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Hydrogen as a FuelHealth, Safety and MaintenanceLow Carbon:  Innovation, Opportunities and Training Presented by: Dirk Kok
AgendaHydrogen ICE – HyPowerThe Tank and Valve Fuel Cell Setup - DiablineVehicle considerations - Gulliver
AgendaProjectsComponentsHealth and SafetyMaintenance
HyPower ProjectTo convert a Nissan Almera to run on Hydrogen gasTo gain knowledge:Available ‘off the shelf’ technologiesHydrogen characteristicsHealth and safetyCostTrain SME’s in the use of Hydrogen
Research
HyPowera CNG conversion kit: SwitchSolenoid ValveECUPressure monitor
Hydrogen tank
Hydrogen tankLegend1/4 o.d. stainless steel3/8 o.d. stainless steel6mm CopperNormallyClosedValve5 bar PSD2.5 bar PSDPressure GaugeTo frontPRD ValveNRVFill tankIn tank Solenoid ValveManualValveManualValveManualValveOutside Car
The Valve
PRD
Thermally controlled vent in case of excess heat
Excess Flow Valve
Stops leakage due to pipe bursts
Inlet / Outlet filters
Filters your hydrogen
Check valve during filling
Temperature Sensor
Pressure SensorThe Valve
Fill up the tank
Final ResultImages copyrighted and courtesy of: Philippa Shield tiger_purrrr@hotmail.com
ECO2TransConstruction of a Fuel Cell plant What is a Fuel Cell?Components and design?Health and Safety?MaintenanceCost?
LightsPower ConditioningControls, Monitors & Data AcquisitionDiabline Fuel Cell SetupHeader TankAir PumpFilterFuelCellAirNRVHydrogenCooling WaterPressure ReducerWater PumpTankRadiator with Fan
LoadPower ConditioningStainless steel = costlyPRD Outquarter turn valvequick connect Stemquarter turn valveFuelCellPressure reducerTeeHydrogenAll 1’4 tubing¾’’ BSPPMaleHydrogen
Operating and ControlControl UnitWater pumpAir pumpCooling with FANTemperatureCell MonitoringCurrent sensorTemp battery storage
Operating and ControlValve voltage: 24 VControl Voltage: 12 VDiabline voltage: 48 VBatteries: Genesis 70 EP 4XConverter out: 55 Volt
Reading Cell voltagesStart-upOperationalLowFailing CellsOver pressureMembrane leak (H2 in oxygen stream)
Output resultsVoltage drop of fuel cell when put under load55 volt  is not 70.DC-DC converter is important
ECO2Trans - GulliverShen-Li TechnologyFuel Cell SystemDynetekTanks + ValvesSwagelokTubing + ConnectorsWEH.comfilling
ECO2Trans - Gulliver

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Hydrogen Fuel Cells - Health Safety And Maintenance

