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HEARING
IMPAIRMENT
BY:
SRISHTI
BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY(BHU)
APPLICATION NUMBER:
5ad41335f33711e98d7d9dba8604ca27
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: ACADEMIC WRITING
(SWAYAM)
DEFINITION
 Hearing impairment as a disability category which is similar to the category of deafness, but
it is not the same. Hearing impairment, or hearing loss, occurs when you lose part or all
of your ability to hear.
 As per the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) hearing impairment is “an
impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s
educational performance but is not included under the definition of ‘deafness.'”
 Thus, knowing the definition of deafness is necessary to understand what sort
of disabilities are considered hearing impairments.
 A hearing loss above 90 decibels is generally considered deafness, which means that a
hearing loss below 90 decibels is classified as a hearing impairment.
WHEN DESCRIBING HEARING
IMPAIRMENT, THREE ATTRIBUTES
ARE CONSIDERED:
 Type of hearing loss (part of the hearing mechanism that is affected).
 Degree of hearing loss (range and volume of sounds that are not heard).
 Configuration (range of pitches or frequencies at which the loss has occurred).
TYPES OF HEARING LOSS
 Conductive hearing loss. This happens when there is a problem with a part of the outer or
middle ear that is blocking sound from going to the inner ear. This type of hearing loss and it
is usually mild and temporary because in most cases medical treatment can help.
 Sensorineural hearing loss. This happens when there is a problem in the inner ear or with
the connection from the inner ear to the brain. This can happen when the tiny hair cells in
the cochlea are damaged or destroyed. Depending on the loss, a kid might: hear most sounds
(although they would be muffled); hear in quiet but not in noise; hear only some sounds; or
hear no sounds at all. Sensorineural hearing impairment is almost always permanent and a
kid's ability to talk normally may be affected.
 Mixed (conductive and sensory combined)
 Central hearing loss. This happens when the cochlea is working properly, but parts of the
brain are not. This rare type of hearing loss is difficult to treat.
DEGREE OF HEARING LOSS
 Deaf/Deafness refers to a person who has a profound hearing loss and uses sign language.
 Hard of hearing refers to a person with a hearing loss who relies on residual hearing to
communicate through speaking and lip-reading.
 Hearing impaired is a general term used to describe any deviation from normal hearing,
whether permanent or fluctuating, and ranging from mild hearing loss to profound deafness.
 Residual hearing refers to the hearing that remains after a person has experienced a hearing
loss. It is suggested that greater the hearing loss, the lesser the residual hearing.
CONFIGURATION OF HEARING
LOSS
There are four general configurations of hearing loss:
 Flat: thresholds essentially equal across test frequencies.
 Sloping: lower (better) thresholds in low-frequency regions and higher (poorer) thresholds
in high-frequency regions.
 Rising: higher (poorer) thresholds in low-frequency regions and lower (better) thresholds in
higher-frequency regions.
 Trough-shaped ("cookie-bite" or "U" shaped): greatest hearing loss in the mid-frequency
range, with lower (better) thresholds in low- and high-frequency regions.
WHAT CAUSES HEARING
IMPAIRMENT?
Congenital factors
 Heredity
 Viral infection during pregnancy, e.g.
rubella infection
 Congenital defectssuch as anomalies of the
ear, nose or throat
 Premature birth, birth asphyxia, excessive
bilirubin, etc.
Acquired factors
 Excessive earwax
 Eardrum perforation
 Middle ear effusion or infection
 Otosclerosis or ear ossicle dislocation
 Sequelae of childhood diseases such as
measles and meningitis
 Head or ear trauma
 Prolonged exposure to loud noise
 Medication that may lead to hearing
damage
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF
CHILDREN WITH HEARING
IMPAIRMENT?
During infancy:
 1-3 months old: No response to sudden sound such as banging of door or ringing of
doorbell.
 4-6 months old: Unable to locate the sound source.
 7-9 months old: Do not look at the person being mentioned, e.g. “Where is Uncle Tom?”.
