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A Guide to
G.I.L.TGlobalisation, Internationalisation, Localisation and Translation
G11N, I18N, L10N and T9N
GILT:::Content 1
Content
INTRODUCTION										2
DEFINITIONS											3
	TRANSLATION (T9N)									3
	LOCALISATION (l10n)								4
	INTERNATIONALISATION (I18N)							4
	GLOBALISATION (g11n)								5
PROCESS											6
TYPES of localisation									8
	SOFTWARE										8
	WEBSITES										11
	MULTIMEDIA										16
	MARKETING										16
MARKET RESEARCH										17
MARKET PROFILE										17
	HOW BIG IS THE GILT Industry?							17
	 WHICH MARKETS ARE GROWING THE MOST QUICKLY?				 18
	 WHICH LOCALISATION SERVICES ARE GROWING the MOST QUICKLY?		 19
TOOLS												21
	ALCHEMY CATALYST 10								19
	SDL PASSOLO 2011									22
	OTHER TOOLS									22
RELEVANT ARTICLES										24
ABOUT THE AUTHOR									24
ABOUT KWINTESSENTIAL									25
GILT:::Introduction 2
INTRODUCTION
Considering less than 27% of Internet content is now in English, it is easy to see why localisation and
language services play such a fundamental role within companies worldwide. Increasingly, companies have
to communicate with their customers in more than one language, with the corollary being that any company
producing content in more than one language is very likely to require localisation and language services.
“In 2012, Common Sense Advisory assessed
annual growth within the language services
market at a rate of 12.17%.”
Definitions
GILT:::Definitions 3
Due to the relatively recent
growth of this field, it has
become necessary to
agree terms within the
industry in respect to key
processes: Localisation,
Internationalisation,
Globalisation and Translation.
Understanding these terms can sometimes cause
initial confusion to newcomers, particularly since
‘localisation’ is often used as a generic reference,
hence omitting its context within the broader
scheme.
In an effort to reduce these lengthy terms, most
professionals and companies use the acronym GILT
(Globalisation, Internationalisation, Localisation
and Translation) to refer to the whole industry.
Abbreviations stating the number of letters in the
words are also very common: g11n, i18n, l10n, t9n.
What is the meaning of these
terms and, consequently, of
GILT? Let’s start backwards,
from the T
GILTTRANSLATION (T9N)
In this context, translation refers to the task of
producing texts in other languages, as opposed to
the broader process of localisation.
The translation tasks carried out under the
localisation umbrella often differ from standard
translation tasks. They usually:
•	 Involve oversight of technical elements
•	 Have different objectives to those of standard
translation projects
•	 Both describe the product, whilst simultaneously
forming a part of it
•	 Come in a number of different formats
•	 Require specialised software
•	 Are essential to the accurate function of the
product (as an example, a single mistranslation
during the translation of programming codes
could have significant ramifications on the
respective software)
Ideally therefore, the translation element of a
localisation project should be carried out by
specialised translators. This is not usually the case
however.
Definitions
GILT:::Definitions 4
GILTLOCALISATION (l10n)
“[Localisation] describes the process of adapting
a product to a specific international language or
culture so that it seems natural to that particular
region, which includes translation, but goes much
farther.
True localisation considers language, culture,
customs, technical and other characteristics of the
target locale. While it frequently involves changes
to the software writing system, it may also change
the keyboard usage, fonts, date, time and monetary
formats. Graphics, colours and sound effects also
need to be culturally appropriate.” (The Globalization
and Localization Association)
As such, this process involves preparation of
respective texts, transferring these texts into the
corresponding source material, adapting the source
materials to the requirements of the target culture
and then testing the target materials for accuracy.
GILTINTERNATIONALISATION (I18N)
Internationalisation is often confused with
localisation, but in fact the process is almost totally
opposite. Internationalisation involves the design
of a product in such a way that the project can be
localised easily.
By ensuring that the product is as neutral as possible,
both in respect to linguist and technical elements,
the product can be easily modified to ensure that
it is relevant to specific local environments. For
this reason, Internationalisation figures before
Localisation within the GILT model.
Internationalisation delivers a number of benefits,
including but not limited to:
•	 Reduced time and costs in respect to localisation
as content is neutral and ‘localisation ready’
•	 Presentation of a single source code for all
applications
•	 Enabling far more simple maintenance
•	 Improved quality and code architecture
•	 Simultaneous shipment and launch of the product
across a number of countries
A good example of Internationalisation is software
creation, whereby the source text is sent to the
translators without any kind of formatting or layout
or any extra information. The purpose is to have very
small-sized files, which can be easily edited, so that
subsequently they can be localized.
GLobALiZAtion
int
ernAtionALiZAt
ion
L
o
cALisAtio
n
tr
A
nsLAti
o
n
Definitions
GILT:::Definitions 5
GILTGLOBALISATION (g11n)
Although Globalisation may sometimes be used
as a synonym for Internationalisation, the process
is more complex and typically incorporates the
underlying business decisions and activities which
are required to make an organisation or product
truly international. These activities may include:
revision of management procedures and business
processes, creation of new support resources and
adaptation of marketing tools.
