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Hydrogen as a FuelHealth, Safety and Maintenance Low Carbon:  Innovation, Opportunities and Training  Presented by: Dirk Kok
Agenda Hydrogen ICE – HyPower The Tank and Valve  Fuel Cell Setup - Diabline Vehicle considerations - Gulliver
Agenda Projects Components Health and Safety Maintenance
HyPower Project To convert a Nissan Almera to run on Hydrogen gas To gain knowledge: Available ‘off the shelf’ technologies Hydrogen characteristics Health and safety Cost Train SME’s in the use of Hydrogen
Research
HyPower a CNG conversion kit:  Switch Solenoid Valve ECU Pressure monitor
Hydrogen tank
Hydrogen tank Legend 1/4 o.d. stainless steel 3/8 o.d. stainless steel 6mm Copper Normally Closed Valve 5 bar  PSD 2.5 bar  PSD Pressure  Gauge To front PRD Valve NRV Fill tank In tank Solenoid Valve Manual Valve Manual Valve Manual Valve Outside Car
The Valve
[object Object]
Thermally controlled vent in case of excess heat
Excess Flow Valve
Stops leakage due to pipe bursts
Inlet / Outlet filters
Filters your hydrogen
Check valve during filling
Temperature Sensor
Pressure SensorThe Valve
Fill up the tank
Final Result Images copyrighted and courtesy of:  Philippa Shield tiger_purrrr@hotmail.com
ECO2Trans Construction of a Fuel Cell plant  What is a Fuel Cell? Components and design? Health and Safety? Maintenance Cost?
Lights Power  Conditioning Controls, Monitors  & Data Acquisition Diabline Fuel Cell Setup Header Tank Air Pump Filter Fuel Cell Air NRV Hydrogen Cooling Water Pressure Reducer Water Pump Tank Radiator with Fan
Load Power  Conditioning Stainless steel = costly PRD Out quarter turn valve quick  connect  Stem quarter turn valve Fuel Cell Pressure reducer Tee Hydrogen All 1’4 tubing ¾’’ BSPP Male Hydrogen
Operating and Control Control Unit Water pump Air pump Cooling with FAN Temperature Cell Monitoring Current sensor Temp battery storage
Operating and Control Valve voltage: 24 V Control Voltage: 12 V Diabline voltage: 48 V Batteries: Genesis 70 EP 4X Converter out: 55 Volt
Reading Cell voltages Start-up Operational Low Failing Cells Over pressure Membrane leak (H2 in oxygen stream)
Output results Voltage drop of fuel cell when put under load 55 volt  is not 70. DC-DC converter is important
ECO2Trans - Gulliver Shen-Li Technology Fuel Cell System Dynetek Tanks + Valves Swagelok Tubing + Connectors WEH.com filling
ECO2Trans - Gulliver

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Hydrogen Fuel Cells - Health Safety And Maintenance

  • 1. Hydrogen as a FuelHealth, Safety and Maintenance Low Carbon: Innovation, Opportunities and Training Presented by: Dirk Kok
  • 2. Agenda Hydrogen ICE – HyPower The Tank and Valve Fuel Cell Setup - Diabline Vehicle considerations - Gulliver
  • 3. Agenda Projects Components Health and Safety Maintenance
  • 4. HyPower Project To convert a Nissan Almera to run on Hydrogen gas To gain knowledge: Available ‘off the shelf’ technologies Hydrogen characteristics Health and safety Cost Train SME’s in the use of Hydrogen
  • 6. HyPower a CNG conversion kit: Switch Solenoid Valve ECU Pressure monitor
  • 8. Hydrogen tank Legend 1/4 o.d. stainless steel 3/8 o.d. stainless steel 6mm Copper Normally Closed Valve 5 bar PSD 2.5 bar PSD Pressure Gauge To front PRD Valve NRV Fill tank In tank Solenoid Valve Manual Valve Manual Valve Manual Valve Outside Car
  • 10.
