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Mohammed Abdel Gawad MD/PhD Neph, ESENeph
Nephrology Unit, School of Medicine, NewGiza University
Nephrology Consultant, Alexandria
Founder of NephroTube.com
Chair of AFRAN Web/Media Committee
ISN Education SoMe Team Member
Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and
Dose
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Watch the video recording of this lecture
on NephroTube YouTube channel
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to get more Nephrology lectures
(pdf and video recordings)
Target all the following to achieve OPTIMUM
hemodialysis
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
1. Good patient well-being (physically, mentally,
and socially).
2. Dialysis should not interrupt the patient’s
social life or interfere with his job.
3. Achieve adequate ultrafiltration.
4. Maintain residual kidney function as long as
possible.
5. Control of blood pressure.
6. Control of anemia.
7. Control of bone disease and calcium-
phosphate product.
8. Control of acidosis.
9. Absence of intradialytic symptoms.
10. Absence of interdialytic symptoms.
11. Shorter dialysis recovery time.
12. No dialysis-related hospitalization.
13. Good vascular access flow with no
complications and no related hospitalizations.
14. Control inflammatory state.
15. Lack of malnutrition and achievement of
accepted value of normalized protein catabolic
rate (nPCR)
16. Achieve a hemodialysis dose within the
recommended target.
Target all the following to achieve OPTIMUM
hemodialysis
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
1. Good patient well-being (physically, mentally,
and socially).
2. Dialysis should not interrupt the patient’s
social life or interfere with his job.
3. Achieve adequate ultrafiltration.
4. Maintain residual kidney function as long as
possible.
5. Control of blood pressure.
6. Control of anemia.
7. Control of bone disease and calcium-
phosphate product.
8. Control of acidosis.
9. Absence of intradialytic symptoms.
10. Absence of interdialytic symptoms.
11. Shorter dialysis recovery time.
12. No dialysis-related hospitalization.
13. Good vascular access flow with no
complications and no related hospitalizations.
14. Control inflammatory state.
15. Lack of malnutrition and achievement
of accepted value of normalized protein
catabolic rate (nPCR)
16. Achieve a hemodialysis dose within
the recommended target.
Target all the following to achieve OPTIMUM
hemodialysis
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
1. Good patient well-being (physically, mentally,
and socially).
2. Dialysis should not interrupt the patient’s
social life or interfere with his job.
3. Achieve adequate ultrafiltration.
4. Maintain residual kidney function as long as
possible.
5. Control of blood pressure.
6. Control of anemia.
7. Control of bone disease and calcium-
phosphate product.
8. Control of acidosis.
9. Absence of intradialytic symptoms.
10. Absence of interdialytic symptoms.
11. Shorter dialysis recovery time.
12. No dialysis-related hospitalization.
13. Good vascular access flow with no
complications and no related hospitalizations.
14. Control inflammatory state.
15. Lack of malnutrition and achievement
of accepted value of normalized protein
catabolic rate (nPCR)
16. Achieve a hemodialysis dose within
the recommended target.
Normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR)
• What is nPCR?
• A marker of dietary protein intake and nutritional status in stable
dialysis patients.
• It is established from the urea generation rate.
• Pitfall:
• Increased muscle breakdown may have a high nPCR, even though
protein intake may be lower in such patients.
• It is not always an accurate indicator of protein consumption, as
other factors may affect urea generation.
• Accepted value: nPCR >1.0g/kg/day
• How to calculate nPCR? http://ureakinetics.org
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
Username: solute
Password: solver
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
Target all the following to achieve OPTIMUM
hemodialysis
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
1. Good patient well-being (physically, mentally,
and socially).
2. Dialysis should not interrupt the patient’s
social life or interfere with his job.
3. Achieve adequate ultrafiltration.
4. Maintain residual kidney function as long as
possible.
5. Control of blood pressure.
6. Control of anemia.
7. Control of bone disease and calcium-
phosphate product.
