate stories As a buyer 2 I want to save my shopping cart As a booker I want to receive notifications when new slots appear in the calendar 5 Write user stories so that I can continue shopping later so that I don't have to keep checking manually As a buyer 2 2 asdf kjsk flkjs df sd fk asdf kjsk flkjs df sd fk asdf kjsk flkjs df sd fk As a buyer I want to save my shopping cart 5 2 soIthat a can continue shopping later As I buyer asdf kjsk flkjs df sd fk want to save my shopping cart 3 asdf kjsk soIthat I can continue shopping later want to save my shopping cart flkjs df sd fk asdf kjsk flkjs df sd fk asdf kjsk flkjs df sd fk ? so that I can continue shopping later Break down big stories Prioritize REgister new 3 REgister new 3 user user Edit existing 5 Edit existing 5 Velocity-based forecast user user High prio stories Administrate small enough to users 13 Find 3 View Invoice in HTML, fit in a sprint April user PDF, or Excel format View Invoice in HTML, PDF, or Excel format Delete 5 As a helpdesk operator I want to see who is May user logged in As a helpdesk operator I want to see who is logged in View Invoice in HTML, Find 3 June PDF, or Excel format user Operations Later manual As a helpdesk operator I want to see who is Operations logged in manual Realistic 100 simultaneous planning horizon Low prio stories users Operations 100 simultaneous not broken manual users down yet 17 100 simultaneous users Delete user 5
  • 18. Typical sprint Product Backlog release PO 1.3.0 Daily Scrum Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Sprint- Demo/Review Sprint plan (Task board / Scrum board) planning Retrospective Timeline Henrik Kniberg 18
  • 19. Velocity V= 8 V= 7 V= 9 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 3 1 3 1 2 2 1 Sprint 1 Sprint 2 Sprint 3 Likely future velocity: 7-9 per sprint Henrik Kniberg 19
  • 20. Scope Release planning – example Quality Cost Time •  Today is Aug 6 •  Sprint length = 2 weeks •  Velocity = 30 - 40 300 What will be done PO by X-mas? (10 sprints) 400 2007-09-28 20
  • 22. Scrum Scrum ”wraps” Team Daily Scrum XP XP Sprint backlog Whole team Coding Burndown Collective chart ownership TDD standard Product backlog Customer tests Pair Refactoring Planning Sprint Product programming game Planning owner meeting Continuous Simple Sustainable Integration design Pace Metaphor Small releases ScrumMaster Sprint Review 2007-09-28 Henrik Kniberg 22
  • 23. Feedback loops Sprint review Daily Scrum Continuous integration Unit test Pair programming Henrik Kniberg 23
  • 25. Kanban in SW development !   Visualize the workflow Pioneered by David Anderson in 2004 !   Limit WIP (work in progress) !   Measure & optimize flow !   Explicit policies (definition of Done, WIP limits, etc) Backlog Dev UAT Deploy Done 5 3 2 3 orem ips dolor dolor orem ips sit amet um dolor orem ipsum orem ipsum um dolor , co nse nse nse sit amet ctetur sit amet, co sit amet, co , co nse ctetur cte tur cte tur dolor orem ipsum dolor orem ipsum co nse amet, co nse sit sit amet, ctetur ctetur orem ipsum dolor orem ipsum dolor orem ipsum dolor sit amet, co nse sit amet, co nse sit amet, co nse ctetur ctetur orem ipsum dolor ctetur sit amet, co nse ctetur orem ipsum dolor orem ips sit amet, co nse um dolor sit amet ctetur , co nse ctetur orem ipsum dolor sit amet, co nse orem ipsum dolor ctetur sit amet, co nse ctetur FLOW Avg lead time:12 days Henrik Kniberg 25
  • 26. ”One day in Kanban land” http://blog.crisp.se/henrikkniberg/tags/kanban/ Henrik Kniberg 26
  • 27. Scenario 1 – one piece flow Dev Backlog Next 3 In production :o) 2 Ongoing Done A B G C F D H I J L E M K Henrik Kniberg 27
  • 28. Scenario 1 – one piece flow Dev Backlog Next 3 In production :o) 2 Ongoing Done A G B C F D H I J L E M K Henrik Kniberg 28
  • 29. Scenario 1 – one piece flow Dev Backlog Next 3 In production :o) 2 Ongoing Done A G B C F D H I J L E M K Henrik Kniberg 29
  • 30. Scenario 1 – one piece flow Dev Backlog Next 3 In production :o) 2 Ongoing Done C A G D B F H I J L E M K Henrik Kniberg 30
  • 31. Scenario 1 – one piece flow. Dev Backlog Next 3 In production :o) 2 Ongoing Done C A G D B F H I J L E M K Henrik Kniberg 31