To summarise:
“Each step within the Globalisation, Internationalisation, Localisation chain will
have an exponential impact on the next. If you don’t take your Globalisation
strategy seriously enough, then, in the absence of a firm mandate from the
highest levels of your organization, Internationalisation will suffer because there
will be no development impetus to properly Internationalize your software. If
the Internationalisation effort is poor, Localisation will be painful, perhaps even
impossible within certain software features, and you will be looking at a lengthy
delta between your domestic software release and your localised releases.
Conversely, if you start with a solid and coherent Globalisation strategy that
is communicated, in a relevant and contextual manner, to all levels within
the organization, then Internationalisation will be an integral part of the SDLC
(Systems Development Life-Cycle), Localisation should be a straightforward, finite
task, and you will be in a better position to achieve a Sim-Ship of domestic and
localised software releases.” (Wheeler, 2009)
GILT:::Process 6
The key stages required within this process are outlined below
alongside the respective sub-tasks. Not all of the four steps are
necessary and delivery of the steps is not order dependant:
Process
PREPARATION TRANSLATION TESTING / QA DELIVERY
ANALYSIS
SOURCE TEXT
AND MATERIALS
POSSIBLE
ISSUES
TM AND STYLE
TRANSLATION
TRANSCREATION
PROOFREADING
LINGUISTIC
TESTING
TECHNICAL
TESTING
CULTURAL
TESTING
DTP
CLIENT
REVIEW
CHANGES
UPDATES
Process
GILT:::Process 7
1. Preparation
Preliminary analysis: The source material is analysed taking into account the target languages and cultures
Changes to the original source material is made - these changes may be driven by the need to remove
culturally inadequate content or graphics
Glossary compilation – glossaries are key to ensuring that terminology is consistently translated. Glossary
contents are typically agreed in advance with a client
Preparation of the schedules required as part of the project and the necessary budgets
Style guidelines which will be used by the translator to ensure that the translated material has been
translated in an appropriate style
Pre-translation engineering: Possible issues must be identified in the code prior to translation and solved
accordingly. The code can be separated from the texts (if the translators are not specialised)
2. Translation
Translation of the product/website texts
Translation of complementary texts (help file, user guide)
Transcreation (including logos and SEO)
Proofreading
3. Testing/QA
Post-translation engineering: Compilation of translated material
Technical testing
DTP (Desk Top Publication)
Bug fixing
Linguistic testing
QA (Quality Assurance): Quality standards such as EU standard EN-15038
User experience
4. Delivery
Client review
Changes to localised material
Final delivery
Updates/maintenance
Types of
localisation
GILT:::Types of localisation 8
The depth and nature of localisation activity depends on both the
client and the type of project. Activity can involve either extensive
localisation or basic localisation – particularly if the target language
is not yet a key market.
SOFTWARE
Software is variable and is not limited to PC programmes but may also include videogames, web based
applications and mobile applications.
Programmes
Since programmes are less intuitive
than other products, it is more likely
that they will need to be localised
•	 Localisation of software
programmes includes:
•	 Help files
•	 Graphic user interface (GUI)
•	 Printed documentation and
packaging
•	 Related website
Windows GUI
Types of
localisation
GILT:::Types of localisation 9
Apps
On the App market, developers have recently started to properly
localise their apps, after an initial period using automatic
translations or no translation at all. This is due to the realisation
of the potential of this niche, which has resulted in the creation
of more sophisticated products.
Almost all programs are created
both for Windows and Mac
operative systems. Although the
program is the same, the menus,
shortcut keys and help files are
different, and need also to be
translated. Shortcuts or “hot keys”
play a major role in localisation,
since they vary from country to
country.
Mac GUI
iPhone app
Types of
localisation
10
video games
The Video game industry (often referred to as
‘Interactive Entertainment’) has become one of the
main industries in the last decade, with an estimated
value of $65 billion (Reuters, 2011). The game ‘Call of
Duty: Black Ops’, generated sales in excess of $650
million in the game’s first five days, which set a five-
day global record for the sales of any movie, book or
videogame.
Full localisation involves translating:
•	 Graphic user interface (GUI)
•	 In-game texts
•	 Multimedia content (videos, songs)
•	 Help files
•	 Printed documentation and packaging
•	 Related websites
GILT:::Types of localisation
Role-playing videogames, particularly web-based multiplayers (often referred
to as Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games or MMORPG) such as the
recently published Guild Wars 2 (picture above) require huge localisation projects,
usually necessitating the translation and localisation of several millions of words.
These are generally translated as soon as the texts are created, so the translation
stage is in place prior to the game being played by technical and linguistic testers.
This allows localisation teams to detect translation issues at the same time for
different languages, and later on supports the aforementioned simultaneous
shipment.
Videogame GUI
Types of
localisation
11
WEBSITES
There are several levels ranging from only translating the text that appear on a website to creating a whole new
environment for each locale. Companies can choose between the following strategies: standardised, localised
or customised.
Levels of website localisation.
Standardised level
One website for all regions
GILT:::Types of localisation
*Google is an interesting example of a poor initial strategic decision. At first,
Google decided to have one interface for all countries (a blank page and the same
logo). This was unsuccessful in Asian countries, where websites must be full of
bright colours and texts to be appealing.
