SlideShare a Scribd company logo
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Have The Wheels Come Off the Autonomous Vehicle Bandwagon?
Thomas J. Bamonte
Assistant Executive Director, Strategy & Innovation
North Texas Tollway Authority
Twitter: @TomBamonte
November 12, 2015
ITS TEXAS 2015
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
OVERVIEW
 Long road to autonomous vehicles
 Obstacles facing autonomous vehicles
 Destination
2
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
1920’s
The radio-operated automobile, Linrrican Wonder, 1925
3
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
1939 World Fair Futurama Exhibition
4
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
General Motors' Firebird II was described as having an "electronic brain" that allowed it to move into a lane
with a metal conductor and follow it along.
5
1950’s
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
1950’s
“Want to sit back and relax? Well then, set in the speed you want to fly and
switch over to automatic guidance. Release the stick, and Firebird III is on its
own.” – Firebird III advertisement, late 1950s.
6
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
1950’s
7
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
8
1960’s
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
1970’s
9
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
1980’s
10
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
11
1990’s National Automated Highway System
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
12
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
13
2000’s
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
14
2010
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
15
2015
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
2030
16
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
GOOGLEGOOGLE HUBRIS?
17
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
 Complex operating environment
Obstacles Facing Autonomous Vehicles
18
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
 Technical
 Limits on sensor capabilities
 Weather
 Obstructed intersections
 High processing power requirements
 High safety expectations
Obstacles Facing Autonomous Vehicles
19
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Obstacles Facing Autonomous Vehicles
 Legal
 Are driverless vehicles legal?
 Who is liable for accidents?
 Who owns the data?
 Privacy
 Cybersecurity
20
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Obstacles Facing Autonomous Vehicles
 Ethics: Kids or collisions?
 Demand to program “ethics”
 No consensus on the ethical code
21
Will Driverless Cars Be Ethical Killers?
Designed to kill? The uncomfortable ethics of driverless cars
Who Will Driverless Cars Decide To Kill?
A question that will plague the autonomous car industry
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Obstacles Facing Autonomous Vehicles
 Fear of the machine
 Loss of control
 Safety fears
 Personal autonomy
 Privacy invasion
22
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Obstacles Facing Autonomous Vehicles
 Consumer acceptance
 Driving = fun
 Driving = control
 Value proposition
 AVs = Segway on four wheels?
23
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Obstacles Facing Autonomous Vehicles
 Political/Economic Resistance
 Professional drivers
 Body shops
 Parking lot operators
 Insurance companies
 Drive through businesses
24
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Vehicle Autonomy Will Come Gradually
 Low-speed environments
 Controlled environments
 Transit
 Trucking
 Fleets
25
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Vehicle Autonomy Will Come Gradually
 Well marked and mapped streets/highways key
 Machine-visible
 Lanes known and evident
 Conditions communicated and up-to-date
 Surprises minimized
26
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
No Car Stands Alone
 Key to vehicle autonomy is vehicle connection
 Infrastructure information makes smart cars smarter
 Vehicles teach/learn from each other in real time
 Costs and liability shared, accelerating deployment
27
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Destination
28
 Autonomous vehicle technology key to improving surface
transportation
 Highway ITS role will change
 Past: Highway data to TMC to driver eyeballs
 Future: Vehicles harvest highway data and send to other vehicles via
cloud and/or V2V technology
 TMC role shifts
 No truly autonomous vehicles; rather automated vehicle
operation supported by multiple data streams
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
When?
29
 Past suggests rapid adoption
 1898: 800 registered cars
 1908: Model T introduced
 1927: 19 million cars on the road
 Over half of American families had a car
 Present suggests rapid adoption
 Smartphones went from 5% to 40% of market in 4 years
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Future?
30
 Our timeline (per Bloomberg)
 2010: Google tests driverless car on public roads
 2012: Nevada licenses first driverless car
 2015: Tesla releases Autopilot
 2017: “SuperCruise” and other semi-autonomous features
 2020: Extensive AV use in controlled/low-speed environments
 2025: Fully autonomous vehicles available
 2030: Driverless fleets (e.g., Uber)
 2045: Majority of vehicles autonomous
 2050: Major road capacity benefits realized (2x-5x)
 2060: Autonomous vehicles mandatory
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Our Mission
North Texas Tollway Authority
Provide a safe and reliable toll road system Increase value
and mobility options for customers Operate the Authority in a
businesslike manner Protect our bondholders Partner to
meet our region’s growing need for transportation infrastructure




● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Connection Autonomy
 Processing power demands distributed
 Mapping duties shared
 Machine vision extended beyond vehicle
 Vehicles teach/learn from each other
 More parties with financial/liabilty stake in system
 Safety enhanced
32
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
1939 World Fair Futurama Exhibition
33
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
1939 World Fair Futurama Exhibition
“The world we are now seeing is a vision, an artistic
conception, which may undergo many changes as it develops
into the great realities of tomorrow.”
- New York World’s Fair, “Futurama: Highways & Horizons,”
1939. Credit: General Motors
34
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
1950’s
35
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
No Hands Across America
36
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
2000’s
37
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
2000’s
38
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● 39
 Transit
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● 40
 Low-speed environments (GET BETTER PICTURE)
● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●
Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles
2000’s
Robot Buses Are Coming To America, To Pave The Way For Driverless Cars
First, a quiet business park. Next, the world.
41