  • 11. Thermally controlled vent in case of excess heat
  • 13. Stops leakage due to pipe bursts
  • 14. Inlet / Outlet filters
  • 19. Fill up the tank
  • 20. Final Result Images copyrighted and courtesy of: Philippa Shield tiger_purrrr@hotmail.com
  • 21. ECO2Trans Construction of a Fuel Cell plant What is a Fuel Cell? Components and design? Health and Safety? Maintenance Cost?
  • 22. Lights Power Conditioning Controls, Monitors & Data Acquisition Diabline Fuel Cell Setup Header Tank Air Pump Filter Fuel Cell Air NRV Hydrogen Cooling Water Pressure Reducer Water Pump Tank Radiator with Fan
  • 23. Load Power Conditioning Stainless steel = costly PRD Out quarter turn valve quick connect Stem quarter turn valve Fuel Cell Pressure reducer Tee Hydrogen All 1’4 tubing ¾’’ BSPP Male Hydrogen
  • 24. Operating and Control Control Unit Water pump Air pump Cooling with FAN Temperature Cell Monitoring Current sensor Temp battery storage
  • 25. Operating and Control Valve voltage: 24 V Control Voltage: 12 V Diabline voltage: 48 V Batteries: Genesis 70 EP 4X Converter out: 55 Volt
  • 26. Reading Cell voltages Start-up Operational Low Failing Cells Over pressure Membrane leak (H2 in oxygen stream)
  • 27. Output results Voltage drop of fuel cell when put under load 55 volt is not 70. DC-DC converter is important
  • 28. ECO2Trans - Gulliver Shen-Li Technology Fuel Cell System Dynetek Tanks + Valves Swagelok Tubing + Connectors WEH.com filling
  • 30. Tubing PRD: OUT Multi Stage Regulator Check Valve Pressure gauge To Fuel Cell Union SS-600-6 Filling receptacle 1/4’’ fixed Flexible tubing 3/8’’ fixed
  • 33. Pressure tight connections Testing seals PTFE tape and jubilee clips tighten the air and cooling tubing Loctite for hydrogen seals Over tightening of a seal: Disaster Design is fibreglass
  • 34. Oxygen Fuel Cell in: 3/4’’ BSP male Reducer 1/8’’ to 3/4‘’ 1/8'' male npt Fuel Cell Out: 3/4’’ BSP male Air pump 1/4'' male npt Air filter
  • 36. Final Consideration Solenoid valves Stainless steel makes difficult to find expensive H2 pumps and compressors Filters
  • 37. Questions Do you want to know more about: Today’s presentation Mentioned projects Or discuss project ideas: adrian.morris@sunderland.ac.uk dirk.kok@sunderland.ac.uk 0191 – 515 3888

Editor's Notes

  1. I will be explaining about health, safety and maintenance according to design considerations I applied during the construction of the various projects we have done here at AMAP. A special mention is for the tank and valve because they make life inherently easier and safer.
  2. The valve shown is a Dynetek BV351. One of the most important safety systems in a hydrogen system is the tank valve! This valve protects your entire system through:PRDThermally controlled vent in case of excess heatExcess Flow ValveStops leakage due to pipe burstsInlet / Outlet filtersFilters your hydrogenCheck valve during fillingTemperature SensorPressure Sensor
  3. The valve shown is a Dynetek BV351. One of the most important safety systems in a hydrogen system is the tank valve! This valve protects your entire system through:PRDThermally controlled vent in case of excess heatExcess Flow ValveStops leakage due to pipe burstsInlet / Outlet filtersFilters your hydrogenCheck valve during fillingTemperature SensorPressure Sensor
  4. So, how do we build a fuel cell plant? 1.We needed fuel, didn’t we? So, we need a tank filled with hydrogen and because we are dealing with pressures we need some control valves on that line, such as a Non Return Valve and a pressure reducer.2.What else did we need? We needed air or oxygen. The air can contain dust particles so we need an air filter to clean the air up a bit and we need an air pump the pump the air through the fuel cell. 3.This reaction can become very hot, like the engine of a car. So we also need a cooling system. 4.And off course, we need some electronics to control the power output.