As a result, they opted to create a customised Google interface called iGoogle,
where the user can choose to include as many backgrounds and as much
information as they want. The website was not fully localised: this strategy is a
hybrid of standardised and customised levels.
United Kingdom Hong Kong
Types of
localisation
12
LOCALISED
ONE WEBSITE FOR EACH REGION WITH TRANSLATED TEXT
GILT:::Types of localisation
United States
Taiwan
Types of
localisation
13GILT:::Types of localisation
This chart features Yahoo! icons
and depicts the way in which
the same concept is featured in
different ways according to local
culture. This simple example
proves how important minor
details are for website localisation.
Arabia
Types of
localisation
14
CULTURALLY CUSTOMISED
EACH WEBSITE IS CREATED AND DESIGNED ACCORDING TO THE TARGET CULTURE
GILT:::Types of localisation
Germany
Hungary
Types of
localisation
15
CULTURALLY CUSTOMISED
GILT:::Types of localisation
China
Japan
Types of
localisation
16
MULTIMEDIA
Multimedia content can consist of any material that
incorporates images, sounds and/or texts, including
(but not limited to):
•	 Audio
•	 Video
•	 Songs
•	 Slideshows
GILT:::Types of localisation
This field also incorporates services for individuals with
additional needs such as those who are deaf, hard of
hearing or visually impaired. An example of this is the use
of ‘real-time captioning’.
MARKETING
Marketing content is
typically adapted to each
country on an individual
level, and may not involve
translation at all. It may
include:
•	 Social media (Facebook,
Twitter, LinkedIn…
including local social
media)
•	 Marketing campaigns
•	 Search Engine
Optimisation (SEO)
such as transcreation of
keywords
•	 Search Engine Marketing
(SEM) such as Google
AdWords
Google AdWords
GILT:::Market research 17
Market
research
MARKET PROFILE
HOW BIGIS THE GILT Industry?
The most reliable and respected information relating to the size of the GILT Industry is provided by Common
Sense Advisory, which is an independent market research company. The majority of their articles and reports
require payment and, as such, free resources are limited.
As an example, the abstract
portion of the 2012 Language
Services Market research is
available as a ‘free of charge’
resource on the internet, whilst
the primary body requires
payment. This abstract focuses
on the overall market size
estimate and the top 100 LSPs.
(See Appendix 1.) As such, the
data outlined below is applicable
to language services industries at
large, not specifically localisation.
For readers who would like to
read the more detailed research,
this is available for a charge of
$1,000.
According to the survey from
Common Sense Advisory, the
market for outsourced language
services is worth US$33,523
million (£21,760 million).
The market shares are
18GILT:::Market research
Market
research
“Danica Brinton (Zynga) presented some fascinating data about the
impact that localisation has in the adoption of games for this fast-growing
company. […] Norway, with a population of less than 5 million, generates
more revenue for Zynga than Indonesia, the country with 230 million
inhabitants and the biggest number of Facebook users in the world. It is
clear that other factors than number of internet users drive localisation
decisions.” (Beninatto, 2011)
WHICH MARKETS ARE GROWING THE MOST QUICKLY?
As demonstrated in the results, the North American market share has decreased, despite a slight rise in
revenues. This is assessed as being primarily driven by reduced military spending coupled with the challenges
of the current economic climate. With the southern market as an exception, growth is being demonstrated
once more in Europe.
The rapid growth of the Asian market is
an interesting emergence and is primarily
driven by China, which is assessed as the
top emerging market. If you would like
to view more information in respect to
the Chinese localisation market, then the
Translators Association of China website is
a great resource.
The rest of the markets are also increasing
their share.
As illustrated by the data, Northern Europe
(inclusive of the UK) embodies a larger
market share than Asia. This is reflected
in the following anecdote from 2011
Localisation World event in Barcelona:
Market
research
19
WHICH LOCALISATION SERVICES ARE GROWING the MOST QUICKLY?
Specific, reliable information in this respect is difficult to find as the sources of information are fairly disparate
and very little comprehensive global research has taken place. However, we believe that the most useful articles
are those listed below:
•	 The Market for Multimedia Localisation Services in 2011
•	 The Market for Software Localisation in 2011
•	 Language Services Market Segmentation (2010)
Some current trends:
Mobile apps are definitely a new niche to be considered.
Businesses developing these apps include both small
developers and larger companies. The clear increase in
companies identifying the need for this marketing channel
can be seen on the chart below by Distimo:
Source: (TechCrunch, 2011)
This, alongside the boom in mobile and apps usage in
emerging economies like China, India and Brazil, explains
why this service may be important in the future.
GILT:::Market research
“Most prominent social
games have over 70% of
the overall user base
and over 50% of revenue
coming from localized
locales – localization
can increase the locale-
specific traffic by 80%-
300%.” (Brinton, 2011)
Market
research
20
Crowd-localisation was the obvious next step after crowdsourcing and crowdfunding.
The profile of market leaders such as Google and Facebook are so positive, that both companies were able
to use the linguistic skills of their users to translate the entirety of their websites with no reward.
Language Service Providers are able to play a key role in supporting such businesses with additional quality
assurance tools to ensure an on-going professional result.