8. Control of acidosis.
9. Absence of intradialytic symptoms.
10. Absence of interdialytic symptoms.
11. Shorter dialysis recovery time.
12. No dialysis-related hospitalization.
13. Good vascular access flow with no
complications and no related hospitalizations.
14. Control inflammatory state.
15. Lack of malnutrition and achievement
of accepted value of normalized protein
catabolic rate (nPCR)
16. Achieve a hemodialysis dose within
the recommended target.
Target all the following to achieve OPTIMUM
hemodialysis
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
1. Good patient well-being (physically, mentally,
and socially).
2. Dialysis should not interrupt the patient’s
social life or interfere with his job.
3. Achieve adequate ultrafiltration.
4. Maintain residual kidney function as long as
possible.
5. Control of blood pressure.
6. Control of anemia.
7. Control of bone disease and calcium-
phosphate product.
8. Control of acidosis.
9. Absence of intradialytic symptoms.
10. Absence of interdialytic symptoms.
11. Shorter dialysis recovery time.
12. No dialysis-related hospitalization.
13. Good vascular access flow with no
complications and no related hospitalizations.
14. Control inflammatory state.
15. Lack of malnutrition and achievement
of accepted value of normalized protein
catabolic rate (nPCR)
16. Achieve a hemodialysis dose within
the recommended target.
• Uremic toxins are classified into three categories:
• Low-molecular-weight solutes that are water-soluble (e.g., urea).
• Middle-molecular-weight solutes (e.g., beta2-microglobulin).
• Protein-bound solutes (e.g., indoles and phenols).
• Urea is the preferred marker due to its ease of measurement, regular
testing, and well-known metabolism, generation rate, and volume of
distribution.
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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9. Absence of intradialytic symptoms.
10. Absence of interdialytic symptoms.
11. Shorter dialysis recovery time.
12. No dialysis-related hospitalization.
13. Good vascular access flow with no
complications and no related hospitalizations.
14. Control inflammatory state.
15. Lack of malnutrition and achievement
of accepted value of normalized protein
catabolic rate (nPCR)
16. Achieve a hemodialysis dose within
the recommended target.
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
• Kt/V is the most frequently applied
measure of the delivered dialysis dose,
although it has multiple limitations
• Important note: Hemodialysis should
not only provide a good dose (i.e., Kt/V),
but it must also be optimal, and we
should achieve all other targets to
achieve adequate optimum HD.
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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I. Prescribed Kt/V urea
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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• In vitro calculation of Kt/V by the dialyzer
manufacturer.
• Always higher than the delivered Kt/V.
K t V
Dialyzer clearance of urea. Dialysis time (duration) in
minutes.
Volume of distribution of urea.
V = 0.6 X body weight
• Prescribed Kt/V urea pitfalls: it does not include ultrafiltration volume.
patient
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
• It is the in vivo calculation of Kt/V.
• Delivered Kt/V is always lower in value
than the prescribed Kt/V.
• Before discussing different forms of
delivered Kt/V urea, we must describe
urea movement post-dialysis.
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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Extravascular pool (compartment)
Intravascular pool (compartment)
Urea
Pre-dialysis Immediately
post-dialysis
30-60 min
post-dialysis
BUN
=
90
mg/dL
BUN
=
25
mg/dL
BUN
=
40
mg/dL
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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II-A. Single pool Kt/V urea (spKt/V)
• The following data are needed to calculate single pool Kt/V urea:
• Pre-dialysis blood urea.
• Post-dialysis blood urea (immediately at the end of dialysis).
• Ultrafiltration volume (pre-dialysis weight – post-dialysis weight).
• Dialysis session duration in minutes.
• Why is it called a single pool, and what is its main pitfall?
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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spKt/V overestimates the
delivered dialysis dose
II-A. Single pool Kt/V urea (spKt/V)
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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II-A. Single pool Kt/V urea (spKt/V)
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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Slowing blood pump to reduce the effect of cardiopulmonary recirculation and AV access recirculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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Slowing blood pump to
decrease the effect of
catheter recirculation if
present.
