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Presentation By:
Ms. Rabiya Husain
Assistant Professor (GT)
IGIPESS, University of Delhi
HEALTH
EDUCATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
UNIT - I
Health-meaning, dimensions of health and their
interrelationships, importance of health for individual, family,
community and nation; factors influencing health, spectrum of
health, concept and components of wellness.
Health Education- meaning, scope, aims and objectives,
principles, methods and media used in health education.
Hygiene- personal hygiene, food hygiene, environmental
hygiene-meaning, need and importance; associated practices
related to maintenance and promotion of health
CONCEPT OF HEALTH
Health is a common theme in almost
all countries i.e., 'absence of disease'.
Health= Harmony= being in peace
with self, community, God and
cosmos.
'body equilibrium with humors'.
HEALTH- DEFINITION
WHO (1948)- "a state of complete physical,
mental and social well-being and not
merely the absence of disease or infirmity".
WHO (1984)- "the extent to which an
individual or group is able to realize
aspirations and satisfy needs and to
change or cope with the environment".
HEALTH- DEFINITION
J.F. Williams- "health is that quality of life which
enables the individuals to live for livelihood and
serve best".
Lock- "a sound mind can live only in a sound
body".
Herbert Spencer- "to be a good human is the first
requisite for success in life. National prosperity
depends upon good people".
HEALTH- DEFINITION
Oxford dictionary- "state of being well in body
or mind".
Webster- "the condition of being sound in
body, mind or spirit especially freedom from
physical disease or pain".
Mary Backer- "health is not a state of matter
but it is a matter of mind".
CHANGING CONCEPTS
OF HEALTH
Biomedical: microorganisms known as pathogens or "germs" can
lead to disease
"health is the absence of disease"- Germ theory of disease
Minimized the role of: Environmental, social, psychological, economic,
cultural and other determinants.
Germ theory could not solve: Nutritional, chronic diseases, accidents,
substance abuse, pollution, population, explosion and other non-
communicable health problems.
Health- dynamic equilibrium between
man and his environment
Disease- maladjustment of the human
organism to the environment
“Health implies the relative absence of
pain and discomfort and a continuous
adaptation and adjustment to the
environment to ensure optimal function”
Imbalance results in disease.
Ecological Concept
Biomedical (biological) in addition to
psychological, social, cultural, economic and
political factors.
Psychological
Concept
Includes all the other concepts of health (biomedical
+ ecological + psychological) in addition to all human
activities such as education, communication,
agriculture, industry, housing, recreation and so on.
Emphasis on promotion and protection of health.
Holistic Concept
The health of an individual is not
static; it is a dynamic
phenomenon and a process of
continuous change.
There are degrees or "levels of
health" as there are degrees or
severity of illness.
As long as a person is alive there is
some degree of health in him.
Positive Health
Better Health
Freedom from Sickness
Unrecognized Sickness
Mild Sickness
Severe Sickness
Death
HEALTH
DISEASE
The
Health-Sickness
Spectrum
DIMENSIONS
OF HEALTH
It means perfect functioning of the body.
All the organs of the body are of average
size & functions normally; all the special
senses are intact; resting pulse rate,
blood pressure and exercise tolerance
are all within the range of normality for
the individual's age & sex.
Genetic make-up, age, developmental
level, race and sex are all part of an
individual's physical dimension.
Example: A young woman who has a
family history of breast cancer and
diabetes are therefore is at higher risk to
develop these conditions.
Physical Health
Mental Dimension
It is the balance b/w the individual
and the surrounding world, a
state of harmony b/w oneself and
others.
Psychological factors can include
all kinds of illness, not simply
mental ones.
Long term stress affects the body
system; conversely, calmness and
relaxation can actually change
the body responds to illness.
The following characteristics are
attributes of a mentally healthy
person:
He is free from internal conflict
He accepts criticism
He searches for identity
He has a strong sense of self-esteem
He knows himself
He has a good self control
He faces problems and tries to solve
them.
Mental Dimension
Toxic
Negative
Essential
Waste
Right
Thought
Positive
Elevated
7
1
2
4
3
5
6
Our destiny is in our own hands.
Thought
Decision
Action
Destiny
Destiny
Life is a journey. Enjoy each and every
moment of it.
Live in present.
Life
MENTAL HEALTH
T- Thought
E- Emotion
A- Attitude
M-Management
Emotional Health
Emotional health is about being
happy, self confident, self-aware
and resilient.
People who are emotionally healthy
can control their emotions and
behavior.
They are able to handle life's
inevitable challenges, build strong
relationship, and lead productive,
fulfilling lives.
They bounce back when bad things
happen and can manage stress
without falling apart.
Social well-being implies harmony and
integration within the individual, between each
individual and other members of the society and
between individuals and the world in which they
live.
Healthy practices and beliefs are strongly
influenced by person's economic level, lifestyle,
family and culture.
Low-income groups are less likely to seek health
care to prevent or treat illness; high income
groups are more prone to stress related habits
and illness.
Social and Economic Dimensions
Spiritual Dimension
Spiritual dimension
includes principles and
ethics, the purpose of
life, religious beliefs and
values; all are important
components of the way
the person behaves with
health and illness.
Vocational Dimension
When work is fully adapted to human
goals, work often plays a role in
promoting both physical and mental
health.
The importance of this dimension is
exposed when individuals suddenly lose
their jobs or retire.
Occupational
Dimension
Educational Dimension
Environmental
Dimension
Nutritional
Dimension
Other Dimensions
Vital for proper growth and development of the
mind and body.
Body becomes free from various forms of
disorders and thus, one get a longer life.
Able to perform to the best of ones ability.
Reflected on the face. So, one looks attractive
and start feeling good about oneself.
Can lead physically active life even after
growing old.
The body can heal the regular wear and tear
associated with aging faster.
Improvement in the overall quality of life.
Mind develops a natural tendency to focus
upon the positive and is not bothered much
about the negatives.
Importance of
Health for an
Individual
Healthy family benefits each family
member in importante ways & help
provide a unique sense of belonging &
value.
When each family member feels
supported and valued, it builds a
healthy bond that ecourages the
formation of strong moral character.
Translate to healthy eating and
exercise habits.
Healthy familias encourge each
member to become independent and
self-sufficient.
Importance of
Health for Family
Decrease crime rate
Increases peace
Increase in
production
Rapid development of
the Nation
Decrease substance
abuse
Importance of
Health for
Community and
Nation
Age
Sex
Race
Genetic factors
Food
Nutrition
Eating habits
Occupation
Immunity status
Customs
Religion
Beliefs
Attitude
Habits
Factors Effecting Health
Though
Anger
Stress
Resilience
Social Support
Morals
Education
Water
Air
Soil
Noise
Climate
Weather
Housing
Factors Effecting Health Contd.
Hygiene
Personal Hygiene
Heat
Light
Radiation
Sleep and rest
Physical activity
Lifestyle
Intolerance
Perinatal events
Previous accidents
Industrialization
Urbanization
Socioeconomic conditions
Community life
Availability of health services
Barriers to health services-
Accessibility
1.
Ignorance
2.
Illiteracy
3.
Maldistribution
4.
Efficacy
5.