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Have the Wheels Come Off the Autonomous Vehicle Bandwagon

  • 1. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Have The Wheels Come Off the Autonomous Vehicle Bandwagon? Thomas J. Bamonte Assistant Executive Director, Strategy & Innovation North Texas Tollway Authority Twitter: @TomBamonte November 12, 2015 ITS TEXAS 2015
  • 2. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● OVERVIEW  Long road to autonomous vehicles  Obstacles facing autonomous vehicles  Destination 2
  • 3. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 1920’s The radio-operated automobile, Linrrican Wonder, 1925 3
  • 4. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 1939 World Fair Futurama Exhibition 4
  • 5. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles General Motors' Firebird II was described as having an "electronic brain" that allowed it to move into a lane with a metal conductor and follow it along. 5 1950’s
  • 6. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 1950’s “Want to sit back and relax? Well then, set in the speed you want to fly and switch over to automatic guidance. Release the stick, and Firebird III is on its own.” – Firebird III advertisement, late 1950s. 6
  • 7. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 1950’s 7
  • 8. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 8 1960’s
  • 9. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 1970’s 9
  • 10. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 1980’s 10
  • 11. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 11 1990’s National Automated Highway System
  • 12. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 12
  • 13. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 13 2000’s
  • 14. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 14 2010
  • 15. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 15 2015
  • 16. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 2030 16
  • 17. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● GOOGLEGOOGLE HUBRIS? 17
  • 18. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●  Complex operating environment Obstacles Facing Autonomous Vehicles 18
  • 19. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ●  Technical  Limits on sensor capabilities  Weather  Obstructed intersections  High processing power requirements  High safety expectations Obstacles Facing Autonomous Vehicles 19
  • 20. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Obstacles Facing Autonomous Vehicles  Legal  Are driverless vehicles legal?  Who is liable for accidents?  Who owns the data?  Privacy  Cybersecurity 20
  • 21. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Obstacles Facing Autonomous Vehicles  Ethics: Kids or collisions?  Demand to program “ethics”  No consensus on the ethical code 21 Will Driverless Cars Be Ethical Killers? Designed to kill? The uncomfortable ethics of driverless cars Who Will Driverless Cars Decide To Kill? A question that will plague the autonomous car industry
  • 22. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Obstacles Facing Autonomous Vehicles  Fear of the machine  Loss of control  Safety fears  Personal autonomy  Privacy invasion 22
  • 23. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Obstacles Facing Autonomous Vehicles  Consumer acceptance  Driving = fun  Driving = control  Value proposition  AVs = Segway on four wheels? 23
  • 24. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Obstacles Facing Autonomous Vehicles  Political/Economic Resistance  Professional drivers  Body shops  Parking lot operators  Insurance companies  Drive through businesses 24
  • 25. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Vehicle Autonomy Will Come Gradually  Low-speed environments  Controlled environments  Transit  Trucking  Fleets 25
  • 26. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Vehicle Autonomy Will Come Gradually  Well marked and mapped streets/highways key  Machine-visible  Lanes known and evident  Conditions communicated and up-to-date  Surprises minimized 26
  • 27. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● No Car Stands Alone  Key to vehicle autonomy is vehicle connection  Infrastructure information makes smart cars smarter  Vehicles teach/learn from each other in real time  Costs and liability shared, accelerating deployment 27
  • 28. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Destination 28  Autonomous vehicle technology key to improving surface transportation  Highway ITS role will change  Past: Highway data to TMC to driver eyeballs  Future: Vehicles harvest highway data and send to other vehicles via cloud and/or V2V technology  TMC role shifts  No truly autonomous vehicles; rather automated vehicle operation supported by multiple data streams
  • 29. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● When? 29  Past suggests rapid adoption  1898: 800 registered cars  1908: Model T introduced  1927: 19 million cars on the road  Over half of American families had a car  Present suggests rapid adoption  Smartphones went from 5% to 40% of market in 4 years
  • 30. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Future? 30  Our timeline (per Bloomberg)  2010: Google tests driverless car on public roads  2012: Nevada licenses first driverless car  2015: Tesla releases Autopilot  2017: “SuperCruise” and other semi-autonomous features  2020: Extensive AV use in controlled/low-speed environments  2025: Fully autonomous vehicles available  2030: Driverless fleets (e.g., Uber)  2045: Majority of vehicles autonomous  2050: Major road capacity benefits realized (2x-5x)  2060: Autonomous vehicles mandatory
  • 31. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Our Mission North Texas Tollway Authority Provide a safe and reliable toll road system Increase value and mobility options for customers Operate the Authority in a businesslike manner Protect our bondholders Partner to meet our region’s growing need for transportation infrastructure    
  • 32. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Connection Autonomy  Processing power demands distributed  Mapping duties shared  Machine vision extended beyond vehicle  Vehicles teach/learn from each other  More parties with financial/liabilty stake in system  Safety enhanced 32
  • 33. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 1939 World Fair Futurama Exhibition 33
  • 34. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 1939 World Fair Futurama Exhibition “The world we are now seeing is a vision, an artistic conception, which may undergo many changes as it develops into the great realities of tomorrow.” - New York World’s Fair, “Futurama: Highways & Horizons,” 1939. Credit: General Motors 34
  • 35. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 1950’s 35
  • 36. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles No Hands Across America 36
  • 37. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 2000’s 37
  • 38. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 2000’s 38
  • 39. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● 39  Transit
  • 40. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● 40  Low-speed environments (GET BETTER PICTURE)
  • 41. ● M o b i l i t y . S a f e t y . C u s t o m e r s . E c o n o m y . R e s p o n s i b l e S t e w a r d ● Long Road to Autonomous Vehicles 2000’s Robot Buses Are Coming To America, To Pave The Way For Driverless Cars First, a quiet business park. Next, the world. 41