There is now generic acceptance of the role of machine translation and Computer Assisted Translation
tool (CAT) in the consistent, accurate translation of large, technical projects. Please note that there is a
fundamental distinction between CAT tools (specialist translation software) and computer translation,
produced by the free online translation tools.
GILT:::Market research
The Spanish Facebook site was completed in less than 4 weeks
with the help of 1,500 Spanish-speaking users through a
crowdsource application. Users could suggest translations and
vote for the best options.
Market
research
21
TOOLS
WHAT IS A LOCALISATION TOOL?
What are the differences between localisation tools
and regular CAT tools?
To understand localisation tools, you must first
understand CAT tools. As a basic overview, CAT
tools enable a translator to build up a ‘memory’ from
previous translations. As the memory increases, it
becomes quicker to complete future translations as
elements of text which have already been translated
previously will be pre-translated in future translation
projects. The benefit of this functionality is that
repetitions within a document are automatically
translated throughout the document which also has
a positive impact on reducing the time taken. CAT
tools have a number of additional functionalities
which also increase the accuracy, quality and
consistency of a translation project such as glossary
tools, word counts and formatting tools.
In a nutshell therefore, CAT tools increase the
speed of translation exercises, ensure terminology
consistency and reduce costs (through increased
translation speed).
Localisation tools are basically CAT tools whose
filters are prepared for the most common types
of files found in software and websites. The text
segments (called “strings”) are separated from the
source code so that it is not visible to translators. In
this way they can translate more easily and the code
is not exposed to unwanted changes that could
damage the product.
These tools are often called “Visual Localisation
Tools” (VLT) because they provide a visual
representation of what the user interface looks like
in a ‘What You See Is What You Get’ (WYSIWYG)
environment. Translators therefore have not only the
linguistic context but also the visual context for their
translations.
Additionally, localisation tools feature help functions
and verifiers for typical localisation problems, such
as duplicate keyboard shortcuts or broken tags.
However, translation agencies sometimes deal with
localisation projects in a more traditional way; they
employ engineering experts to prepare the material
so it can be handled on standard CAT tools. In this
way, they do not need specialised translators and
they can use cheaper or more user-friendly tools. If
the project is small, even Office suite programs are
used.
GILT:::Market research
Market
research
22
The most common localisation tools are Catalyst and Passolo. They show more similarities than differences at
a basic level, with the differences being more obvious at a specialized level. For this reason, the choice lies in
usability and, of course, price.
OTHER TOOLS
There are less powerful tools that are however widely used for two main reasons: they are cheaper and they
are simpler. The following are some of the most common. The prices are approximations (from the price in
EUR/USD) for the standard, single-user licence. (Links refer to the product websites.)
•	 Lingobit Localizer Standard: £430
•	 Sisulizer Translator: £179
•	 Multilizer Pro for Translators: Around £162
SDL PASSOLO 2011
SDL Passolo 2011: £1750
GILT:::Market research
ALCHEMY CATALYST 10
Translator/Pro edition:
Around £400.
Market
research
23
GLOBALISATION
Globalyzer is an internationalisation tool which supports creating, adapting, and verifying software in order
to make it “localisation-ready”. It is aimed at large, complex multilingual projects that need to be managed by
several development teams for quick turnarounds. In these environments it is essential to “catch” code mistakes
before localisation, and that is what this tool does.
The price of the software is not published on the website, but a free trial is available upon request.
WORD COUNT
WebBudget TX
This is a word count tool used in localisation projects, because it supports a variety of formats, including most
common tagged and scripting languages. It costs £320 but a 15-day demo is available for isolated needs. It says
it works with PHP but it did not work when we tried to do word counts for sites using PHP.
PractiCount
This is another word count tool that also supports most common formats but the results were not good either,
as it included duplicate files (it doesn’t recognize them as duplicate files because their file paths are different).
The standard version costs £36. There is a business version with additional features like file converting and
counting of files in other computers for £62.
Quality Assurance
QA Distiller
This is the most specialized and powerful tool for quality control. It detects omissions, inconsistencies,
formatting problems, and terminology errors. This program can be integrated into most CAT tools so that the
errors are automatically tracked. The freelance version (only 3 languages supported) costs around £200. The
professional (unlimited version) costs around £800.
Apsic Xbench
Xbench is similar to QA Distiller, although it lacks some of the features. However, it is used extensively because
it is free.