Efficiency
6.
Shortage of man power
7.
Factors Effecting Health Contd.
Factors Effecting Health Contd.
Negative Factors
Jealousy
Greed
Hatred
Ego
Frustration
Rat race
Competition
Availability of resources
Addiction to facilities
Population explosion
Positive Factors
Peace
Happiness
Bliss
Harmony
Contentment
Safe physical env.
Supportive economic
& social conditions
Regular supply of
nutritious food &
water
Restricted access to
tobacco & drugs
Healthy public policy
& organizational
practices
Provision for
meaningful, paid
employment
Provision for
affordable housing
Participation in
civic activities &
social engagement
A strong social
networks
Feeling of trust
Feeling of power &
control over life
decisions
Supportive family
structure
Positive self-
esteem
Provision of
preventative
services
Access to
culturally
appropriate
healthy services
Community
participation in
the planning &
delivery of
healthy services
HEALTHY CONDITIONS
& ENVIRONMENT
PSYCHOLOGICAL
FACTORS
EFFECTIVE HEALTH
SERVICES
Decreased use
of tobacco &
drugs
Regular
physical
activity
Balanced
nutritional
intake
Positive mental
health
Safe sexual
activity
HEALTHY
LIFESTYLES
PROTECTIVE FACTORS
HEALTH
EDUCATION
Health education is a process which affects
changes in the health practices of people
and in the knowledge and attitude related
to such changes.
OR
Teaching processes providing basic
knowledge and practices of health, so as to
be interpreted into proper health behaviour.
Health education is the process
by which individuals & group of
people learn to
promote
maintain
restore health
"Education for health begins with
people as they are, with whatever
interest they may have in improving
their living conditions."
"A combination of learning activities
that informs, motivate and
encourage voluntary behavior which
are conducive to health in
individuals, groups or community."
Health education has
been defined as "the sum
of all experiences in
school and elsewhere
that favorably influence
habits, attitudes and
knowledge, related to
individual, community
and national health."
WHO Definition
Like general education is concerned with
changes in knowledge, feelings and
behavior of people. In its most usual form,
it concentrates on developing such health
practices as are believed to bring about the
best possible state of well being.
Health Education
Finds out advantage
and disadvantage
Gets some information
but not know much
Stage of Interest
Stage of Trial
Stages of Awareness with Ideas and Practices
Not aware of new
ideas or practices
Shows interest to know
more, listen, read
Stage of Unawareness
Stage of Evaluation
Stage of Awareness
Puts it into practice Accepts new idea as
beneficial and adopts it
Stage of Adoption
Aim of Health Education
01
02
03
04
To develop a sense of responsibility for health
conditions as individuals, as members of
family and communities.
Health promotion & disease prevention
Easy diagnosis and management
To promote & widely use the available
health services
05 To be part of education & to continue
throughout whole span of life
Objectives of Health Education
To make health an asset valued by the community.
1.
To increase the knowledge of the factors that affect health.
2.
To encourage behavior which promotes & maintains health.
3.
To enlist support for public health measures & when
necessary, to press for appropriate governmental action.
4.
To encourage appropriate use of health services especially
preventive services.
5.
To inform the public about medical advances, their uses &
their limitations.
6.
Health education is an essential component of any program to
improve the health of communities.
Effective planning of any health education program depends
on identifying the problems/needs of the people.
The introduction of new practices made fail if they are
incompatible with local beliefs and practices.
Principles of Health Education
Meet a felt need of the community.
Be simple to put into practice with the
existing knowledge & skills in the
community.
Fit in with existing lifestyle & culture & not
conflict with local belief.
Be locally affordable (money, material &
time)
Flexible & fit with people's circumstances
Ex. about nutrition should be based on foods
that are available locally, latrines build with
traditional method
Any proposal for a change of practice should:
Principles of Health Education
Interest
Participation
Comprehension
Reinforcement
Motivation
Learning by doing
Known to Unknown
PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH EDUCATION
LEARNING BY DOING
"If I hear, I forget
If I see, I remember
If I do, I know"
Appropriate
CHANNEL
SHOULD BE
Communication
Process by which people share
ideas, experiences, knowledge
and feelings through the
transmission of symbolic
messages
1
Affordable
2
Appealing
3
MEDIUM
FEEDBACK/RESPONSE
SENDER
(Encodes)
RECEIVER
(Decodes)
The Communication
Process
TYPES OF
COMMUNICATION
Downward
Communication
Upwards
Communication
Lateral or Horizontal
Communication
Methods of Health
Education
Methods of health education are the techniques or ways
in which series of activities are carried out to
communicates ideas, information and develop necessary
skills and attitudes.
Methods in Health Education
INDIVIDUAL
APPROACH
GROUP
APPROACH
MASS
APPROACH
Lectures
Demonstrations
Discussion Methods:
Group discussion
Panel discussion
Symposium
Workshop
Conferences
Seminars
Role plays
INDIVIDUAL
APPROACH
GROUP
APPROACH
MASS
APPROACH
Personal Contact
Home visits
Personal Letters
T.V.
Radio
Newspaper
Printed material
Direct mailing
Posters
Health museums & exhibitions
Folk methods
Internet
Individual
1.
Face to face communication
Education through spoken words
A. Occasions of health appraisal
B. Home visit, nurses, health visitors, social
workers
Interpersonal communication is a person to person,
two-way, verbal & nonverbal interaction that
includes the sharing of information & feelings
between individuals or in small groups that establish
trusting relationship.
Interpersonal Communication (IPC)
2. Group
Lesson & lectures in school/college.
Lectures at workplace
Demonstration & training
Broadcasting : radio and television
1.
Written words : newspapers, posters, booklet
2.
Others: theatres
3.
Print Media- posters, flannel graph, flip charts, handbills etc.
Electronic Media- projectors, radio, television, internet etc.
Traditional Media- storytelling, songs, role plays, announces etc.
3. Mass Media
Feasibility or practicability: There should
be a possibility of using the required
methods at the place where one is giving
health education.
1.
Eg. one cannot use electrical devices where
there is no electricity showing film using
overhead projector is impossible at such
places.
Criteria of Selecting Method & Media of
Health Education
2. Nature of the audience: Proper
method should be used & selected by
considering the nature of the audience.
Criteria of Selecting Method & Media of
Health Education (contd.)
3. Accessibility: The method should be effective enough to
reach & influence each member of the total population where
one has to give message.
It should not happen that one part of a community has well
access to all sorts of methods & next part is avoided.
Criteria of Selecting Method & Media of
Health Education (contd.)
4. People's attitude & belief on the
method & media:
Criteria of Selecting Method & Media of
Health Education (contd.)
5. Subject or purpose of teaching:
One should select such sort of methods
which will help to fulfill the objectives &
needs of the people. It should be
selected according to the interest of
the people so that the audience will
eagarly participate.
Criteria of Selecting Method & Media of
Health Education (contd.)
Interview Group
discussion
Panel
discussion
Brain
storming
Methods to be
discussed
Field trip Demonstration Counseling Workshop
Recent Advances
E-Health- advances on internet
Telemedicine- medicines at home
Medical Tourism
Medical informatics- Science of using
system analytic tools to develop
procedures for management, process
control, decision making of medical
knowledge
Media
Media are the teaching aids by which
knowledge, info., & ideas are
communicated with view of dissemination
of message.