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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II-B. Equilibrated Kt/V urea (eKt/V) (two-pool
or multi-pool Kt/V)
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eKt/V is always significantly
lower than spKt/V
eKt/V
eKt/V
II-B. Equilibrated Kt/V urea (eKt/V) (two-pool
or multi-pool Kt/V)
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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eKt/V is always significantly
lower than spKt/V
eKt/V
eKt/V
eKt/V
eKt/V
II-B. Equilibrated Kt/V urea (eKt/V) (two-pool
or multi-pool Kt/V)
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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eKt/V is always significantly
lower than spKt/V
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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II-C. Standard Kt/V urea (stdKt/V)
• Rationale: Frequent dialysis is associated with lower pre-dialysis
blood urea, which leads to a lower spKt/V or eKt/V value, which does
not truly reflect the correct dose of frequent dialysis.
• European best practice guidelines recommended that:
• For three times weekly dialysis, the dose should be quoted as
eKt/V.
• For hemodialysis schedules other than three times weekly, the
dose should be quoted as weekly stdKt/V.
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stdKt/V urea measures
hemodialysis adequacy for
one week of dialysis
treatments.
II-C. Standard Kt/V urea (stdKt/V)
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stdKt/V urea measures
hemodialysis adequacy for
one week of dialysis
treatments.
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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III. Online Kt/V urea
• Hemodialysis machines equipped with software (online clearance
monitoring [OCM] or Diascan).
• The concentration of small molecular weight substances in the spent
dialysate can be monitored by measuring its ultraviolet light
absorbance.
• Online Kt/V urea must not replace the regular assessment of Kt/V by
any of the previously mentioned methods.
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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III. Online Kt/V urea
• Hemodialysis machines equipped with software (online clearance
monitoring [OCM] or Diascan).
• The concentration of small molecular weight substances in the spent
dialysate can be monitored by measuring its ultraviolet light
absorbance.
• Online Kt/V urea must not replace the regular assessment of Kt/V by
any of the previously mentioned methods.
• A curve is generated during dialysis treatment and can be utilized to
determine the online Kt/V.
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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Ren Fail. 2010 Jan;32(1):36-40
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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IV. Formal urea kinetic modeling (UKM)
• Calculating Kt/V by formal urea UKM was recommended by NKF-
K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for hemodialysis adequacy (update
2000).
• Unfortunately, the method of formal UKM determination is complex,
and the computational software needed to calculate it is largely
unavailable.
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
• Recommended Kt/V urea
• Limitations of Kt/V urea
• Factors affecting solute
clearance and Kt/V
• Causes of low Kt/V
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
• Recommended Kt/V urea
• Limitations of Kt/V urea
• Factors affecting solute
clearance and Kt/V
• Causes of low Kt/V
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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Kt/V should be done at least monthly
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
Kt/V should be done at least monthly
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
• Recommended Kt/V urea
• Limitations of Kt/V urea
• Factors affecting solute
clearance and Kt/V
• Causes of low Kt/V
Limitations of Kt/V urea
• The Kt/V ratio was established in a younger group of patients
undergoing dialysis, with fewer comorbidities than the current
dialysis patients.
• Kt/V ratio emerged during a time when cellulosic dialyzers with
limited surface area and narrow pores were employed in dialysis
treatments.
• Kt/V is derived from the kinetic patterns of a single solute, which is
urea.
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Limitations of Kt/V urea
• The measurement of Kt/V (away from stdKt/V) does not consider the
missed treatments or the dialysis sessions that are shortened due to
technical difficulties or other reasons.
• Kt/V overestimates the dose in small-sized or malnourished patients
as they have low V.
• Kt/V does not consider other patient-specific factors that are linked
to patient outcomes.
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
• Recommended Kt/V urea
• Limitations of Kt/V urea
• Factors affecting solute
clearance and Kt/V
• Causes of low Kt/V
Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V:
I- Effect of blood flow rate (QB) on solute clearance
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Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V:
II. Effect of dialysate flow rate (QD) on solute clearance
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Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V:
III. Membrane efficiency
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KoA
Low-efficiency
dialyzer
membranes
KoA urea of
<500 ml/min
High-efficiency
dialyzer
membranes
KoA urea of
>600 ml/min
Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V:
IV. Clotted dialyzer fibers
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• In cases of dialyzer clotting, the dialyzer clearance of solutes
decreases.