  • 32. Scenario 2 – Deployment problem Dev Backlog Next 3 In production :o) 2 PO Ongoing Done A B G C F D H I J L E M K Henrik Kniberg 32
  • 33. Scenario 2 – Deployment problem Dev Backlog Next 3 In production :o) 2 PO Ongoing Done A G B C F D H I J L E M K Henrik Kniberg 33
  • 34. Scenario 2 – Deployment problem Dev Backlog Next 3 In production :o) 2 PO Ongoing Done C A G D B F H I J L E M K Henrik Kniberg 34
  • 35. Scenario 2 – Deployment problem Dev Backlog Next 3 In production :o) 2 PO Ongoing Done C A G D B F H I J L E M K Henrik Kniberg 35
  • 36. Scenario 2 – Deployment problem Dev Backlog Next 3 In production :o) 2 PO Ongoing Done C A G D !? B F H I J L E M K Henrik Kniberg 36
  • 37. Scenario 2 – Deployment problem Dev Backlog Nexet 3 In production :o) 2 PO Ongoing Done G !? A D B F E C H I J L M K Henrik Kniberg 37
  • 38. Scenario 2 – Deployment problem Dev Backlog Next 3 In production :o) 2 PO Ongoing Done A G D B F E C H I J L M K Henrik Kniberg 38
  • 39. Scenario 2 – Deployment problem Dev Backlog Next 3 In production :o) 2 PO Ongoing Done A G D B F E C H I J L M K Henrik Kniberg 39
  • 40. Scenario 2 – Deployment problem Dev Backlog Next 3 In production :o) 2 PO Ongoing Done D A G B E F C H I J L M K Henrik Kniberg 40
  • 41. Evolve your own unique system! Some of these photos courtesy of David Anderson, Mattias Skarin, and various other people Henrik Kniberg 41
  • 43. Before Design-ready games Production-ready games Game backlog 15 12 8 Lisa Concept Graphics Sound Integr. & Sam assigns Dev pres. design design deploy resources 2d 1m 6m 1w 6m 6m 2h 4h 1d 1m 3w 3m 3w (1m+2m) 3 m value added time Process = 12% cycle 25 m cycle time efficiency 43
  • 44. Before Design-ready games Production-ready games Game backlog 15 12 8 Lisa Concept Graphics Sound Integr. & Sam assigns Dev pres. design design deploy resources 2d 1m 6m 1w 6m 6m 2h 4h 1d 1m 3w 3m 3w Process (1m+2m) 3 m value added time = 12% cycle 25 m cycle time efficiency After Game team (graphics, sound, dev, integrate) Cross-functional game team 3-4 m cycle time = 6-8x faster 3-4 months 44
  • 45. Specialist teams & handovers We’re slow! I’m fast! 6 months Joe Dave Lisa Release Cross-functional teams 3 months We’re alot faster! Joe I’m a bit Dave slower Lisa Release January February March April May June July Henrik Kniberg 45
  • 46. Kanban – ”evolution over revolution” Integrate! Next! Graphics! Sound! Development! & deploy! Done!! 3 2 3 2 1! Doing! Done! Doing! Done! Doing! Done! Doing! 2009-08-20! 2009-09-03! 2009-08-27! orem olor sit amet, co ipsum dolor sit am 2009-09-01! 2009-08-30! 2009-08-26! et, 2009-08-27! orem ipsum dolor sit nse ctetur adi pis co nse ctetur adi ! cing elit nisl pis orem ipsum dolor sit amet, co nse ctetur orem ipsum dolor sit amet, co adi pis cing orem ipsum dolor sit amet, adi pis cing ! orem adi pis cing elit nisl ! ! adi pis cing elit nisl elit nisl! amet, ctetur adi ! cing elit nisl pis elit nisl cing elit nisl ! 2009-08-20 ! 2009-08-29! dolor sit 2009-09-03! 2009-09-02! orem ipsum ipsum dolor sit amet, orem ipsum dolor sit orem ipsum dolor sit amet, nse ctetur adi amet, co nse adi pis cing ctetur elit nisl ! co nse ctetur adi pis cing elit nisl ! amet, nse ctetur adi ! pis elit nisl ! pis cing elit nisl 2009-08-22 ! orem ipsum amet, co! dolor sit Definition of Done:! Definition of Done:! Definition of Done:! Definition of Done:! • …! • …! • …! • …..! Henrik Kniberg 46
  • 47. Final points 47 47
  • 48. Working smart is more important than working hard Big team working hard Working ”smart” is enabled by: •  Clear goal •  Transparency •  Direct contact with customers •  Focus •  Fast feedback Small team working smart Henrik Kniberg 48
  • 49. Distinguish between… Using the tool wrong Using the wrong tool Neither of these problems are caused by the tool 49 Henrik Kniberg 49
  • 50. The important thing is not your process. Essential skills needed The important thing is regardless of process your process for improving your process Splitting the system into Craftsmanship Retrospectives useful pieces As a buyer I want to save my shopping cart so that I can continue shopping later Henrik Kniberg 50