The teaching aids helps health educator to
impart knowledge to the audience.
The media or teaching aids are used to
create awareness & in enforcing learning.
They are used in different ways & at
different situations for individual, group
and mass teaching.
TYPES OF TEACHING AIDS/ MEDIA
Audio Aids Visual Aids Audio-Visual Aids
Radio is the audio aid through which messages
are relayed to a heterogeneous & large number
of people at one time who are not physically
present before the communicator.
It is a mass media which provides one way
communication the concerned audience are
informed & asked to attend the broadcast at
the particular time & place.
Audio Aid: Radio
Advantages
It is very much helpful for illiterate people,
the message should be simple to
understand.
It leaves the barrier of distance & space.
Radio transmitters can be carried with &
attend the radio health program anywhere
the individual goes.
One can give up to date information to last
number of people in a very short period of
time.
Audio Aids: Radio (contd.)
Disadvantages
It is one way communication system
The communicator cannot be sure if people are listening to
and understanding the messages.
There may be electricity and batteries problem and
broadcasting facilities are available only in the limited areas.
It is difficult to evaluate the impact of radio teaching.
Sometime there may be language barrier to certain group of
people.
Message received only through verbal teaching, is easy to
forget.
Difficult in timing to fit the convenience of the specific target
people.
Audio Aids: Radio (contd.)
Good health is a pre condition for
good education.
Health education is the very
foundation of every successful
public health programme.
Health education bridges the gulf
b/w the knowledge & health
practices.
A great deal of ill-health in this
country & elsewhere is due to
ignorance of simple rules of
hygiene.
IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH EDUCATION
It is vital for proper growth & development of mind
and body.
Body becomes free from various forms of disorders
and thus, one get a longer life.
Life without suffering from any aches, pain, or
discomfort.
Able to perform to the best of our ability.
Reflected on our face, so we look attractive & start
feeling good about ourselves.
Can lead a physically active life even after growing
old.
The body can heal the regular wear & tear
associated with aging faster.
Importance of Health for
Individual
Improvement in the overall quality of our
life.
Mine develops a natural tendency to focus
upon the positives & is not bothered much
about the negative.
Can sleep well & do not have to start the
next day with a body ache or joint pain or
stomach upset.
Good health has a positive effect on the
productivity as an
employee/student/worker.
Importance of Health for
Individual (contd.)
Importance of Health for
Family
Healthy family benefits each family member in
important ways & help provide a unique sense
of belonging & value.
When each family member feels supported &
valued, it builds a healthy bond that
encourages the formation of strong moral
character.
Translate to healthy eating & exercise habits.
Healthy families encourage each member to
become independent & self-suficient.
Decrease Crime
More peace.
Increase in production
Rapid development of nation
Decrease in substance abuse
Importance of
Health for
Community &
Nation
Hygiene
Hygiene is healthy habits that
include bathing, keeping the
mouth clean, keeping the skin
protected from the sun &
washing hands frequently
before handling edibles to
ensure the safe delivery of
food.
Hygiene is a set of practices
performed for the preservation
of health.
Hygiene (contd.)
Hygiene, science of preserving and promoting
the health of both the individuals and the
community.
According to WHO
Hygiene refers to conditions & practices that helps
to maintain health & prevent the spread of
diseases.
Medical hygiene therefore includes a specific set
of practices associated with this preservation of
health
Ex. environmental cleaning, sterilization of
equipment hand hygiene, water & sanitation &
safe disposal medical waste.
Aspects of Hygiene
Proper living habits,
cleanliness of body &
clothing, healthful diet,
balanced regimen of
rest & exercise
Sanitary preparation
of food, cleanliness
& ventilation of the
homes
Supervision of water & food
supply, containment of
communicable disease,
disposal of garbage, control
of air & water pollution
PERSONAL HYGIENE DOMESTIC HYGIENE PUBLIC HYGIENE
I
NDUSTRIAL HYGIEN
E
M
ENTAL HYGIENE
Aspects of Hygiene (contd.)
Measures that minimize
occupational disease &
incidents
Recognition of mental
& emotional factors in
healthful living
M
EDICAL HYGIENE
Hygiene practices related to the
administration of medicine, &
medical care, that prevents or
minimizes disease & the
spreading of disease
What is
Hygiene?
It is the act of keeping
the human body as
well as the
environment clean
GOOD & BAD
HYGIENE
Allows these things to
affect the body & probably
makes individual sick
Keeps body protected from germs and
dangerous UV rays from the Sun, in the
environment that can hurt individual
The main purpose of personal hygiene is to prevent
illness & improve appearance.
Hygiene also plays an important role in social acceptance
& can either improve or hinder a person's reputation in
social situations.
Bad breath, body odor and an unkept appearance, are
often considered undesirable and can give a bad first
impression to peer, acquaintances and potential mates.
Need & Importance
of Hygiene
One of the most effective behavior to prevent
diarrhoea, roundworm and whipworm. Really done at
the most crucial times and really done most
effectively (with soap). Hands get most dangerously
contaminated from human feces and soil probably
containing worm eggs.
Crucial time for hand washing to reduce transmission
are :
After defecation & after contact with children's faeces
Before handing food & after handling high risk food
such as raw meat.
Before eating & before feeding children
Before handling water
WASHING HANDS
Roundworms are parasites that live in the body.
These parasitic infections can cause diarrhea & fever.
Types of roundworms in humans include pinworms
and ascariasis. Often, roundworm infections come
from traveling to countries with poor sanitation &
hygiene.
PARASITE
A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a
host organism and gets its food from or at the
expense of its host.
Effective hand washing
requires through rubbing of
the hands while using soap &
sufficient water to rinse it off.
If soap is not available, ash or
Earth is nearly as effective.
Water alone is effective,
specially if water is clean
Cleanses skin
Skin conditioner
Relaxes
Promotes the circulation
Exercise
Stimulates respiration
Comfort
Sensory input
Improve self-image
Establish rapport
BATHING-
Purpose
BATHING- CARE OF
SKIN
Soap & water are essential for
keeping the skin clean.
A good bath once or twice a
day is recommended,
especially in tropical countries
like India.
Those who are involved in active sports
or workout, sweat a lot. Therefore it is
recommended to take bath after the
workout.
A soap will do the job adequately.
One can also use a bath sponge for
scrubbing.
Back brushes & heel scrubbers are also
available in the market.
The genitals & anus needs to be cleaned well because of the natural
secretion of areas.
In unhygienic conditions, can cause irritation and infection.
Wash off well after soaping.
Drying with a clean towel is important.
Avoid sharing soaps & towel with anybody.
Change into clean underwear after bath.
Around middle age the skin tends to go dry a bit.
A moisturizing oil or cream can be used.
It is better to use this at night because if you go out in the sun or
commute on dusty road when the skin is wet, dust might stick to your
face & oil may also give you tan.
Brushing & flossing properly along with regular dental
checkups can help prevent tooth decay & gum disease.
To prevent cavities, you need to remove plague,
transparent layer of bacteria that coats the teeth.