Hemodial Int. 2020 Jan;24(1):61-70
Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V:
V. Duration of dialysis session
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• A shorter duration of hemodialysis session will decrease solute
clearance.
• Interrupted hemodialysis sessions with recurrent alarms can also
affect solute clearance.
Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V:
VI. Effect of erythrocytes (hematocrit) on solute clearance
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Creatinine, phosphorus, and some other solutes slowly flux across the erythrocyte
membrane. This means that their clearance decreases as hematocrit increases.
Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V:
VI. Effect of solute distribution on clearance
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• Solutes that are mainly intracellular, such as phosphate (PO4), can
experience a rapid decline in plasma levels during dialysis but without
significant overall removal from the body.
• Potassium ion has the same issue of slow diffusion from extravascular
to intravascular space.
Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V:
VII. Access recirculation
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• In the presence of AV access recirculation, the dialyzer clearance of
solutes decreases.
Factors affecting solute
clearance and Kt/V:
VIII. Cardiopulmonary recirculation
(arteriovenous disequilibrium)
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Dialyzed blood
(with a low urea
concentration)
Blood in central veins is diluted
(lower urea concentration than
peripheral veins) due to mix with
dialyzed blood
Heart
Lung
Tissue
Diluted blood
with low urea
concentration to
hemodialysis
access
central
veins
Blood from tissues with
high urea concentration
Heart
Lung
Tissue
central
veins
Venous catheter
Blood from tissues with
high urea concentration
Factors affecting solute
clearance and Kt/V:
VIII. Cardiopulmonary recirculation
(arteriovenous disequilibrium)
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
• Recommended Kt/V urea
• Limitations of Kt/V urea
• Factors affecting solute
clearance and Kt/V
• Causes of low Kt/V
Causes of low Kt/V
• Low blood flow rate (QB).
• Low dialysate flow rate (QD).
• Clotted dialyzer fibers.
• Short duration of dialysis session (e.g., early session
termination due to intradialytic complications).
• Access recirculation.
• Error in blood sampling.
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
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Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
• Recommended Kt/V urea
• Limitations of Kt/V urea
• Factors affecting solute
clearance and Kt/V
• Causes of low Kt/V
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
• Recommended Kt/V urea
• Limitations of Kt/V urea
• Factors affecting solute
clearance and Kt/V
• Causes of low Kt/V
I. Urea reduction ratio (URR)
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Calculation {(pre-dialysis BUN concentration - post-dialysis BUN
concentration) / pre-dialysis BUN concentration} ×100
Accepted
percentage
65% or higher
URR pitfalls It does not include duration of dialysis, volume of
ultrafiltration, volume of urea distribution, and rate of
urea generation between dialysis sessions.
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
• Recommended Kt/V urea
• Limitations of Kt/V urea
• Factors affecting solute
clearance and Kt/V
• Causes of low Kt/V
II. Solute removal index (SRI)
• It is calculated by multiplying the urea concentration in the dialysate by the
volume of spent dialysate.
• Limitations:
• Few studies have correlated patient outcomes with the SRI.
• Collecting the outflow dialysate is not practical.
• SRI is relatively inaccurate compared to the use of calculated from
eKt/V.
• Some hemodialysis machines provide an online measurement of SRI.