GILT:::Market research
Relevant
articles
24
Beninatto, R. (2011, 06 21). Three Takeaways from Localization World Barcelona. Retrieved 10 17, 2012, from
Localization Industry 411: http://www.l10n411.com/2011/06/three-takeaways-from-localization-world.html
Blau, A. (2012, 01 16). Comparing Software Tools for World Readiness (i18n). Retrieved 10 16, 2012, from
i18nBlog.com: http://i18nblog.com/2012/01/16/comparing-software-tools-for-world-readiness-i18n/
Bracken, C. (2011, 02 15). The Lion, The Weaver and The Weird Valuations. Retrieved 10 25, 2012, from Andovar:
http://www.andovar.com/blog/industry_valuations/
Brinton, D. (2011). Social & Mobile Apps and Globalization – Confessions of a g11n Veteran. Retrieved 10 25,
2012, from Lingoport: http://www.lingoport.com/software-internationalization-articles/social-mobile-apps-
globalization-confessions-g11n-veteran/
Common Sense Advisory. (2012, 05 31). The Top 100 Language Service Providers. Retrieved 09 24, 2012, from
Common Sense Advisory: http://www.commonsenseadvisory.com
King, C. (2008, 02 22). Stop Pushing your Foreign Visitors Away. Retrieved 11 25, 2012, from cindyking: http://
cindyking.biz/stop-pushing-your-foreign-visitors-away/
The Globalization and Localization Association. (n.d.). Localization definitions. Retrieved 09 25, 2012, from Gala
website: http://gal.gala-global.org
Wheeler, P. (2009, 03 27). Who’s responsible for Localization in your organization? Retrieved 10 15, 2012,
from Localization Localisation: http://localizationlocalisation.wordpress.com/2009/03/27/who%E2%80%99s-
responsible-for-localization-in-your-organization/
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Mizar Becerril is a Spanish translator specialised in Localisation, with a wide
experience in videogame localisation. She has worked in several important projects
such as Guild Wars 2 and Monster Hunter Tri G, and she has recently collaborated
with Kwintessential in a broad range of localisation-related assignments.
She holds a BA in Translation and Interpreting and a Master’s Degree in Software
and Multimedia Localisation from the Universidad Intenacional Menéndez Pelayo
(Spain).
GILT:::Relevant articles
25
ABOUT KWINTESSENTIAL
Kwintessential aim to build a global brand which is synonymous
with helping businesses thrive within the international, multilingual
and culturally diverse marketplace.
Our vision is to continue to develop Kwintessential as the ‘go-to company’ when it comes to business needs
requiring expertise in languages and cultures.
In realising our vision, our five goals are to provide:
A consultative approach to business; with solutions fully
tailored to the needs of our diverse client base
World-class customer service
Top quality services and products
Provision of services across a global scope; utilising the skills
of our global linguist teams
Education of others in the work of our sector
Our Services
We drive our goals and vision through our five key services:
1
2
3
4
5
Contact
Kwintessential
01460 279 900	
info@kwintessential.co.uk
www.kwintessential.co.uk
@kwintessential
linkedin.com/company/
kwintessential/
26
Contact
Kwintessential
01460 279 900	
info@kwintessential.co.uk
www.kwintessential.co.uk
@kwintessential
linkedin.com/company/
kwintessential/
Our services achieve two goals:
They help a client overcome an issue involving a different language/culture,
or
They help a client use language/culture to their competitive advantage in
business.
For example, a client may need a translation in order to understand what a contract in French says in
English, or they may need a French translation of their website in order to tap French sales.
Similarly, some training in team-building may help solve current communication issues with international
teams, or be used during the formation of a team to strengthen it moving forward.
Translation
Comprehensive range of translation services covering all world languages, all formats and all business
sectors.
Interpreting
Global coverage for consecutive and simultaneous interpreters available for all needs, from business
meetings to conferences to legal hearings.
Training
Extensive training and education solutions that deliver ROI through helping businesses thrive internationally;
from cultural awareness to management to remote working skills.
Localisation
In-depth localisation services covering websites, apps, social media, video, e-commerce and marketing
consultancy.
Design
Complete, hands-on design services covering typesetting, graphic design, digital and social media.
Our unique selling point involves a holistic view of the impact of globalisation on our clients’ businesses
through each and every service we provide. We are able to tie them together, make sense of them and
provide innovative solutions in response.
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Guide to Globalization, Internationalization, Localization & Translation

  • 1. A Guide to G.I.L.TGlobalisation, Internationalisation, Localisation and Translation G11N, I18N, L10N and T9N
  • 2. GILT:::Content 1 Content INTRODUCTION 2 DEFINITIONS 3 TRANSLATION (T9N) 3 LOCALISATION (l10n) 4 INTERNATIONALISATION (I18N) 4 GLOBALISATION (g11n) 5 PROCESS 6 TYPES of localisation 8 SOFTWARE 8 WEBSITES 11 MULTIMEDIA 16 MARKETING 16 MARKET RESEARCH 17 MARKET PROFILE 17 HOW BIG IS THE GILT Industry? 17 WHICH MARKETS ARE GROWING THE MOST QUICKLY? 18 WHICH LOCALISATION SERVICES ARE GROWING the MOST QUICKLY? 19 TOOLS 21 ALCHEMY CATALYST 10 19 SDL PASSOLO 2011 22 OTHER TOOLS 22 RELEVANT ARTICLES 24 ABOUT THE AUTHOR 24 ABOUT KWINTESSENTIAL 25
  • 3. GILT:::Introduction 2 INTRODUCTION Considering less than 27% of Internet content is now in English, it is easy to see why localisation and language services play such a fundamental role within companies worldwide. Increasingly, companies have to communicate with their customers in more than one language, with the corollary being that any company producing content in more than one language is very likely to require localisation and language services. “In 2012, Common Sense Advisory assessed annual growth within the language services market at a rate of 12.17%.”