 10-12 months old: No response to their names being called or frequently used words or
phrases, e.g. “No”.
During Childhood:
 Delayed response to sound
 Cannot hear clearly what others are saying
 Show difficulty in locating the sound
source
 Pay more than usual attention to speakers’
facial expression and lip movement while
listening
 Give irrelevant answers or misinterpret
instructions
 Request for repetition during conversation
 Show poorer ability to understand speech `
in a noisy environment
 Tend to turn up the sound volume of
television
 Incorrect pronunciation
 Delayed language development
 Poor attention in class
 Frequent use of gestures to express
themselves, e.g. pointing to what they want
 Easily irritated as a result of
communication difficulty
HOW DOES HEARING
IMPAIRMENT AFFECT CHILDREN’S
DEVELOPMENT?
 Language: Delayed language development
with unclear speech and incorrect
pronunciation.
 Emotion and behaviour: Easy to have
emotional and behavioural problems as a
result of difficulties in verbally expressing
himself/ herself
 Self-confidence: Lack of self-confidence
with poor self-image for being always
mistaken to be slow in response
 Social interaction: Socially excluded by
peers due to poor comprehension and
expression, or actively avoid social contact
and communication
 Academic performance: Academic
performance being affected due to difficulty
in receiving the correct messages
IMPACT OF HEARING LOSS ON
STUDENTS:
 Students who have been deafened in early childhood can be very different to students who
have lost hearing later in life in terms of educational disadvantage. For example, their range
of vocabulary may be limited, which in turn may affect their level of English literacy.
 Students with a hearing loss may need to use assistive technology to participate in class.
This assistive technology can be the laptop where software such as Skype can be used to
deliver Asian interpreters or captioning. For some it will be in the form of listening devices.
For others it will be a combination of technology that includes both listening devices and
computer based software.
 The impact of hearing loss can cause delays in receiving learning material. Students who
need information transcribed from tape must sometimes wait for a significant period of time
for this to happen. This needs to be considered in terms of developing suitable timelines for
the completion of work for each student.
 Students with hearing loss may appear isolated in the learning environment. The possibility
for social contact and interaction with other students is often limited, and this isolation or
separateness may have an impact on learning.
 Participation and interaction in tutorials may be limited. Students who cannot hear the flow
and nuances of rapid verbal exchange will be at a disadvantage.
 Deaf and hard of hearing students can sometimes prefer visual learning strategies. This can
be a challenge in an environment where much essential information is delivered exclusively
by word of mouth.
 Some students with hearing loss coming straight from the school system have been familiar
with a structured learning environment, and may require a period of adjustment when
entering into the post-secondary learning environment. Communication difficulties and
adjustments may lead to a level of anxiety about performing in front of others. This may
affect participation in tutorials, particularly for students whose speech development has
been impacted by their hearing loss.
TIPS FOR TEACHERS AND
PARENTS
 Early intervention can limit communication hurdles. Typically, both oral (speech, lip
reading and use of residual hearing) and manual (sign language) communication are used
with and taught to children with hearing impairments.
 Designating a note taker can allow a student with a hearing impairment to concentrate fully
on listening to a lecture. A combination of traditional communication, lip reading, sign
language and assistive technology can compensate for issues which make listening to
lectures and participating in class discussions challenging. Turning on captions during a
video can reiterate what a student may pick up from his or her amplifying device.
 Finally, it’s important that parents and teachers don’t underestimate a child’s intelligence
based on a hearing impairment.
WHY ARE EARLY
IDENTIFICATION AND EARLY
INTERVENTION FOR HEARING
LOSS SO IMPORTANT?
 Hearing is critical for the development of speech, language, communication skills, and
learning. The earlier that hearing loss occurs in a child's life, the more serious is the effect
on the child's development. Similarly, the earlier the hearing loss is identified and
intervention begun, the more likely it is that the delays in speech and language development
will be diminished. Recent research indicates that children identified with hearing loss who
begin services before 6 months old develop language (spoken or signed) on a par with their
hearing peers.