Brushing also stimulates the gums which helps to keep
them healthy & prevent gum disease.
Teeth: Brushing
Teeth
Make sure to brush teeth two
times per day, if not after every
meal.
This will help minimize the
amount of bacteria in the
mouth which leads to tooth
decay & will help in maintaining
a healthy, happy smile.
Brush up & down on upper & lower teeth.
Use circular motion, pay attention on tongue & the inner surface
of the teeth as well.
Brush should have resilient bristles, it should be rinsed well in
left to dry after use.
Flossing teeth in additional to regular brushing, it is critical to
floss teeth at least once a day, usually before going to bed.
This will enable to reduce plaque in the more difficult to reach
places between teeth & at the back of molars.
HAIR
Wash your hair at least once a week
using soap or mild shampoo.
Dry your hair after a wash.
Brush your hair 3 to 4 times a day with a
soft bristled brush or a wide toothed
comb.
Wash your brush & comb every time you
wash your hair.
Oil the scalp once a week preferably an
hour before hair wash.
HANDS WASHING
Wash hands thoroughly with soap & water, before & after every
meal and after visiting the toilet.
Use warm running water
Soaping & rinsing should cover the areas between fingers, nails
& back of the hand
Scrub hands together & under nails for at least 15-20 seconds.
Dry hands on a clean cloth or paper towel.
The towel at the wash stand has to be washed & changed
everyday.
While cooking, especially when packing lunches, you can
prevent food from spoilage and minimize contamination by
keeping the hands clean.
While handling food avoid scratching or touching the ears,
nose, mouth or other body area.
If you need to use a handkercheif ot tissue,
wash your hands after that
Keep your nails short.
Nail Polish users should see that it does not
chip off into food.
Six stage of handwashing technique:
1. Palm to palm
2. Back of hands
3. Interdigital spaces
4. Fingertips
5. Thumb and wrist
6. Nails
HANDS WASHING (CONTD.)
CLEANING FINGERNAILS
Closely related to handwashing
Handwashing does not ensure
fingernails get cleaned.
Clean fingernails are particularly
important when food is consumed
or fed to infants using fingers.
Clean fingernails have an aesthetic
value.
Handwashing & cleaning fingernails
also play a role in the prevention of
eyes & skin infection such as
scabies.
CLEANING FINGERNAILS (CONTD.)
When wiping infected eyes or scratching itching infected skin, bacteria
can settle on fingers & hence be transmitted.
Keeping fingernails clean requires them to be kept short & brushed
regularly.
Clip nails short along their shape.
Don't cut them so close that it pinches the skin
Do not keep your nails painted continuously.
Pamper your hands and nails once every 3 weeks with a manicure
This requires soaking your hands in warm water for 10 minutes,
massaging of hands, thorough cleaning and shaping of nails.
CLEANING FINGERNAILS (CONTD.)
Nails should always be kept clean and neatly trimmed
or filed
Nails that are excessively long can by virtue of their
length hold more dirt than shorter nails
Those with longer nails then need to be more diligent
about keeping their nails clean.
Dirt and bacteria can get trapped in the nails that are
not clean.
As with the hands, nails are a way for bacteria to be
passed from person to person.
Preventing the spread of bacteria prevents the spread
of illness and infection.
Hangnails (loose skin near the base of the nail) should
be carefully trimmed with the cuticle clipper and the
area kept clean to prevent infections.
Other Personal Hygiene
Feet/shoes
Body Odor
Clothes
Menstrual Hygiene
Hygiene
Food is a potential source of infection & is
likeable to contamination by microorganism
at any point during its journey from the
producer to the consumer.
Food hygiene, in its widest sense, implies
hygiene in the production, handling,
distribution and serving of all types of food.
The primary aim of food hygiene is to
prevent food poisoning & other food-borne
illnesses.
FOOD
Safer Food
Five keys to
Keep clean
Separate raw & cooked food
Cook thoroughly
Keep food at safe temperature
Use safe water & raw materials
Knowledge = Prevention
Milk is an efficient vehicle for a great variety of disease
agents.
The sources of infection or contamination of milk
maybe:
(I) The dairy animal
(II) Human handler
(III) The environment
Example- contaminated vessels, polluted water, flies
dust etc .
Milk
HYGIENE
The first essential in the production of
clean & safe milk, is therefore, a healthy
and clean animal.
Secondly the premises where the
animal is housed & milked should be
sanitary.
The milk vessels must be sterile & kept
covered.
The water supply must be
bacteriologicaly safe.
Milk HYGIENE
Handler must be free from communicable disease &
before milking they must wash their hands & arms.
Where possible milking machines must be used.
Milk should be cooled immediately to blow 10
degree Celsius after it is drawn to retard bacterial
growth.
In the production of good quality milk, cleanliness of
all containers & equipment in which milk is handled
is very important.
MILK HANDLER
It may be defined as the heating of
milk to such temperature & for
such periods of time as a required
to destroy any pathogens that may
be present while causing minimal
changes in the composition, flavor
& nutritive value (WHO).
PASTEURIZATION OF
MILK
MEAT
HYGIENE
The term 'meat'
includes various
tissues of animal
origin.
Animals intended for slaughter are subjected to proper
antemortem & postmortem inspection by qualified veterinary
staff.
The principal causes of antemortem rejection of animals are
emaciation, exhaustion, pregnancy, sheep-pox, foot-rot,
febrile conditions, diarrhoea, brucellosis, and other diseases
of an infectious nature rendering meat unfit for human
consumption.
The characteristics of good meat are that it should be neither
pale pink nor a deep purple tint, firm & elastic to touch,
should not be slimy.
MEAT INSPECTION
Slaughter
Houses
Location preferably away from residential area
Structure
floors & walls up to 3 feet
should be impervious & easy
to clean
Disposal of
Wastes
blood should not be discharged
into public sewers but should be
collected separately
Water
Supply
should be independent, adequate &
continuous
Examination
of Animals
antemortem & prosternum examination to be arranged .
Animals found unfit should be destroyed
Miscellaneous
animals other than those to be slaughtered should not
be allowed inside the shed
Storage of
Meat
should be stored in fly-proof & rat-proof rooms, for
overnight storage the temperature of the room shall be
maintained below 5 degree Celsius
Transportation
of Meat
shall be transported in fly-proof covered vans
Fish
Fish deteriorates or loses its freshness
because of autolysis which sets in after
death & because of the bacteria with
which they become infected.
Stale fish should be condemned.
The sign of fresh fish:
It is in a state of stiffness or rigor mortis
The gills are a bright red
The eyes are clear & prominent
Although the majority of
freshly laid eggs are sterile
inside, the shell become
contaminated by faecal
matter from the hen.
Microorganism including
pathogenic salmonella can be
penetrate a cracked shell &
enter the egg.
EGG
FRUITS &
Fruits & vegetables constitute
another important source for the
spread of pathogenic organism,
protozoa & worm.
These infections are a serious
menace to public health were
sewage is used for growing
vegetables.
The vegetables which are consumed
raw in the form of salads pose a
problem in food sanitation.
People should be educated to wash
vegetables before eating them raw.
Vegetables which are cooked &
eaten are free from this danger.