  • 4. Definitions GILT:::Definitions 3 Due to the relatively recent growth of this field, it has become necessary to agree terms within the industry in respect to key processes: Localisation, Internationalisation, Globalisation and Translation. Understanding these terms can sometimes cause initial confusion to newcomers, particularly since ‘localisation’ is often used as a generic reference, hence omitting its context within the broader scheme. In an effort to reduce these lengthy terms, most professionals and companies use the acronym GILT (Globalisation, Internationalisation, Localisation and Translation) to refer to the whole industry. Abbreviations stating the number of letters in the words are also very common: g11n, i18n, l10n, t9n. What is the meaning of these terms and, consequently, of GILT? Let’s start backwards, from the T GILTTRANSLATION (T9N) In this context, translation refers to the task of producing texts in other languages, as opposed to the broader process of localisation. The translation tasks carried out under the localisation umbrella often differ from standard translation tasks. They usually: • Involve oversight of technical elements • Have different objectives to those of standard translation projects • Both describe the product, whilst simultaneously forming a part of it • Come in a number of different formats • Require specialised software • Are essential to the accurate function of the product (as an example, a single mistranslation during the translation of programming codes could have significant ramifications on the respective software) Ideally therefore, the translation element of a localisation project should be carried out by specialised translators. This is not usually the case however.
  • 5. Definitions GILT:::Definitions 4 GILTLOCALISATION (l10n) “[Localisation] describes the process of adapting a product to a specific international language or culture so that it seems natural to that particular region, which includes translation, but goes much farther. True localisation considers language, culture, customs, technical and other characteristics of the target locale. While it frequently involves changes to the software writing system, it may also change the keyboard usage, fonts, date, time and monetary formats. Graphics, colours and sound effects also need to be culturally appropriate.” (The Globalization and Localization Association) As such, this process involves preparation of respective texts, transferring these texts into the corresponding source material, adapting the source materials to the requirements of the target culture and then testing the target materials for accuracy. GILTINTERNATIONALISATION (I18N) Internationalisation is often confused with localisation, but in fact the process is almost totally opposite. Internationalisation involves the design of a product in such a way that the project can be localised easily. By ensuring that the product is as neutral as possible, both in respect to linguist and technical elements, the product can be easily modified to ensure that it is relevant to specific local environments. For this reason, Internationalisation figures before Localisation within the GILT model. Internationalisation delivers a number of benefits, including but not limited to: • Reduced time and costs in respect to localisation as content is neutral and ‘localisation ready’ • Presentation of a single source code for all applications • Enabling far more simple maintenance • Improved quality and code architecture • Simultaneous shipment and launch of the product across a number of countries A good example of Internationalisation is software creation, whereby the source text is sent to the translators without any kind of formatting or layout or any extra information. The purpose is to have very small-sized files, which can be easily edited, so that subsequently they can be localized. GLobALiZAtion int ernAtionALiZAt ion L o cALisAtio n tr A nsLAti o n
  • 6. Definitions GILT:::Definitions 5 GILTGLOBALISATION (g11n) Although Globalisation may sometimes be used as a synonym for Internationalisation, the process is more complex and typically incorporates the underlying business decisions and activities which are required to make an organisation or product truly international. These activities may include: revision of management procedures and business processes, creation of new support resources and adaptation of marketing tools. To summarise: “Each step within the Globalisation, Internationalisation, Localisation chain will have an exponential impact on the next. If you don’t take your Globalisation strategy seriously enough, then, in the absence of a firm mandate from the highest levels of your organization, Internationalisation will suffer because there will be no development impetus to properly Internationalize your software. If the Internationalisation effort is poor, Localisation will be painful, perhaps even impossible within certain software features, and you will be looking at a lengthy delta between your domestic software release and your localised releases. Conversely, if you start with a solid and coherent Globalisation strategy that is communicated, in a relevant and contextual manner, to all levels within the organization, then Internationalisation will be an integral part of the SDLC (Systems Development Life-Cycle), Localisation should be a straightforward, finite task, and you will be in a better position to achieve a Sim-Ship of domestic and localised software releases.” (Wheeler, 2009)
  • 7. GILT:::Process 6 The key stages required within this process are outlined below alongside the respective sub-tasks. Not all of the four steps are necessary and delivery of the steps is not order dependant: Process PREPARATION TRANSLATION TESTING / QA DELIVERY ANALYSIS SOURCE TEXT AND MATERIALS POSSIBLE ISSUES TM AND STYLE TRANSLATION TRANSCREATION PROOFREADING LINGUISTIC TESTING TECHNICAL TESTING CULTURAL TESTING DTP CLIENT REVIEW CHANGES UPDATES
  • 8. Process GILT:::Process 7 1. Preparation Preliminary analysis: The source material is analysed taking into account the target languages and cultures Changes to the original source material is made - these changes may be driven by the need to remove culturally inadequate content or graphics Glossary compilation – glossaries are key to ensuring that terminology is consistently translated. Glossary contents are typically agreed in advance with a client Preparation of the schedules required as part of the project and the necessary budgets Style guidelines which will be used by the translator to ensure that the translated material has been translated in an appropriate style Pre-translation engineering: Possible issues must be identified in the code prior to translation and solved accordingly. The code can be separated from the texts (if the translators are not specialised) 2. Translation Translation of the product/website texts Translation of complementary texts (help file, user guide) Transcreation (including logos and SEO) Proofreading 3. Testing/QA Post-translation engineering: Compilation of translated material Technical testing DTP (Desk Top Publication) Bug fixing Linguistic testing QA (Quality Assurance): Quality standards such as EU standard EN-15038 User experience 4. Delivery Client review Changes to localised material Final delivery Updates/maintenance