LEARNING AND
COMMUNICATING
 A kid with hearing loss may attend a special school, special classes within a regular school,
or be part of a regular classroom. Depending on how severe their hearing loss is, some kids
may work with audiologists or speech-language pathologists to help them develop their
hearing and speaking skills.
 Some people with hearing loss may need to use special techniques like these
to communicate:
 Speech reading (also called lip-reading), which involves looking closely at a person's lips,
facial expressions, and gestures to help figure out spoken words
 Sign Language, which is a language of hand movements that allows deaf people
to communicate without speaking. Remember: American Sign Language (ASL) is different
from sign language used in other countries, even different from British Sign Language!
 Cued Speech and Signed Exact English, which use handshapes to translate what's being
said. They're meant to be used with spoken language to help people understand anything
they can't comprehend through lip reading.
EDUCATIONAL CHALLENGES
Educational obstacles related to hearing impairments stem around communication. A
student with a hearing impairment may experience difficulty in:
 the subjects of grammar, spelling and vocabulary
 taking notes while listening to lectures
 participating in classroom discussions
 watching educational videos
 presenting oral reports
GENERAL SUGGESTIONS
 Teachers may need to modify some teaching styles and the physical environment to
ensure full accessibility for deaf students.
 Encourage interactions between the deaf students and their hearing classmates.
 Lay emphasis on the things they can do.
 Deaf students should conform to the same standards of discipline as other students in
the school.
THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
OF CLASS
 A deaf student may become more tired than the hearing students due to the need to
constantly concentrate in order to hear or watch an interpreter, so provide regular breaks
from having to listen or having to watch an interpreter. Teachers can alternate class
discussion times with individual work so that the deaf student does not need to concentrate
for long periods of time.
 Deaf students are often visual learners, so an attractive classroom with interesting notice
boards and posters around the room assists the student to learn. Visual teaching methods,
using pictures, diagrams and word maps, for example, also assist the deaf student. Also,
any seating arrangement should not isolate the student.
 Try and keep noise, including general student talking to a minimum to reduce background
noise. Avoid placing the student near fans or airconditioners if they are noisy. Shut the door
if there is noise in the corridor and window if there is noise outside.
 When showing a video, DVD or listening to a tape recoding, it is possible the deaf student
will not be able to understand the words. Therefore show the ones with subtitles. If this is
not possible, try not using this medium.
TEACHER’S INSTRUCTIONS:
 Ensure you are not standing in front of a window or your face will be in shadow.
 Try not to talk with your back is turned or when you are writing on the blackboard.
 A deaf student can’t watch the teacher or interpreter and write notes at the same time, so
allow time to write once the speaking has stopped or breaks during the speaking to take
notes.
 When explaining new terms or vocabulary, write them on the blackboard and add synonyms
and definitions to aid understanding. Introduce new materials in small steps and give clear
directions and explanations.
 A friend who sits beside the deaf student may help by explaining instructions or work that
has not been understood. However, be careful the deaf student does not become dependent
on the friend, copy their work or take up too much of their time.
 Never shout at the deaf student as the messages becomes distorted through hearing aids or
cochlear implants.
 A slower pace of the lesson may assist.
 Don’t assume that because the deaf student has a cochlear implant or hearing aid they can
hear. The student may be able to hear your voice, but be unable to distinguish the words.
ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES
 Always consider alternative forms of assessment where necessary. Standards are not expected
to be lowered to accommodate students with a disability but rather are required to give them a
reasonable opportunity to demonstrate what they have learnt. Once you have a clear picture of
how the disability impacts on learning, you can consider alternative assessment strategies:
 When their range of literacy is an issue, students may require the use of a thesaurus or
dictionary during exams. A personal computer with spelling and grammar functions may be
required.
 Provide alternatives to those assignments which are based on interviews or questionnaires,
and be flexible with assignment deadlines, particularly if students have had to wait for
transcripts of learning sessions.