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
Talk Outline: Chapter 6
Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
• Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance
• Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
• Recommended Kt/V urea
• Limitations of Kt/V urea
• Factors affecting solute
clearance and Kt/V
• Causes of low Kt/V
Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea
clearance “Kru”)
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
Dialysis session 1 All urine must be collected Dialysis session 2
Post-dialysis blood urea measurement of a
session (BUN1) and patient must empty
their bladder and the urine is discarded
Pre-dialysis blood urea measurement
before the next session (BUN2)
Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea
clearance “Kru”)
NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024
You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
Thank You

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Hemodialysis: Chapter 6, Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose - Dr.Gawad

  • 1. Mohammed Abdel Gawad MD/PhD Neph, ESENeph Nephrology Unit, School of Medicine, NewGiza University Nephrology Consultant, Alexandria Founder of NephroTube.com Chair of AFRAN Web/Media Committee ISN Education SoMe Team Member Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 2. Watch the video recording of this lecture on NephroTube YouTube channel www.YouTube.com/NephroTube
  • 3. Visit www.NephroTube.com to get more Nephrology lectures (pdf and video recordings)
  • 4. Target all the following to achieve OPTIMUM hemodialysis NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com 1. Good patient well-being (physically, mentally, and socially). 2. Dialysis should not interrupt the patient’s social life or interfere with his job. 3. Achieve adequate ultrafiltration. 4. Maintain residual kidney function as long as possible. 5. Control of blood pressure. 6. Control of anemia. 7. Control of bone disease and calcium- phosphate product. 8. Control of acidosis. 9. Absence of intradialytic symptoms. 10. Absence of interdialytic symptoms. 11. Shorter dialysis recovery time. 12. No dialysis-related hospitalization. 13. Good vascular access flow with no complications and no related hospitalizations. 14. Control inflammatory state. 15. Lack of malnutrition and achievement of accepted value of normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) 16. Achieve a hemodialysis dose within the recommended target.
  • 5. Target all the following to achieve OPTIMUM hemodialysis NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com 1. Good patient well-being (physically, mentally, and socially). 2. Dialysis should not interrupt the patient’s social life or interfere with his job. 3. Achieve adequate ultrafiltration. 4. Maintain residual kidney function as long as possible. 5. Control of blood pressure. 6. Control of anemia. 7. Control of bone disease and calcium- phosphate product. 8. Control of acidosis. 9. Absence of intradialytic symptoms. 10. Absence of interdialytic symptoms. 11. Shorter dialysis recovery time. 12. No dialysis-related hospitalization. 13. Good vascular access flow with no complications and no related hospitalizations. 14. Control inflammatory state. 15. Lack of malnutrition and achievement of accepted value of normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) 16. Achieve a hemodialysis dose within the recommended target.
  • 6. Target all the following to achieve OPTIMUM hemodialysis NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com 1. Good patient well-being (physically, mentally, and socially). 2. Dialysis should not interrupt the patient’s social life or interfere with his job. 3. Achieve adequate ultrafiltration. 4. Maintain residual kidney function as long as possible. 5. Control of blood pressure. 6. Control of anemia. 7. Control of bone disease and calcium- phosphate product. 8. Control of acidosis. 9. Absence of intradialytic symptoms. 10. Absence of interdialytic symptoms. 11. Shorter dialysis recovery time. 12. No dialysis-related hospitalization. 13. Good vascular access flow with no complications and no related hospitalizations. 14. Control inflammatory state. 15. Lack of malnutrition and achievement of accepted value of normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) 16. Achieve a hemodialysis dose within the recommended target.
  • 7. Normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) • What is nPCR? • A marker of dietary protein intake and nutritional status in stable dialysis patients. • It is established from the urea generation rate. • Pitfall: • Increased muscle breakdown may have a high nPCR, even though protein intake may be lower in such patients. • It is not always an accurate indicator of protein consumption, as other factors may affect urea generation. • Accepted value: nPCR >1.0g/kg/day • How to calculate nPCR? http://ureakinetics.org NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 8. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 9. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com Username: solute Password: solver
  • 10. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 11. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 12. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 13. Target all the following to achieve OPTIMUM hemodialysis NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com 1. Good patient well-being (physically, mentally, and socially). 2. Dialysis should not interrupt the patient’s social life or interfere with his job. 3. Achieve adequate ultrafiltration. 4. Maintain residual kidney function as long as possible. 5. Control of blood pressure. 6. Control of anemia. 7. Control of bone disease and calcium- phosphate product. 8. Control of acidosis. 9. Absence of intradialytic symptoms. 10. Absence of interdialytic symptoms. 11. Shorter dialysis recovery time. 12. No dialysis-related hospitalization. 13. Good vascular access flow with no complications and no related hospitalizations. 14. Control inflammatory state. 15. Lack of malnutrition and achievement of accepted value of normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) 16. Achieve a hemodialysis dose within the recommended target.