  5. Pressure reducer = single stage with max inlet of 34 bar to reduce cost.Dynetek tank 37 liter, 350 bar, Valve: BV 350Stainless steel items makes the cost of the system go up quickly.Some points of attention for the design of the system I have pointed out here with red arrows.The pressure reducer: Needs to be 2 stage (or two regulators), input pressure above 350 bar and output down to point 5 of a bar. The reason for 2 stage is that pressure on the output goes up when the input pressure drops – Bernoulli principle. This effect can only be countered with a two stage regulator. No easy way about it; it is going to cost and mass production of the reducers could bring a welcome reduction in cost.The biggest problem I had with this system is to go from 1/4 inch tube to a 3/4 inch BSPP connection without increasing the length of the connector. In the end we settled on adjusting the closest match we could find.
  6. The Fuel Cell stack used for the Diabline does not like sudden change in pressures. During start up of the fuel cell, when the pressures are not equally divided yet, sudden changes in pressure can cause big problems. Other issues to consider: Standing water goes off after a while and sediment settles and build up can become a problem for the silicon lock inside the fuel cell. The opposite is also true: to dry and the silicon will not close properly allowing water to travel into the hydrogen or oxygen areas This has the added effect that either gas has another way to travel (along the water flow) and reaction between water and the gas will take place. This shows as an instant flat on your cell monitoring system.
  7. To charge the batteries from the fuel cell the output level of the fuel cell needs to be around the charging voltage of the 4 batteries (4 x 13.5V = 55V) otherwise there will not be a difference in voltage and thus no current.
  8. What do cell voltages mean?
  9. Cell voltages at the background are alright( around 0.8v per cell).Current = 7.10 amp At 48 volt after the DC-DC converter (before it is 55 volt).
  10. The tubing we routed through the back of the bus, in between panels. The tube used for this route is all in one part so –in theory no maintenance required- although a check if padding is needed to avoid friction damage might be necessary.
  11. The tubing we routed through the back of the bus, in between panels. The tube used for this route is all in one part so –in theory no maintenance required- although a check if padding is needed to avoid friction damage might be necessary.
  12. The solenoid valves of the tank require 24 volt (0.7 amp) or can be ordered with 12 volt (1.34 amp) but this cost extra. When the ignition key is turned then the solenoid valve at the tanks are activated as is the hydrogen sensor which by-passes the ignition switch to maintain contact. When hydrogen is detected, the emergency switch is pressed or an inertia-switch (to be added) is activated when a collision occurs then contact is opened and con not be restored without resetting the component that caused the disruption and activating the ignition key again.The hydrogen sensor resets after 30 seconds and can provide power to the solenoid valve again. Ignition key turn is required for the actual start.The Hydrogen Sensor acts as a relay switch and is in series with the emergency stop button to provide power after the ignition key has returned to its original position.The hydrogen sensor is located inside the bus.
  13. For the testing of your seals; to make sure they are properly tightened we use a simple soap solution, called snoop. To snoop out any leaks, which will show up as a lot of little bubbles.
  14. A good silent air pump is an issue. Especially, because of the amount of air to displace to feed the system. Don’t forget; There is oxygen in air, but if you need 20 liters of oxygen per minute for then you need 100 liters of air. Air contains approximately 20 % Oxygen.Also, good air pump control is very important because this defines the difference between a fast and a slow system. Air supply is an ideal way of controlling the output current but it takes time build up.
  15. A good silent air pump is an issue. Especially, because of the amount of air to displace to feed the system. Don’t forget; There is oxygen in air, but if you need 20 liters of oxygen per minute for then you need 100 liters of air. Air contains approximately 20 % Oxygen.Also, good air pump control is very important because this defines the difference between a fast and a slow system. Air supply is an ideal way of controlling the output current but it takes time build up.
  16. Fuel Cells are generally very much subject to pollution of the membrane either through, the oxygen side, the hydrogen side or even a from the cooling through a leaking seal, inline filters can help this situation but need to be placed in such a way that they are easily reached and can be changed without taking the tubing apart.
  17. Well, that is it for now. A little break for lunch and after we come back here to for the second part; Healt safety and maintenance.