  • 9. Types of localisation GILT:::Types of localisation 8 The depth and nature of localisation activity depends on both the client and the type of project. Activity can involve either extensive localisation or basic localisation – particularly if the target language is not yet a key market. SOFTWARE Software is variable and is not limited to PC programmes but may also include videogames, web based applications and mobile applications. Programmes Since programmes are less intuitive than other products, it is more likely that they will need to be localised • Localisation of software programmes includes: • Help files • Graphic user interface (GUI) • Printed documentation and packaging • Related website Windows GUI
  • 10. Types of localisation GILT:::Types of localisation 9 Apps On the App market, developers have recently started to properly localise their apps, after an initial period using automatic translations or no translation at all. This is due to the realisation of the potential of this niche, which has resulted in the creation of more sophisticated products. Almost all programs are created both for Windows and Mac operative systems. Although the program is the same, the menus, shortcut keys and help files are different, and need also to be translated. Shortcuts or “hot keys” play a major role in localisation, since they vary from country to country. Mac GUI iPhone app
  • 11. Types of localisation 10 video games The Video game industry (often referred to as ‘Interactive Entertainment’) has become one of the main industries in the last decade, with an estimated value of $65 billion (Reuters, 2011). The game ‘Call of Duty: Black Ops’, generated sales in excess of $650 million in the game’s first five days, which set a five- day global record for the sales of any movie, book or videogame. Full localisation involves translating: • Graphic user interface (GUI) • In-game texts • Multimedia content (videos, songs) • Help files • Printed documentation and packaging • Related websites GILT:::Types of localisation Role-playing videogames, particularly web-based multiplayers (often referred to as Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games or MMORPG) such as the recently published Guild Wars 2 (picture above) require huge localisation projects, usually necessitating the translation and localisation of several millions of words. These are generally translated as soon as the texts are created, so the translation stage is in place prior to the game being played by technical and linguistic testers. This allows localisation teams to detect translation issues at the same time for different languages, and later on supports the aforementioned simultaneous shipment. Videogame GUI
  • 12. Types of localisation 11 WEBSITES There are several levels ranging from only translating the text that appear on a website to creating a whole new environment for each locale. Companies can choose between the following strategies: standardised, localised or customised. Levels of website localisation. Standardised level One website for all regions GILT:::Types of localisation *Google is an interesting example of a poor initial strategic decision. At first, Google decided to have one interface for all countries (a blank page and the same logo). This was unsuccessful in Asian countries, where websites must be full of bright colours and texts to be appealing. As a result, they opted to create a customised Google interface called iGoogle, where the user can choose to include as many backgrounds and as much information as they want. The website was not fully localised: this strategy is a hybrid of standardised and customised levels. United Kingdom Hong Kong
  • 13. Types of localisation 12 LOCALISED ONE WEBSITE FOR EACH REGION WITH TRANSLATED TEXT GILT:::Types of localisation United States Taiwan
  • 14. Types of localisation 13GILT:::Types of localisation This chart features Yahoo! icons and depicts the way in which the same concept is featured in different ways according to local culture. This simple example proves how important minor details are for website localisation. Arabia
  • 15. Types of localisation 14 CULTURALLY CUSTOMISED EACH WEBSITE IS CREATED AND DESIGNED ACCORDING TO THE TARGET CULTURE GILT:::Types of localisation Germany Hungary
  • 17. Types of localisation 16 MULTIMEDIA Multimedia content can consist of any material that incorporates images, sounds and/or texts, including (but not limited to): • Audio • Video • Songs • Slideshows GILT:::Types of localisation This field also incorporates services for individuals with additional needs such as those who are deaf, hard of hearing or visually impaired. An example of this is the use of ‘real-time captioning’. MARKETING Marketing content is typically adapted to each country on an individual level, and may not involve translation at all. It may include: • Social media (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn… including local social media) • Marketing campaigns • Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) such as transcreation of keywords • Search Engine Marketing (SEM) such as Google AdWords Google AdWords
  • 18. GILT:::Market research 17 Market research MARKET PROFILE HOW BIGIS THE GILT Industry? The most reliable and respected information relating to the size of the GILT Industry is provided by Common Sense Advisory, which is an independent market research company. The majority of their articles and reports require payment and, as such, free resources are limited. As an example, the abstract portion of the 2012 Language Services Market research is available as a ‘free of charge’ resource on the internet, whilst the primary body requires payment. This abstract focuses on the overall market size estimate and the top 100 LSPs. (See Appendix 1.) As such, the data outlined below is applicable to language services industries at large, not specifically localisation. For readers who would like to read the more detailed research, this is available for a charge of $1,000. According to the survey from Common Sense Advisory, the market for outsourced language services is worth US$33,523 million (£21,760 million). The market shares are