Editor's Notes

  1. In the GM pavilion at the 1939 World’s Fair in New York, the Futurama exhibit claimed that one day cars would cruise down the highway magnetically guided by a copper strip buried in the asphalt. It actually worked at the time, but wasn’t practical to implement.
  2. The radio-operated automobile, linrrican Wonder, 1925
  3. 1960’s
  4. The ParkShuttle at the Netherlands in August 2005
  5. The Google self-driving car maneuvers through the streets of in Washington, DC May 14, 2012. The system on a modified Toyota Prius combines information gathered from Google Street View with artificial intelligence software that combines input from video cameras inside the car, a LIDAR sensor on top of the vehicle, radar sensors on the front of the vehicle and a position sensor attached to one of the rear wheels that helps locate the car's position on the map. As of 2010, Google has tested several vehicles equipped with the system, driving 1,609 kilometres (1,000 mi) without any human intervention, in addition to 225,308 kilometres (140,000 mi) with occasional human intervention. Google expects that the increased accuracy of its automated driving system could help reduce the number of traffic-related injuries and deaths, while using energy and space on roadways more efficiently. AFP PHOTO/Karen BLEIER (Photo credit should read KAREN BLEIER/AFP/GettyImages) From top: courtesy of Back to the Future/Facebook, Corbis, Getty Images, manufacturer, and Everett Collection
  6. The Google self-driving car maneuvers through the streets of in Washington, DC May 14, 2012. The system on a modified Toyota Prius combines information gathered from Google Street View with artificial intelligence software that combines input from video cameras inside the car, a LIDAR sensor on top of the vehicle, radar sensors on the front of the vehicle and a position sensor attached to one of the rear wheels that helps locate the car's position on the map. As of 2010, Google has tested several vehicles equipped with the system, driving 1,609 kilometres (1,000 mi) without any human intervention, in addition to 225,308 kilometres (140,000 mi) with occasional human intervention. Google expects that the increased accuracy of its automated driving system could help reduce the number of traffic-related injuries and deaths, while using energy and space on roadways more efficiently. AFP PHOTO/Karen BLEIER (Photo credit should read KAREN BLEIER/AFP/GettyImages) From top: courtesy of Back to the Future/Facebook, Corbis, Getty Images, manufacturer, and Everett Collection
  7. With the Infiniti Q80 Inspiration, there are no side-door mirrors to break up the aesthetics of the unmistakable profile. The full roof length of the teardrop passenger greenhouse is accentuated by lightweight acoustic glass. And its doors open portal style, which allows the stunning cabin to be fully on display while driver and passengers step in and out with ease. From top: courtesy of Back to the Future/Facebook, Corbis, Getty Images, manufacturer, and Everett Collection
  8. Insert these headlines in scrolling fashion. Triggered by a click: Will Driverless Cars Be Ethical Killers? Designed to kill? The uncomfortable ethics of driverless cars Who Will Driverless Cars Decide To Kill? A question that will plague the autonomous car industry
  9. 18 Dec 1955, Detroit, Michigan, USA --- Original caption: General Motors' new experimental gas turbine passenger car, the Firebird II, was shown publicly for the first time at the GM Motorama of 1956 in New York, January 19-24, 1956. A newly developed regenerator, or heat exchanger, which recaptures heat and uses it to raise the temperature of intake air, is the key factor in the car's improved economy of operation. This is a research car and will not be put into production. --- Image by © Bettmann/CORBIS From top: courtesy of Back to the Future/Facebook, Corbis, Getty Images, manufacturer, and Everett Collection
  10. In 1995, Carnegie Mellon University roboticists drove NavLab 5, a 1990 Pontiac Trans Sport, from Pittsburgh to Los Angeles on a trip billed, "No Hands Across America."
  11. The ParkShuttle at the Netherlands in August 2005
  12. The ParkShuttle at the Netherlands in August 2005
  13. Rio Tinto has driverless mining vehicles.