 Provide extra time in examinations, particularly extra time for reading questions. Some
students will prefer to have questions and instructions ‘signed’ to them.
THANK YOU

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Hearing impairment (Psychology)

  • 1. HEARING IMPAIRMENT BY: SRISHTI BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY(BHU) APPLICATION NUMBER: 5ad41335f33711e98d7d9dba8604ca27 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: ACADEMIC WRITING (SWAYAM)
  • 2. DEFINITION  Hearing impairment as a disability category which is similar to the category of deafness, but it is not the same. Hearing impairment, or hearing loss, occurs when you lose part or all of your ability to hear.  As per the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) hearing impairment is “an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of ‘deafness.'”  Thus, knowing the definition of deafness is necessary to understand what sort of disabilities are considered hearing impairments.  A hearing loss above 90 decibels is generally considered deafness, which means that a hearing loss below 90 decibels is classified as a hearing impairment.
  • 3. WHEN DESCRIBING HEARING IMPAIRMENT, THREE ATTRIBUTES ARE CONSIDERED:  Type of hearing loss (part of the hearing mechanism that is affected).  Degree of hearing loss (range and volume of sounds that are not heard).  Configuration (range of pitches or frequencies at which the loss has occurred).
  • 4. TYPES OF HEARING LOSS  Conductive hearing loss. This happens when there is a problem with a part of the outer or middle ear that is blocking sound from going to the inner ear. This type of hearing loss and it is usually mild and temporary because in most cases medical treatment can help.  Sensorineural hearing loss. This happens when there is a problem in the inner ear or with the connection from the inner ear to the brain. This can happen when the tiny hair cells in the cochlea are damaged or destroyed. Depending on the loss, a kid might: hear most sounds (although they would be muffled); hear in quiet but not in noise; hear only some sounds; or hear no sounds at all. Sensorineural hearing impairment is almost always permanent and a kid's ability to talk normally may be affected.  Mixed (conductive and sensory combined)  Central hearing loss. This happens when the cochlea is working properly, but parts of the brain are not. This rare type of hearing loss is difficult to treat.
  • 5. DEGREE OF HEARING LOSS  Deaf/Deafness refers to a person who has a profound hearing loss and uses sign language.  Hard of hearing refers to a person with a hearing loss who relies on residual hearing to communicate through speaking and lip-reading.  Hearing impaired is a general term used to describe any deviation from normal hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, and ranging from mild hearing loss to profound deafness.  Residual hearing refers to the hearing that remains after a person has experienced a hearing loss. It is suggested that greater the hearing loss, the lesser the residual hearing.
  • 6. CONFIGURATION OF HEARING LOSS There are four general configurations of hearing loss:  Flat: thresholds essentially equal across test frequencies.  Sloping: lower (better) thresholds in low-frequency regions and higher (poorer) thresholds in high-frequency regions.  Rising: higher (poorer) thresholds in low-frequency regions and lower (better) thresholds in higher-frequency regions.  Trough-shaped ("cookie-bite" or "U" shaped): greatest hearing loss in the mid-frequency range, with lower (better) thresholds in low- and high-frequency regions.
  • 7. WHAT CAUSES HEARING IMPAIRMENT? Congenital factors  Heredity  Viral infection during pregnancy, e.g. rubella infection  Congenital defectssuch as anomalies of the ear, nose or throat  Premature birth, birth asphyxia, excessive bilirubin, etc. Acquired factors  Excessive earwax  Eardrum perforation  Middle ear effusion or infection  Otosclerosis or ear ossicle dislocation  Sequelae of childhood diseases such as measles and meningitis  Head or ear trauma  Prolonged exposure to loud noise  Medication that may lead to hearing damage
  • 8. WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF CHILDREN WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT? During infancy:  1-3 months old: No response to sudden sound such as banging of door or ringing of doorbell.  4-6 months old: Unable to locate the sound source.  7-9 months old: Do not look at the person being mentioned, e.g. “Where is Uncle Tom?”.  10-12 months old: No response to their names being called or frequently used words or phrases, e.g. “No”.