VEGETABLES
Food Contamination
Sources of
Raw materials/
ingredients
Food handlers
Water
Soil
Air/dust
Garbage & sewage
Packaging material
Animals & birds
Rodents
Insects
Adulteration of Foods
Adulteration of food consists of a large number of
practices - mixing substitution, abstraction,
concealing the quality, putting up decomposed
foods for sale, misbranding or giving labels &
addition of other chemicals .
Some forms of adulteration are injurious to health
Eg. Adulteration of mustard oil with argemone oil.
But for the most part food adulteration has an
economic rather than a sanitary significance.
Eg. addition of water to milk
ENVIRONMENT HYGIENE
Excreta disposal
Waste water disposal
Water use
Food handling
Water Source
Water treatment
PRESENCE & PROPER USE OF FACILITIES PREVENTS
POLLUTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT & LIMIT HEALTH
HAZARDS FOR THE COMMUNITY AT LARGE.
RABIHFITNESS
M S . R A B I Y A H U S A I N
T H A N K Y O U

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Health Education - Meaning, Definition, Concept, Factors Influencing Health

  • 1. Presentation By: Ms. Rabiya Husain Assistant Professor (GT) IGIPESS, University of Delhi HEALTH EDUCATION
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS UNIT - I Health-meaning, dimensions of health and their interrelationships, importance of health for individual, family, community and nation; factors influencing health, spectrum of health, concept and components of wellness. Health Education- meaning, scope, aims and objectives, principles, methods and media used in health education. Hygiene- personal hygiene, food hygiene, environmental hygiene-meaning, need and importance; associated practices related to maintenance and promotion of health
  • 3. CONCEPT OF HEALTH Health is a common theme in almost all countries i.e., 'absence of disease'. Health= Harmony= being in peace with self, community, God and cosmos. 'body equilibrium with humors'.
  • 4. HEALTH- DEFINITION WHO (1948)- "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". WHO (1984)- "the extent to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs and to change or cope with the environment".
  • 5. HEALTH- DEFINITION J.F. Williams- "health is that quality of life which enables the individuals to live for livelihood and serve best". Lock- "a sound mind can live only in a sound body". Herbert Spencer- "to be a good human is the first requisite for success in life. National prosperity depends upon good people".
  • 6. HEALTH- DEFINITION Oxford dictionary- "state of being well in body or mind". Webster- "the condition of being sound in body, mind or spirit especially freedom from physical disease or pain". Mary Backer- "health is not a state of matter but it is a matter of mind".
  • 7. CHANGING CONCEPTS OF HEALTH Biomedical: microorganisms known as pathogens or "germs" can lead to disease "health is the absence of disease"- Germ theory of disease Minimized the role of: Environmental, social, psychological, economic, cultural and other determinants. Germ theory could not solve: Nutritional, chronic diseases, accidents, substance abuse, pollution, population, explosion and other non- communicable health problems.
  • 8. Health- dynamic equilibrium between man and his environment Disease- maladjustment of the human organism to the environment “Health implies the relative absence of pain and discomfort and a continuous adaptation and adjustment to the environment to ensure optimal function” Imbalance results in disease. Ecological Concept
  • 9. Biomedical (biological) in addition to psychological, social, cultural, economic and political factors. Psychological Concept
  • 10. Includes all the other concepts of health (biomedical + ecological + psychological) in addition to all human activities such as education, communication, agriculture, industry, housing, recreation and so on. Emphasis on promotion and protection of health. Holistic Concept
  • 11. The health of an individual is not static; it is a dynamic phenomenon and a process of continuous change. There are degrees or "levels of health" as there are degrees or severity of illness. As long as a person is alive there is some degree of health in him. Positive Health Better Health Freedom from Sickness Unrecognized Sickness Mild Sickness Severe Sickness Death HEALTH DISEASE The Health-Sickness Spectrum
  • 13. It means perfect functioning of the body. All the organs of the body are of average size & functions normally; all the special senses are intact; resting pulse rate, blood pressure and exercise tolerance are all within the range of normality for the individual's age & sex. Genetic make-up, age, developmental level, race and sex are all part of an individual's physical dimension. Example: A young woman who has a family history of breast cancer and diabetes are therefore is at higher risk to develop these conditions. Physical Health
  • 14. Mental Dimension It is the balance b/w the individual and the surrounding world, a state of harmony b/w oneself and others. Psychological factors can include all kinds of illness, not simply mental ones. Long term stress affects the body system; conversely, calmness and relaxation can actually change the body responds to illness.
  • 15. The following characteristics are attributes of a mentally healthy person: He is free from internal conflict He accepts criticism He searches for identity He has a strong sense of self-esteem He knows himself He has a good self control He faces problems and tries to solve them. Mental Dimension
  • 17. Our destiny is in our own hands. Thought Decision Action Destiny Destiny
  • 18. Life is a journey. Enjoy each and every moment of it. Live in present. Life MENTAL HEALTH T- Thought E- Emotion A- Attitude M-Management
  • 19. Emotional Health Emotional health is about being happy, self confident, self-aware and resilient. People who are emotionally healthy can control their emotions and behavior. They are able to handle life's inevitable challenges, build strong relationship, and lead productive, fulfilling lives. They bounce back when bad things happen and can manage stress without falling apart.
  • 20. Social well-being implies harmony and integration within the individual, between each individual and other members of the society and between individuals and the world in which they live. Healthy practices and beliefs are strongly influenced by person's economic level, lifestyle, family and culture. Low-income groups are less likely to seek health care to prevent or treat illness; high income groups are more prone to stress related habits and illness. Social and Economic Dimensions
  • 21. Spiritual Dimension Spiritual dimension includes principles and ethics, the purpose of life, religious beliefs and values; all are important components of the way the person behaves with health and illness.
  • 22. Vocational Dimension When work is fully adapted to human goals, work often plays a role in promoting both physical and mental health. The importance of this dimension is exposed when individuals suddenly lose their jobs or retire.
  • 24. Vital for proper growth and development of the mind and body. Body becomes free from various forms of disorders and thus, one get a longer life. Able to perform to the best of ones ability. Reflected on the face. So, one looks attractive and start feeling good about oneself. Can lead physically active life even after growing old. The body can heal the regular wear and tear associated with aging faster. Improvement in the overall quality of life. Mind develops a natural tendency to focus upon the positive and is not bothered much about the negatives. Importance of Health for an Individual
  • 25. Healthy family benefits each family member in importante ways & help provide a unique sense of belonging & value. When each family member feels supported and valued, it builds a healthy bond that ecourages the formation of strong moral character. Translate to healthy eating and exercise habits. Healthy familias encourge each member to become independent and self-sufficient. Importance of Health for Family
  • 26. Decrease crime rate Increases peace Increase in production Rapid development of the Nation Decrease substance abuse Importance of Health for Community and Nation
  • 27. Age Sex Race Genetic factors Food Nutrition Eating habits Occupation Immunity status Customs Religion Beliefs Attitude Habits Factors Effecting Health Though Anger Stress Resilience Social Support Morals Education Water Air Soil Noise Climate Weather Housing
  • 28. Factors Effecting Health Contd. Hygiene Personal Hygiene Heat Light Radiation Sleep and rest Physical activity Lifestyle Intolerance Perinatal events Previous accidents Industrialization Urbanization
  • 29. Socioeconomic conditions Community life Availability of health services Barriers to health services- Accessibility 1. Ignorance 2. Illiteracy 3. Maldistribution 4. Efficacy 5. Efficiency 6. Shortage of man power 7. Factors Effecting Health Contd.