  • 14. Target all the following to achieve OPTIMUM hemodialysis NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com 1. Good patient well-being (physically, mentally, and socially). 2. Dialysis should not interrupt the patient’s social life or interfere with his job. 3. Achieve adequate ultrafiltration. 4. Maintain residual kidney function as long as possible. 5. Control of blood pressure. 6. Control of anemia. 7. Control of bone disease and calcium- phosphate product. 8. Control of acidosis. 9. Absence of intradialytic symptoms. 10. Absence of interdialytic symptoms. 11. Shorter dialysis recovery time. 12. No dialysis-related hospitalization. 13. Good vascular access flow with no complications and no related hospitalizations. 14. Control inflammatory state. 15. Lack of malnutrition and achievement of accepted value of normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) 16. Achieve a hemodialysis dose within the recommended target. • Uremic toxins are classified into three categories: • Low-molecular-weight solutes that are water-soluble (e.g., urea). • Middle-molecular-weight solutes (e.g., beta2-microglobulin). • Protein-bound solutes (e.g., indoles and phenols). • Urea is the preferred marker due to its ease of measurement, regular testing, and well-known metabolism, generation rate, and volume of distribution.
  • 15. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com 9. Absence of intradialytic symptoms. 10. Absence of interdialytic symptoms. 11. Shorter dialysis recovery time. 12. No dialysis-related hospitalization. 13. Good vascular access flow with no complications and no related hospitalizations. 14. Control inflammatory state. 15. Lack of malnutrition and achievement of accepted value of normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) 16. Achieve a hemodialysis dose within the recommended target. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose
  • 16. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 17. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 18. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 19. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 20. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com • Kt/V is the most frequently applied measure of the delivered dialysis dose, although it has multiple limitations • Important note: Hemodialysis should not only provide a good dose (i.e., Kt/V), but it must also be optimal, and we should achieve all other targets to achieve adequate optimum HD.
  • 21. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 22. I. Prescribed Kt/V urea NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com • In vitro calculation of Kt/V by the dialyzer manufacturer. • Always higher than the delivered Kt/V. K t V Dialyzer clearance of urea. Dialysis time (duration) in minutes. Volume of distribution of urea. V = 0.6 X body weight • Prescribed Kt/V urea pitfalls: it does not include ultrafiltration volume. patient
  • 23. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 24. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com • It is the in vivo calculation of Kt/V. • Delivered Kt/V is always lower in value than the prescribed Kt/V. • Before discussing different forms of delivered Kt/V urea, we must describe urea movement post-dialysis.
  • 25. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com Extravascular pool (compartment) Intravascular pool (compartment) Urea Pre-dialysis Immediately post-dialysis 30-60 min post-dialysis BUN = 90 mg/dL BUN = 25 mg/dL BUN = 40 mg/dL
  • 26. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 27. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 28. II-A. Single pool Kt/V urea (spKt/V) • The following data are needed to calculate single pool Kt/V urea: • Pre-dialysis blood urea. • Post-dialysis blood urea (immediately at the end of dialysis). • Ultrafiltration volume (pre-dialysis weight – post-dialysis weight). • Dialysis session duration in minutes. • Why is it called a single pool, and what is its main pitfall? NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com spKt/V overestimates the delivered dialysis dose
  • 29. II-A. Single pool Kt/V urea (spKt/V) NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 30. II-A. Single pool Kt/V urea (spKt/V) NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 31. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com Slowing blood pump to reduce the effect of cardiopulmonary recirculation and AV access recirculation
  • 32. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com Slowing blood pump to decrease the effect of catheter recirculation if present.