  • 9. During Childhood:  Delayed response to sound  Cannot hear clearly what others are saying  Show difficulty in locating the sound source  Pay more than usual attention to speakers’ facial expression and lip movement while listening  Give irrelevant answers or misinterpret instructions  Request for repetition during conversation  Show poorer ability to understand speech ` in a noisy environment  Tend to turn up the sound volume of television  Incorrect pronunciation  Delayed language development  Poor attention in class  Frequent use of gestures to express themselves, e.g. pointing to what they want  Easily irritated as a result of communication difficulty
  • 10. HOW DOES HEARING IMPAIRMENT AFFECT CHILDREN’S DEVELOPMENT?  Language: Delayed language development with unclear speech and incorrect pronunciation.  Emotion and behaviour: Easy to have emotional and behavioural problems as a result of difficulties in verbally expressing himself/ herself  Self-confidence: Lack of self-confidence with poor self-image for being always mistaken to be slow in response  Social interaction: Socially excluded by peers due to poor comprehension and expression, or actively avoid social contact and communication  Academic performance: Academic performance being affected due to difficulty in receiving the correct messages
  • 11. IMPACT OF HEARING LOSS ON STUDENTS:  Students who have been deafened in early childhood can be very different to students who have lost hearing later in life in terms of educational disadvantage. For example, their range of vocabulary may be limited, which in turn may affect their level of English literacy.  Students with a hearing loss may need to use assistive technology to participate in class. This assistive technology can be the laptop where software such as Skype can be used to deliver Asian interpreters or captioning. For some it will be in the form of listening devices. For others it will be a combination of technology that includes both listening devices and computer based software.
  • 12.  The impact of hearing loss can cause delays in receiving learning material. Students who need information transcribed from tape must sometimes wait for a significant period of time for this to happen. This needs to be considered in terms of developing suitable timelines for the completion of work for each student.  Students with hearing loss may appear isolated in the learning environment. The possibility for social contact and interaction with other students is often limited, and this isolation or separateness may have an impact on learning.  Participation and interaction in tutorials may be limited. Students who cannot hear the flow and nuances of rapid verbal exchange will be at a disadvantage.
  • 13.  Deaf and hard of hearing students can sometimes prefer visual learning strategies. This can be a challenge in an environment where much essential information is delivered exclusively by word of mouth.  Some students with hearing loss coming straight from the school system have been familiar with a structured learning environment, and may require a period of adjustment when entering into the post-secondary learning environment. Communication difficulties and adjustments may lead to a level of anxiety about performing in front of others. This may affect participation in tutorials, particularly for students whose speech development has been impacted by their hearing loss.
  • 14. TIPS FOR TEACHERS AND PARENTS  Early intervention can limit communication hurdles. Typically, both oral (speech, lip reading and use of residual hearing) and manual (sign language) communication are used with and taught to children with hearing impairments.  Designating a note taker can allow a student with a hearing impairment to concentrate fully on listening to a lecture. A combination of traditional communication, lip reading, sign language and assistive technology can compensate for issues which make listening to lectures and participating in class discussions challenging. Turning on captions during a video can reiterate what a student may pick up from his or her amplifying device.  Finally, it’s important that parents and teachers don’t underestimate a child’s intelligence based on a hearing impairment.
  • 15. WHY ARE EARLY IDENTIFICATION AND EARLY INTERVENTION FOR HEARING LOSS SO IMPORTANT?  Hearing is critical for the development of speech, language, communication skills, and learning. The earlier that hearing loss occurs in a child's life, the more serious is the effect on the child's development. Similarly, the earlier the hearing loss is identified and intervention begun, the more likely it is that the delays in speech and language development will be diminished. Recent research indicates that children identified with hearing loss who begin services before 6 months old develop language (spoken or signed) on a par with their hearing peers.