  • 30. Factors Effecting Health Contd. Negative Factors Jealousy Greed Hatred Ego Frustration Rat race Competition Availability of resources Addiction to facilities Population explosion Positive Factors Peace Happiness Bliss Harmony Contentment
  • 31. Safe physical env. Supportive economic & social conditions Regular supply of nutritious food & water Restricted access to tobacco & drugs Healthy public policy & organizational practices Provision for meaningful, paid employment Provision for affordable housing Participation in civic activities & social engagement A strong social networks Feeling of trust Feeling of power & control over life decisions Supportive family structure Positive self- esteem Provision of preventative services Access to culturally appropriate healthy services Community participation in the planning & delivery of healthy services HEALTHY CONDITIONS & ENVIRONMENT PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS EFFECTIVE HEALTH SERVICES Decreased use of tobacco & drugs Regular physical activity Balanced nutritional intake Positive mental health Safe sexual activity HEALTHY LIFESTYLES PROTECTIVE FACTORS
  • 32. HEALTH EDUCATION Health education is a process which affects changes in the health practices of people and in the knowledge and attitude related to such changes. OR Teaching processes providing basic knowledge and practices of health, so as to be interpreted into proper health behaviour.
  • 33. Health education is the process by which individuals & group of people learn to promote maintain restore health
  • 34. "Education for health begins with people as they are, with whatever interest they may have in improving their living conditions." "A combination of learning activities that informs, motivate and encourage voluntary behavior which are conducive to health in individuals, groups or community."
  • 35. Health education has been defined as "the sum of all experiences in school and elsewhere that favorably influence habits, attitudes and knowledge, related to individual, community and national health."
  • 36. WHO Definition Like general education is concerned with changes in knowledge, feelings and behavior of people. In its most usual form, it concentrates on developing such health practices as are believed to bring about the best possible state of well being. Health Education
  • 37. Finds out advantage and disadvantage Gets some information but not know much Stage of Interest Stage of Trial Stages of Awareness with Ideas and Practices Not aware of new ideas or practices Shows interest to know more, listen, read Stage of Unawareness Stage of Evaluation Stage of Awareness Puts it into practice Accepts new idea as beneficial and adopts it Stage of Adoption
  • 38. Aim of Health Education 01 02 03 04 To develop a sense of responsibility for health conditions as individuals, as members of family and communities. Health promotion & disease prevention Easy diagnosis and management To promote & widely use the available health services 05 To be part of education & to continue throughout whole span of life
  • 39. Objectives of Health Education To make health an asset valued by the community. 1. To increase the knowledge of the factors that affect health. 2. To encourage behavior which promotes & maintains health. 3. To enlist support for public health measures & when necessary, to press for appropriate governmental action. 4. To encourage appropriate use of health services especially preventive services. 5. To inform the public about medical advances, their uses & their limitations. 6.
  • 40. Health education is an essential component of any program to improve the health of communities. Effective planning of any health education program depends on identifying the problems/needs of the people. The introduction of new practices made fail if they are incompatible with local beliefs and practices. Principles of Health Education
  • 41. Meet a felt need of the community. Be simple to put into practice with the existing knowledge & skills in the community. Fit in with existing lifestyle & culture & not conflict with local belief. Be locally affordable (money, material & time) Flexible & fit with people's circumstances Ex. about nutrition should be based on foods that are available locally, latrines build with traditional method Any proposal for a change of practice should: Principles of Health Education
  • 43. LEARNING BY DOING "If I hear, I forget If I see, I remember If I do, I know"
  • 44. Appropriate CHANNEL SHOULD BE Communication Process by which people share ideas, experiences, knowledge and feelings through the transmission of symbolic messages 1 Affordable 2 Appealing 3
  • 47. Methods of Health Education Methods of health education are the techniques or ways in which series of activities are carried out to communicates ideas, information and develop necessary skills and attitudes.
  • 48. Methods in Health Education INDIVIDUAL APPROACH GROUP APPROACH MASS APPROACH
  • 49. Lectures Demonstrations Discussion Methods: Group discussion Panel discussion Symposium Workshop Conferences Seminars Role plays INDIVIDUAL APPROACH GROUP APPROACH MASS APPROACH Personal Contact Home visits Personal Letters T.V. Radio Newspaper Printed material Direct mailing Posters Health museums & exhibitions Folk methods Internet
  • 50. Individual 1. Face to face communication Education through spoken words A. Occasions of health appraisal B. Home visit, nurses, health visitors, social workers
  • 51. Interpersonal communication is a person to person, two-way, verbal & nonverbal interaction that includes the sharing of information & feelings between individuals or in small groups that establish trusting relationship. Interpersonal Communication (IPC)
  • 52. 2. Group Lesson & lectures in school/college. Lectures at workplace Demonstration & training
  • 53. Broadcasting : radio and television 1. Written words : newspapers, posters, booklet 2. Others: theatres 3. Print Media- posters, flannel graph, flip charts, handbills etc. Electronic Media- projectors, radio, television, internet etc. Traditional Media- storytelling, songs, role plays, announces etc. 3. Mass Media
  • 54. Feasibility or practicability: There should be a possibility of using the required methods at the place where one is giving health education. 1. Eg. one cannot use electrical devices where there is no electricity showing film using overhead projector is impossible at such places. Criteria of Selecting Method & Media of Health Education
  • 55. 2. Nature of the audience: Proper method should be used & selected by considering the nature of the audience. Criteria of Selecting Method & Media of Health Education (contd.)
  • 56. 3. Accessibility: The method should be effective enough to reach & influence each member of the total population where one has to give message. It should not happen that one part of a community has well access to all sorts of methods & next part is avoided. Criteria of Selecting Method & Media of Health Education (contd.)
  • 57. 4. People's attitude & belief on the method & media: Criteria of Selecting Method & Media of Health Education (contd.)
  • 58. 5. Subject or purpose of teaching: One should select such sort of methods which will help to fulfill the objectives & needs of the people. It should be selected according to the interest of the people so that the audience will eagarly participate. Criteria of Selecting Method & Media of Health Education (contd.)
  • 59. Interview Group discussion Panel discussion Brain storming Methods to be discussed Field trip Demonstration Counseling Workshop
  • 60. Recent Advances E-Health- advances on internet Telemedicine- medicines at home Medical Tourism Medical informatics- Science of using system analytic tools to develop procedures for management, process control, decision making of medical knowledge
  • 61. Media Media are the teaching aids by which knowledge, info., & ideas are communicated with view of dissemination of message. The teaching aids helps health educator to impart knowledge to the audience. The media or teaching aids are used to create awareness & in enforcing learning. They are used in different ways & at different situations for individual, group and mass teaching.