  • 33. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 34. II-B. Equilibrated Kt/V urea (eKt/V) (two-pool or multi-pool Kt/V) NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com eKt/V is always significantly lower than spKt/V eKt/V eKt/V
  • 35. II-B. Equilibrated Kt/V urea (eKt/V) (two-pool or multi-pool Kt/V) NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com eKt/V is always significantly lower than spKt/V eKt/V eKt/V eKt/V eKt/V
  • 36. II-B. Equilibrated Kt/V urea (eKt/V) (two-pool or multi-pool Kt/V) NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com eKt/V is always significantly lower than spKt/V
  • 37. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 38. II-C. Standard Kt/V urea (stdKt/V) • Rationale: Frequent dialysis is associated with lower pre-dialysis blood urea, which leads to a lower spKt/V or eKt/V value, which does not truly reflect the correct dose of frequent dialysis. • European best practice guidelines recommended that: • For three times weekly dialysis, the dose should be quoted as eKt/V. • For hemodialysis schedules other than three times weekly, the dose should be quoted as weekly stdKt/V. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com stdKt/V urea measures hemodialysis adequacy for one week of dialysis treatments.
  • 39. II-C. Standard Kt/V urea (stdKt/V) NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com stdKt/V urea measures hemodialysis adequacy for one week of dialysis treatments.
  • 40. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 41. III. Online Kt/V urea • Hemodialysis machines equipped with software (online clearance monitoring [OCM] or Diascan). • The concentration of small molecular weight substances in the spent dialysate can be monitored by measuring its ultraviolet light absorbance. • Online Kt/V urea must not replace the regular assessment of Kt/V by any of the previously mentioned methods. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 42. III. Online Kt/V urea • Hemodialysis machines equipped with software (online clearance monitoring [OCM] or Diascan). • The concentration of small molecular weight substances in the spent dialysate can be monitored by measuring its ultraviolet light absorbance. • Online Kt/V urea must not replace the regular assessment of Kt/V by any of the previously mentioned methods. • A curve is generated during dialysis treatment and can be utilized to determine the online Kt/V. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com Ren Fail. 2010 Jan;32(1):36-40
  • 43. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 44. IV. Formal urea kinetic modeling (UKM) • Calculating Kt/V by formal urea UKM was recommended by NKF- K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for hemodialysis adequacy (update 2000). • Unfortunately, the method of formal UKM determination is complex, and the computational software needed to calculate it is largely unavailable. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 45. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com • Recommended Kt/V urea • Limitations of Kt/V urea • Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V • Causes of low Kt/V
  • 46. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com • Recommended Kt/V urea • Limitations of Kt/V urea • Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V • Causes of low Kt/V
  • 47. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com Kt/V should be done at least monthly
  • 48. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com Kt/V should be done at least monthly
  • 49. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com • Recommended Kt/V urea • Limitations of Kt/V urea • Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V • Causes of low Kt/V
  • 50. Limitations of Kt/V urea • The Kt/V ratio was established in a younger group of patients undergoing dialysis, with fewer comorbidities than the current dialysis patients. • Kt/V ratio emerged during a time when cellulosic dialyzers with limited surface area and narrow pores were employed in dialysis treatments. • Kt/V is derived from the kinetic patterns of a single solute, which is urea. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 51. Limitations of Kt/V urea • The measurement of Kt/V (away from stdKt/V) does not consider the missed treatments or the dialysis sessions that are shortened due to technical difficulties or other reasons. • Kt/V overestimates the dose in small-sized or malnourished patients as they have low V. • Kt/V does not consider other patient-specific factors that are linked to patient outcomes. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 52. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com • Recommended Kt/V urea • Limitations of Kt/V urea • Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V • Causes of low Kt/V
  • 53. Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V: I- Effect of blood flow rate (QB) on solute clearance NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 54. Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V: II. Effect of dialysate flow rate (QD) on solute clearance NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 55. Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V: III. Membrane efficiency NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com KoA Low-efficiency dialyzer membranes KoA urea of <500 ml/min High-efficiency dialyzer membranes KoA urea of >600 ml/min
  • 56. Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V: IV. Clotted dialyzer fibers NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com • In cases of dialyzer clotting, the dialyzer clearance of solutes decreases. Hemodial Int. 2020 Jan;24(1):61-70
  • 57. Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V: V. Duration of dialysis session NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com • A shorter duration of hemodialysis session will decrease solute clearance. • Interrupted hemodialysis sessions with recurrent alarms can also affect solute clearance.
