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Guns, Germs, & Steel
   Geographic Determinis!
 & The Fates of Human Societies

        by Jared Diamond
INTRO:
     Collision at Cajamarca


• Atahualpa !Inca" vs.
  Pizarro !Spaniard"

• Cajamarca, Peru

• Signi#cance?
INTRO:
     Collision at Cajamarca


• Atahualpa !Inca" vs.
  Pizarro !Spaniard"

• Cajamarca, Peru

• Signi#cance?
Collision at Cajamarca
     REASONS FOR PIZARRO$S SUCCESS




• Military Technology
  !guns, steel weapons,
  and horses"

• Infectious diseases
Collision at Cajamarca
     REASONS FOR PIZARRO$S SUCCESS




• Maritime technology

• Centralized political
  organization

• Writing
Chains
   of
Causation
Proximate Causes
          %GUNS, GERMS, & STEEL&




• Why Europe !Asia"?
  Why NOT America?
East ! West Axis




              North ! South Axis




       Ultimate Causes
          %FARMER POWER&
Agriculture & Animals




Agricultural societies     Meat from livestock
produce more food and      replaces wild meat.
thus more people.          Animals also provide
Density also creates       power to pull plows and
more possible inventors.   fertilizer. Diseases follow.
World Distribution of
       Large'Seeded Grass Species
Area                           Number of Species
West Asia, Europe, N. Africa    33
East Asia                       6
Sub'Saharan Africa              4
Americas                        11
Northern Australia              2
TOTAL                           56
Corn niblets vs Chickpeas


• Teosinte
• Ancestor of Maize
• Indian selection
 created varieties
Corn niblets vs Chickpeas


• Chickpea
 !Garbanzo bean"

• High in protein
• Edible in original
 wild form
Mammalian Candidates
              for Domestication

                               Eurasia   America"s#
Candidates                       72          24

Domesticated species             13          1

( of candidates domesticated     18(         4(
Domestication Dates
                 !large mammals"
   Species         Date #B.C.E.$           Place


     Dog              10,000       SW Asia, China, N.Amer.
    Sheep              8,000              SW Asia
    Goat               8,000              SW Asia
     Pig               8,000           SW Asia, China
    Cow                6,000           SW Asia, India
    Horse             4,000               Ukraine
   Donkey             4,000                Egypt
Water Bu%alo          4,000                China?
    Llama              3,500               Andes
Bactrian camel         2,500            Central Asia
Arabian camel          2,500               Arabia
Deadly Gifts
from Our Animal Friends
Deadly Gifts
            from Our Animal Friends
Human Diseas$           Animal Sourc$
Measles                 cattle !rinderpest"
Tuberculosis            cattle
Smallpox                cattle !cowpox"
Flu                     pigs & ducks
Pertussis               pigs & dogs
Falciparum malaria      birds !chickens & ducks?"
Conclusion
#Why weren$t the Incas the ones to
invent guns and steel swords, to b%
mounted on animals as fearsome as
 horses, to bear diseases to which
  Europeans lacked resistance, to
   develop oceangoing ships and
 advanced political organization,
   and to be able to draw on th%
    experience of thousands of
    years of written history?&

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Guns, Germs and Steel

  • 1. Guns, Germs, & Steel Geographic Determinis! & The Fates of Human Societies by Jared Diamond
  • 2. INTRO: Collision at Cajamarca • Atahualpa !Inca" vs. Pizarro !Spaniard" • Cajamarca, Peru • Signi#cance?
  • 3. INTRO: Collision at Cajamarca • Atahualpa !Inca" vs. Pizarro !Spaniard" • Cajamarca, Peru • Signi#cance?
  • 4. Collision at Cajamarca REASONS FOR PIZARRO$S SUCCESS • Military Technology !guns, steel weapons, and horses" • Infectious diseases
  • 5. Collision at Cajamarca REASONS FOR PIZARRO$S SUCCESS • Maritime technology • Centralized political organization • Writing
  • 6. Chains of Causation
  • 7. Proximate Causes %GUNS, GERMS, & STEEL& • Why Europe !Asia"? Why NOT America?
  • 8. East ! West Axis North ! South Axis Ultimate Causes %FARMER POWER&
  • 9. Agriculture & Animals Agricultural societies Meat from livestock produce more food and replaces wild meat. thus more people. Animals also provide Density also creates power to pull plows and more possible inventors. fertilizer. Diseases follow.
  • 10. World Distribution of Large'Seeded Grass Species Area Number of Species West Asia, Europe, N. Africa 33 East Asia 6 Sub'Saharan Africa 4 Americas 11 Northern Australia 2 TOTAL 56
  • 11. Corn niblets vs Chickpeas • Teosinte • Ancestor of Maize • Indian selection created varieties
  • 12. Corn niblets vs Chickpeas • Chickpea !Garbanzo bean" • High in protein • Edible in original wild form
  • 13. Mammalian Candidates for Domestication Eurasia America"s# Candidates 72 24 Domesticated species 13 1 ( of candidates domesticated 18( 4(
  • 14. Domestication Dates !large mammals" Species Date #B.C.E.$ Place Dog 10,000 SW Asia, China, N.Amer. Sheep 8,000 SW Asia Goat 8,000 SW Asia Pig 8,000 SW Asia, China Cow 6,000 SW Asia, India Horse 4,000 Ukraine Donkey 4,000 Egypt Water Bu%alo 4,000 China? Llama 3,500 Andes Bactrian camel 2,500 Central Asia Arabian camel 2,500 Arabia
  • 15. Deadly Gifts from Our Animal Friends
  • 16. Deadly Gifts from Our Animal Friends Human Diseas$ Animal Sourc$ Measles cattle !rinderpest" Tuberculosis cattle Smallpox cattle !cowpox" Flu pigs & ducks Pertussis pigs & dogs Falciparum malaria birds !chickens & ducks?"
  • 17. Conclusion #Why weren$t the Incas the ones to invent guns and steel swords, to b% mounted on animals as fearsome as horses, to bear diseases to which Europeans lacked resistance, to develop oceangoing ships and advanced political organization, and to be able to draw on th% experience of thousands of years of written history?&