  • 62. TYPES OF TEACHING AIDS/ MEDIA Audio Aids Visual Aids Audio-Visual Aids
  • 63. Radio is the audio aid through which messages are relayed to a heterogeneous & large number of people at one time who are not physically present before the communicator. It is a mass media which provides one way communication the concerned audience are informed & asked to attend the broadcast at the particular time & place. Audio Aid: Radio
  • 64. Advantages It is very much helpful for illiterate people, the message should be simple to understand. It leaves the barrier of distance & space. Radio transmitters can be carried with & attend the radio health program anywhere the individual goes. One can give up to date information to last number of people in a very short period of time. Audio Aids: Radio (contd.)
  • 65. Disadvantages It is one way communication system The communicator cannot be sure if people are listening to and understanding the messages. There may be electricity and batteries problem and broadcasting facilities are available only in the limited areas. It is difficult to evaluate the impact of radio teaching. Sometime there may be language barrier to certain group of people. Message received only through verbal teaching, is easy to forget. Difficult in timing to fit the convenience of the specific target people. Audio Aids: Radio (contd.)
  • 66. Good health is a pre condition for good education. Health education is the very foundation of every successful public health programme. Health education bridges the gulf b/w the knowledge & health practices. A great deal of ill-health in this country & elsewhere is due to ignorance of simple rules of hygiene. IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH EDUCATION
  • 67. It is vital for proper growth & development of mind and body. Body becomes free from various forms of disorders and thus, one get a longer life. Life without suffering from any aches, pain, or discomfort. Able to perform to the best of our ability. Reflected on our face, so we look attractive & start feeling good about ourselves. Can lead a physically active life even after growing old. The body can heal the regular wear & tear associated with aging faster. Importance of Health for Individual
  • 68. Improvement in the overall quality of our life. Mine develops a natural tendency to focus upon the positives & is not bothered much about the negative. Can sleep well & do not have to start the next day with a body ache or joint pain or stomach upset. Good health has a positive effect on the productivity as an employee/student/worker. Importance of Health for Individual (contd.)
  • 69. Importance of Health for Family Healthy family benefits each family member in important ways & help provide a unique sense of belonging & value. When each family member feels supported & valued, it builds a healthy bond that encourages the formation of strong moral character. Translate to healthy eating & exercise habits. Healthy families encourage each member to become independent & self-suficient.
  • 70. Decrease Crime More peace. Increase in production Rapid development of nation Decrease in substance abuse Importance of Health for Community & Nation
  • 71. Hygiene Hygiene is healthy habits that include bathing, keeping the mouth clean, keeping the skin protected from the sun & washing hands frequently before handling edibles to ensure the safe delivery of food. Hygiene is a set of practices performed for the preservation of health.
  • 72. Hygiene (contd.) Hygiene, science of preserving and promoting the health of both the individuals and the community. According to WHO Hygiene refers to conditions & practices that helps to maintain health & prevent the spread of diseases. Medical hygiene therefore includes a specific set of practices associated with this preservation of health Ex. environmental cleaning, sterilization of equipment hand hygiene, water & sanitation & safe disposal medical waste.
  • 73. Aspects of Hygiene Proper living habits, cleanliness of body & clothing, healthful diet, balanced regimen of rest & exercise Sanitary preparation of food, cleanliness & ventilation of the homes Supervision of water & food supply, containment of communicable disease, disposal of garbage, control of air & water pollution PERSONAL HYGIENE DOMESTIC HYGIENE PUBLIC HYGIENE
  • 74. I NDUSTRIAL HYGIEN E M ENTAL HYGIENE Aspects of Hygiene (contd.) Measures that minimize occupational disease & incidents Recognition of mental & emotional factors in healthful living M EDICAL HYGIENE Hygiene practices related to the administration of medicine, & medical care, that prevents or minimizes disease & the spreading of disease
  • 76. It is the act of keeping the human body as well as the environment clean
  • 77. GOOD & BAD HYGIENE Allows these things to affect the body & probably makes individual sick Keeps body protected from germs and dangerous UV rays from the Sun, in the environment that can hurt individual
  • 78. The main purpose of personal hygiene is to prevent illness & improve appearance. Hygiene also plays an important role in social acceptance & can either improve or hinder a person's reputation in social situations. Bad breath, body odor and an unkept appearance, are often considered undesirable and can give a bad first impression to peer, acquaintances and potential mates. Need & Importance of Hygiene
  • 79. One of the most effective behavior to prevent diarrhoea, roundworm and whipworm. Really done at the most crucial times and really done most effectively (with soap). Hands get most dangerously contaminated from human feces and soil probably containing worm eggs. Crucial time for hand washing to reduce transmission are : After defecation & after contact with children's faeces Before handing food & after handling high risk food such as raw meat. Before eating & before feeding children Before handling water WASHING HANDS
  • 80. Roundworms are parasites that live in the body. These parasitic infections can cause diarrhea & fever. Types of roundworms in humans include pinworms and ascariasis. Often, roundworm infections come from traveling to countries with poor sanitation & hygiene.
  • 81. PARASITE A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host organism and gets its food from or at the expense of its host.
  • 82.
  • 83.
  • 84. Effective hand washing requires through rubbing of the hands while using soap & sufficient water to rinse it off. If soap is not available, ash or Earth is nearly as effective. Water alone is effective, specially if water is clean
  • 85.
  • 86. Cleanses skin Skin conditioner Relaxes Promotes the circulation Exercise Stimulates respiration Comfort Sensory input Improve self-image Establish rapport BATHING- Purpose
  • 87. BATHING- CARE OF SKIN Soap & water are essential for keeping the skin clean. A good bath once or twice a day is recommended, especially in tropical countries like India.
  • 88. Those who are involved in active sports or workout, sweat a lot. Therefore it is recommended to take bath after the workout. A soap will do the job adequately. One can also use a bath sponge for scrubbing. Back brushes & heel scrubbers are also available in the market.
  • 89. The genitals & anus needs to be cleaned well because of the natural secretion of areas. In unhygienic conditions, can cause irritation and infection. Wash off well after soaping. Drying with a clean towel is important. Avoid sharing soaps & towel with anybody. Change into clean underwear after bath. Around middle age the skin tends to go dry a bit. A moisturizing oil or cream can be used. It is better to use this at night because if you go out in the sun or commute on dusty road when the skin is wet, dust might stick to your face & oil may also give you tan.
  • 90. Brushing & flossing properly along with regular dental checkups can help prevent tooth decay & gum disease. To prevent cavities, you need to remove plague, transparent layer of bacteria that coats the teeth. Brushing also stimulates the gums which helps to keep them healthy & prevent gum disease. Teeth: Brushing
  • 91. Teeth Make sure to brush teeth two times per day, if not after every meal. This will help minimize the amount of bacteria in the mouth which leads to tooth decay & will help in maintaining a healthy, happy smile.
  • 92. Brush up & down on upper & lower teeth. Use circular motion, pay attention on tongue & the inner surface of the teeth as well. Brush should have resilient bristles, it should be rinsed well in left to dry after use. Flossing teeth in additional to regular brushing, it is critical to floss teeth at least once a day, usually before going to bed. This will enable to reduce plaque in the more difficult to reach places between teeth & at the back of molars.
  • 93.