  • 16. LEARNING AND COMMUNICATING  A kid with hearing loss may attend a special school, special classes within a regular school, or be part of a regular classroom. Depending on how severe their hearing loss is, some kids may work with audiologists or speech-language pathologists to help them develop their hearing and speaking skills.  Some people with hearing loss may need to use special techniques like these to communicate:  Speech reading (also called lip-reading), which involves looking closely at a person's lips, facial expressions, and gestures to help figure out spoken words
  • 17.  Sign Language, which is a language of hand movements that allows deaf people to communicate without speaking. Remember: American Sign Language (ASL) is different from sign language used in other countries, even different from British Sign Language!  Cued Speech and Signed Exact English, which use handshapes to translate what's being said. They're meant to be used with spoken language to help people understand anything they can't comprehend through lip reading.
  • 18. EDUCATIONAL CHALLENGES Educational obstacles related to hearing impairments stem around communication. A student with a hearing impairment may experience difficulty in:  the subjects of grammar, spelling and vocabulary  taking notes while listening to lectures  participating in classroom discussions  watching educational videos  presenting oral reports
  • 19. GENERAL SUGGESTIONS  Teachers may need to modify some teaching styles and the physical environment to ensure full accessibility for deaf students.  Encourage interactions between the deaf students and their hearing classmates.  Lay emphasis on the things they can do.  Deaf students should conform to the same standards of discipline as other students in the school.
  • 20. THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF CLASS  A deaf student may become more tired than the hearing students due to the need to constantly concentrate in order to hear or watch an interpreter, so provide regular breaks from having to listen or having to watch an interpreter. Teachers can alternate class discussion times with individual work so that the deaf student does not need to concentrate for long periods of time.  Deaf students are often visual learners, so an attractive classroom with interesting notice boards and posters around the room assists the student to learn. Visual teaching methods, using pictures, diagrams and word maps, for example, also assist the deaf student. Also, any seating arrangement should not isolate the student.
  • 21.  Try and keep noise, including general student talking to a minimum to reduce background noise. Avoid placing the student near fans or airconditioners if they are noisy. Shut the door if there is noise in the corridor and window if there is noise outside.  When showing a video, DVD or listening to a tape recoding, it is possible the deaf student will not be able to understand the words. Therefore show the ones with subtitles. If this is not possible, try not using this medium.
  • 22. TEACHER’S INSTRUCTIONS:  Ensure you are not standing in front of a window or your face will be in shadow.  Try not to talk with your back is turned or when you are writing on the blackboard.  A deaf student can’t watch the teacher or interpreter and write notes at the same time, so allow time to write once the speaking has stopped or breaks during the speaking to take notes.  When explaining new terms or vocabulary, write them on the blackboard and add synonyms and definitions to aid understanding. Introduce new materials in small steps and give clear directions and explanations.  A friend who sits beside the deaf student may help by explaining instructions or work that has not been understood. However, be careful the deaf student does not become dependent on the friend, copy their work or take up too much of their time.
  • 23.  Never shout at the deaf student as the messages becomes distorted through hearing aids or cochlear implants.  A slower pace of the lesson may assist.  Don’t assume that because the deaf student has a cochlear implant or hearing aid they can hear. The student may be able to hear your voice, but be unable to distinguish the words.
  • 24. ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES  Always consider alternative forms of assessment where necessary. Standards are not expected to be lowered to accommodate students with a disability but rather are required to give them a reasonable opportunity to demonstrate what they have learnt. Once you have a clear picture of how the disability impacts on learning, you can consider alternative assessment strategies:  When their range of literacy is an issue, students may require the use of a thesaurus or dictionary during exams. A personal computer with spelling and grammar functions may be required.  Provide alternatives to those assignments which are based on interviews or questionnaires, and be flexible with assignment deadlines, particularly if students have had to wait for transcripts of learning sessions.  Provide extra time in examinations, particularly extra time for reading questions. Some students will prefer to have questions and instructions ‘signed’ to them.

Editor's Notes

  1. Cochlea the spiral cavity of the inner ear containing the organ of Corti, which produces nerve impulses in response to sound vibrations.