  • 58. Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V: VI. Effect of erythrocytes (hematocrit) on solute clearance NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com Creatinine, phosphorus, and some other solutes slowly flux across the erythrocyte membrane. This means that their clearance decreases as hematocrit increases.
  • 59. Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V: VI. Effect of solute distribution on clearance NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com • Solutes that are mainly intracellular, such as phosphate (PO4), can experience a rapid decline in plasma levels during dialysis but without significant overall removal from the body. • Potassium ion has the same issue of slow diffusion from extravascular to intravascular space.
  • 60. Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V: VII. Access recirculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com • In the presence of AV access recirculation, the dialyzer clearance of solutes decreases.
  • 61. Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V: VIII. Cardiopulmonary recirculation (arteriovenous disequilibrium) NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com Dialyzed blood (with a low urea concentration) Blood in central veins is diluted (lower urea concentration than peripheral veins) due to mix with dialyzed blood Heart Lung Tissue Diluted blood with low urea concentration to hemodialysis access central veins Blood from tissues with high urea concentration
  • 62. Heart Lung Tissue central veins Venous catheter Blood from tissues with high urea concentration Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V: VIII. Cardiopulmonary recirculation (arteriovenous disequilibrium) NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 63. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com • Recommended Kt/V urea • Limitations of Kt/V urea • Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V • Causes of low Kt/V
  • 64. Causes of low Kt/V • Low blood flow rate (QB). • Low dialysate flow rate (QD). • Clotted dialyzer fibers. • Short duration of dialysis session (e.g., early session termination due to intradialytic complications). • Access recirculation. • Error in blood sampling. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 65. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com • Recommended Kt/V urea • Limitations of Kt/V urea • Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V • Causes of low Kt/V
  • 66. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com • Recommended Kt/V urea • Limitations of Kt/V urea • Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V • Causes of low Kt/V
  • 67. I. Urea reduction ratio (URR) NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com Calculation {(pre-dialysis BUN concentration - post-dialysis BUN concentration) / pre-dialysis BUN concentration} ×100 Accepted percentage 65% or higher URR pitfalls It does not include duration of dialysis, volume of ultrafiltration, volume of urea distribution, and rate of urea generation between dialysis sessions.
  • 68. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com • Recommended Kt/V urea • Limitations of Kt/V urea • Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V • Causes of low Kt/V
  • 69. II. Solute removal index (SRI) • It is calculated by multiplying the urea concentration in the dialysate by the volume of spent dialysate. • Limitations: • Few studies have correlated patient outcomes with the SRI. • Collecting the outflow dialysate is not practical. • SRI is relatively inaccurate compared to the use of calculated from eKt/V. • Some hemodialysis machines provide an online measurement of SRI. NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com
  • 70. Talk Outline: Chapter 6 Hemodialysis Adequacy and Dose • Methods to measure hemodialysis dose depending on urea clearance • Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) method of calculation NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com • Recommended Kt/V urea • Limitations of Kt/V urea • Factors affecting solute clearance and Kt/V • Causes of low Kt/V
  • 71. Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com Dialysis session 1 All urine must be collected Dialysis session 2 Post-dialysis blood urea measurement of a session (BUN1) and patient must empty their bladder and the urine is discarded Pre-dialysis blood urea measurement before the next session (BUN2)
  • 72. Residual kidney function “RKF” (Residual urea clearance “Kru”) NephroTube Synopsis of Conventional Hemodialysis, First Edition, 2024 You can get this book free from www.NephroTube.com