  • 94. HAIR Wash your hair at least once a week using soap or mild shampoo. Dry your hair after a wash. Brush your hair 3 to 4 times a day with a soft bristled brush or a wide toothed comb. Wash your brush & comb every time you wash your hair. Oil the scalp once a week preferably an hour before hair wash.
  • 95. HANDS WASHING Wash hands thoroughly with soap & water, before & after every meal and after visiting the toilet. Use warm running water Soaping & rinsing should cover the areas between fingers, nails & back of the hand Scrub hands together & under nails for at least 15-20 seconds. Dry hands on a clean cloth or paper towel. The towel at the wash stand has to be washed & changed everyday. While cooking, especially when packing lunches, you can prevent food from spoilage and minimize contamination by keeping the hands clean. While handling food avoid scratching or touching the ears, nose, mouth or other body area.
  • 96. If you need to use a handkercheif ot tissue, wash your hands after that Keep your nails short. Nail Polish users should see that it does not chip off into food. Six stage of handwashing technique: 1. Palm to palm 2. Back of hands 3. Interdigital spaces 4. Fingertips 5. Thumb and wrist 6. Nails HANDS WASHING (CONTD.)
  • 97. CLEANING FINGERNAILS Closely related to handwashing Handwashing does not ensure fingernails get cleaned. Clean fingernails are particularly important when food is consumed or fed to infants using fingers. Clean fingernails have an aesthetic value. Handwashing & cleaning fingernails also play a role in the prevention of eyes & skin infection such as scabies.
  • 98. CLEANING FINGERNAILS (CONTD.) When wiping infected eyes or scratching itching infected skin, bacteria can settle on fingers & hence be transmitted. Keeping fingernails clean requires them to be kept short & brushed regularly. Clip nails short along their shape. Don't cut them so close that it pinches the skin Do not keep your nails painted continuously. Pamper your hands and nails once every 3 weeks with a manicure This requires soaking your hands in warm water for 10 minutes, massaging of hands, thorough cleaning and shaping of nails.
  • 99. CLEANING FINGERNAILS (CONTD.) Nails should always be kept clean and neatly trimmed or filed Nails that are excessively long can by virtue of their length hold more dirt than shorter nails Those with longer nails then need to be more diligent about keeping their nails clean. Dirt and bacteria can get trapped in the nails that are not clean. As with the hands, nails are a way for bacteria to be passed from person to person. Preventing the spread of bacteria prevents the spread of illness and infection. Hangnails (loose skin near the base of the nail) should be carefully trimmed with the cuticle clipper and the area kept clean to prevent infections.
  • 100. Other Personal Hygiene Feet/shoes Body Odor Clothes Menstrual Hygiene
  • 101. Hygiene Food is a potential source of infection & is likeable to contamination by microorganism at any point during its journey from the producer to the consumer. Food hygiene, in its widest sense, implies hygiene in the production, handling, distribution and serving of all types of food. The primary aim of food hygiene is to prevent food poisoning & other food-borne illnesses. FOOD
  • 102. Safer Food Five keys to Keep clean Separate raw & cooked food Cook thoroughly Keep food at safe temperature Use safe water & raw materials Knowledge = Prevention
  • 103. Milk is an efficient vehicle for a great variety of disease agents. The sources of infection or contamination of milk maybe: (I) The dairy animal (II) Human handler (III) The environment Example- contaminated vessels, polluted water, flies dust etc . Milk HYGIENE
  • 104. The first essential in the production of clean & safe milk, is therefore, a healthy and clean animal. Secondly the premises where the animal is housed & milked should be sanitary. The milk vessels must be sterile & kept covered. The water supply must be bacteriologicaly safe. Milk HYGIENE
  • 105. Handler must be free from communicable disease & before milking they must wash their hands & arms. Where possible milking machines must be used. Milk should be cooled immediately to blow 10 degree Celsius after it is drawn to retard bacterial growth. In the production of good quality milk, cleanliness of all containers & equipment in which milk is handled is very important. MILK HANDLER
  • 106. It may be defined as the heating of milk to such temperature & for such periods of time as a required to destroy any pathogens that may be present while causing minimal changes in the composition, flavor & nutritive value (WHO). PASTEURIZATION OF MILK
  • 107. MEAT HYGIENE The term 'meat' includes various tissues of animal origin.
  • 108. Animals intended for slaughter are subjected to proper antemortem & postmortem inspection by qualified veterinary staff. The principal causes of antemortem rejection of animals are emaciation, exhaustion, pregnancy, sheep-pox, foot-rot, febrile conditions, diarrhoea, brucellosis, and other diseases of an infectious nature rendering meat unfit for human consumption. The characteristics of good meat are that it should be neither pale pink nor a deep purple tint, firm & elastic to touch, should not be slimy. MEAT INSPECTION
  • 109. Slaughter Houses Location preferably away from residential area Structure floors & walls up to 3 feet should be impervious & easy to clean Disposal of Wastes blood should not be discharged into public sewers but should be collected separately Water Supply should be independent, adequate & continuous
  • 110. Examination of Animals antemortem & prosternum examination to be arranged . Animals found unfit should be destroyed Miscellaneous animals other than those to be slaughtered should not be allowed inside the shed Storage of Meat should be stored in fly-proof & rat-proof rooms, for overnight storage the temperature of the room shall be maintained below 5 degree Celsius Transportation of Meat shall be transported in fly-proof covered vans
  • 111. Fish Fish deteriorates or loses its freshness because of autolysis which sets in after death & because of the bacteria with which they become infected. Stale fish should be condemned. The sign of fresh fish: It is in a state of stiffness or rigor mortis The gills are a bright red The eyes are clear & prominent
  • 112. Although the majority of freshly laid eggs are sterile inside, the shell become contaminated by faecal matter from the hen. Microorganism including pathogenic salmonella can be penetrate a cracked shell & enter the egg. EGG
  • 113. FRUITS & Fruits & vegetables constitute another important source for the spread of pathogenic organism, protozoa & worm. These infections are a serious menace to public health were sewage is used for growing vegetables. The vegetables which are consumed raw in the form of salads pose a problem in food sanitation. People should be educated to wash vegetables before eating them raw. Vegetables which are cooked & eaten are free from this danger. VEGETABLES
  • 114. Food Contamination Sources of Raw materials/ ingredients Food handlers Water Soil Air/dust Garbage & sewage Packaging material Animals & birds Rodents Insects
  • 115. Adulteration of Foods Adulteration of food consists of a large number of practices - mixing substitution, abstraction, concealing the quality, putting up decomposed foods for sale, misbranding or giving labels & addition of other chemicals . Some forms of adulteration are injurious to health Eg. Adulteration of mustard oil with argemone oil. But for the most part food adulteration has an economic rather than a sanitary significance. Eg. addition of water to milk
  • 116. ENVIRONMENT HYGIENE Excreta disposal Waste water disposal Water use Food handling Water Source Water treatment PRESENCE & PROPER USE OF FACILITIES PREVENTS POLLUTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT & LIMIT HEALTH HAZARDS FOR THE COMMUNITY AT LARGE.
  • 117. RABIHFITNESS M S . R A B I Y A H U S A I N T H A N K Y O U