Editor's Notes

  1. I will be explaining about health, safety and maintenance according to design considerations I applied during the construction of the various projects we have done here at AMAP. A special mention is for the tank and valve because they make life inherently easier and safer.
  2. The valve shown is a Dynetek BV351. One of the most important safety systems in a hydrogen system is the tank valve! This valve protects your entire system through:PRDThermally controlled vent in case of excess heatExcess Flow ValveStops leakage due to pipe burstsInlet / Outlet filtersFilters your hydrogenCheck valve during fillingTemperature SensorPressure Sensor
  3. The valve shown is a Dynetek BV351. One of the most important safety systems in a hydrogen system is the tank valve! This valve protects your entire system through:PRDThermally controlled vent in case of excess heatExcess Flow ValveStops leakage due to pipe burstsInlet / Outlet filtersFilters your hydrogenCheck valve during fillingTemperature SensorPressure Sensor
  4. So, how do we build a fuel cell plant? 1.We needed fuel, didn’t we? So, we need a tank filled with hydrogen and because we are dealing with pressures we need some control valves on that line, such as a Non Return Valve and a pressure reducer.2.What else did we need? We needed air or oxygen. The air can contain dust particles so we need an air filter to clean the air up a bit and we need an air pump the pump the air through the fuel cell. 3.This reaction can become very hot, like the engine of a car. So we also need a cooling system. 4.And off course, we need some electronics to control the power output.
  5. Pressure reducer = single stage with max inlet of 34 bar to reduce cost.Dynetek tank 37 liter, 350 bar, Valve: BV 350Stainless steel items makes the cost of the system go up quickly.Some points of attention for the design of the system I have pointed out here with red arrows.The pressure reducer: Needs to be 2 stage (or two regulators), input pressure above 350 bar and output down to point 5 of a bar. The reason for 2 stage is that pressure on the output goes up when the input pressure drops – Bernoulli principle. This effect can only be countered with a two stage regulator. No easy way about it; it is going to cost and mass production of the reducers could bring a welcome reduction in cost.The biggest problem I had with this system is to go from 1/4 inch tube to a 3/4 inch BSPP connection without increasing the length of the connector. In the end we settled on adjusting the closest match we could find.
  6. The Fuel Cell stack used for the Diabline does not like sudden change in pressures. During start up of the fuel cell, when the pressures are not equally divided yet, sudden changes in pressure can cause big problems. Other issues to consider: Standing water goes off after a while and sediment settles and build up can become a problem for the silicon lock inside the fuel cell. The opposite is also true: to dry and the silicon will not close properly allowing water to travel into the hydrogen or oxygen areas This has the added effect that either gas has another way to travel (along the water flow) and reaction between water and the gas will take place. This shows as an instant flat on your cell monitoring system.
  7. To charge the batteries from the fuel cell the output level of the fuel cell needs to be around the charging voltage of the 4 batteries (4 x 13.5V = 55V) otherwise there will not be a difference in voltage and thus no current.
  8. What do cell voltages mean?
  9. Cell voltages at the background are alright( around 0.8v per cell).Current = 7.10 amp At 48 volt after the DC-DC converter (before it is 55 volt).
  10. The tubing we routed through the back of the bus, in between panels. The tube used for this route is all in one part so –in theory no maintenance required- although a check if padding is needed to avoid friction damage might be necessary.
  11. The tubing we routed through the back of the bus, in between panels. The tube used for this route is all in one part so –in theory no maintenance required- although a check if padding is needed to avoid friction damage might be necessary.
  12. The solenoid valves of the tank require 24 volt (0.7 amp) or can be ordered with 12 volt (1.34 amp) but this cost extra. When the ignition key is turned then the solenoid valve at the tanks are activated as is the hydrogen sensor which by-passes the ignition switch to maintain contact. When hydrogen is detected, the emergency switch is pressed or an inertia-switch (to be added) is activated when a collision occurs then contact is opened and con not be restored without resetting the component that caused the disruption and activating the ignition key again.The hydrogen sensor resets after 30 seconds and can provide power to the solenoid valve again. Ignition key turn is required for the actual start.The Hydrogen Sensor acts as a relay switch and is in series with the emergency stop button to provide power after the ignition key has returned to its original position.The hydrogen sensor is located inside the bus.
  13. For the testing of your seals; to make sure they are properly tightened we use a simple soap solution, called snoop. To snoop out any leaks, which will show up as a lot of little bubbles.
  14. A good silent air pump is an issue. Especially, because of the amount of air to displace to feed the system. Don’t forget; There is oxygen in air, but if you need 20 liters of oxygen per minute for then you need 100 liters of air. Air contains approximately 20 % Oxygen.Also, good air pump control is very important because this defines the difference between a fast and a slow system. Air supply is an ideal way of controlling the output current but it takes time build up.
  15. A good silent air pump is an issue. Especially, because of the amount of air to displace to feed the system. Don’t forget; There is oxygen in air, but if you need 20 liters of oxygen per minute for then you need 100 liters of air. Air contains approximately 20 % Oxygen.Also, good air pump control is very important because this defines the difference between a fast and a slow system. Air supply is an ideal way of controlling the output current but it takes time build up.
  16. Fuel Cells are generally very much subject to pollution of the membrane either through, the oxygen side, the hydrogen side or even a from the cooling through a leaking seal, inline filters can help this situation but need to be placed in such a way that they are easily reached and can be changed without taking the tubing apart.
  17. Well, that is it for now. A little break for lunch and after we come back here to for the second part; Healt safety and maintenance.