  • 19. 18GILT:::Market research Market research “Danica Brinton (Zynga) presented some fascinating data about the impact that localisation has in the adoption of games for this fast-growing company. […] Norway, with a population of less than 5 million, generates more revenue for Zynga than Indonesia, the country with 230 million inhabitants and the biggest number of Facebook users in the world. It is clear that other factors than number of internet users drive localisation decisions.” (Beninatto, 2011) WHICH MARKETS ARE GROWING THE MOST QUICKLY? As demonstrated in the results, the North American market share has decreased, despite a slight rise in revenues. This is assessed as being primarily driven by reduced military spending coupled with the challenges of the current economic climate. With the southern market as an exception, growth is being demonstrated once more in Europe. The rapid growth of the Asian market is an interesting emergence and is primarily driven by China, which is assessed as the top emerging market. If you would like to view more information in respect to the Chinese localisation market, then the Translators Association of China website is a great resource. The rest of the markets are also increasing their share. As illustrated by the data, Northern Europe (inclusive of the UK) embodies a larger market share than Asia. This is reflected in the following anecdote from 2011 Localisation World event in Barcelona:
  • 20. Market research 19 WHICH LOCALISATION SERVICES ARE GROWING the MOST QUICKLY? Specific, reliable information in this respect is difficult to find as the sources of information are fairly disparate and very little comprehensive global research has taken place. However, we believe that the most useful articles are those listed below: • The Market for Multimedia Localisation Services in 2011 • The Market for Software Localisation in 2011 • Language Services Market Segmentation (2010) Some current trends: Mobile apps are definitely a new niche to be considered. Businesses developing these apps include both small developers and larger companies. The clear increase in companies identifying the need for this marketing channel can be seen on the chart below by Distimo: Source: (TechCrunch, 2011) This, alongside the boom in mobile and apps usage in emerging economies like China, India and Brazil, explains why this service may be important in the future. GILT:::Market research “Most prominent social games have over 70% of the overall user base and over 50% of revenue coming from localized locales – localization can increase the locale- specific traffic by 80%- 300%.” (Brinton, 2011)
  • 21. Market research 20 Crowd-localisation was the obvious next step after crowdsourcing and crowdfunding. The profile of market leaders such as Google and Facebook are so positive, that both companies were able to use the linguistic skills of their users to translate the entirety of their websites with no reward. Language Service Providers are able to play a key role in supporting such businesses with additional quality assurance tools to ensure an on-going professional result. There is now generic acceptance of the role of machine translation and Computer Assisted Translation tool (CAT) in the consistent, accurate translation of large, technical projects. Please note that there is a fundamental distinction between CAT tools (specialist translation software) and computer translation, produced by the free online translation tools. GILT:::Market research The Spanish Facebook site was completed in less than 4 weeks with the help of 1,500 Spanish-speaking users through a crowdsource application. Users could suggest translations and vote for the best options.
  • 22. Market research 21 TOOLS WHAT IS A LOCALISATION TOOL? What are the differences between localisation tools and regular CAT tools? To understand localisation tools, you must first understand CAT tools. As a basic overview, CAT tools enable a translator to build up a ‘memory’ from previous translations. As the memory increases, it becomes quicker to complete future translations as elements of text which have already been translated previously will be pre-translated in future translation projects. The benefit of this functionality is that repetitions within a document are automatically translated throughout the document which also has a positive impact on reducing the time taken. CAT tools have a number of additional functionalities which also increase the accuracy, quality and consistency of a translation project such as glossary tools, word counts and formatting tools. In a nutshell therefore, CAT tools increase the speed of translation exercises, ensure terminology consistency and reduce costs (through increased translation speed). Localisation tools are basically CAT tools whose filters are prepared for the most common types of files found in software and websites. The text segments (called “strings”) are separated from the source code so that it is not visible to translators. In this way they can translate more easily and the code is not exposed to unwanted changes that could damage the product. These tools are often called “Visual Localisation Tools” (VLT) because they provide a visual representation of what the user interface looks like in a ‘What You See Is What You Get’ (WYSIWYG) environment. Translators therefore have not only the linguistic context but also the visual context for their translations. Additionally, localisation tools feature help functions and verifiers for typical localisation problems, such as duplicate keyboard shortcuts or broken tags. However, translation agencies sometimes deal with localisation projects in a more traditional way; they employ engineering experts to prepare the material so it can be handled on standard CAT tools. In this way, they do not need specialised translators and they can use cheaper or more user-friendly tools. If the project is small, even Office suite programs are used. GILT:::Market research
  • 23. Market research 22 The most common localisation tools are Catalyst and Passolo. They show more similarities than differences at a basic level, with the differences being more obvious at a specialized level. For this reason, the choice lies in usability and, of course, price. OTHER TOOLS There are less powerful tools that are however widely used for two main reasons: they are cheaper and they are simpler. The following are some of the most common. The prices are approximations (from the price in EUR/USD) for the standard, single-user licence. (Links refer to the product websites.) • Lingobit Localizer Standard: £430 • Sisulizer Translator: £179 • Multilizer Pro for Translators: Around £162 SDL PASSOLO 2011 SDL Passolo 2011: £1750 GILT:::Market research ALCHEMY CATALYST 10 Translator/Pro edition: Around £400.
  • 24. Market research 23 GLOBALISATION Globalyzer is an internationalisation tool which supports creating, adapting, and verifying software in order to make it “localisation-ready”. It is aimed at large, complex multilingual projects that need to be managed by several development teams for quick turnarounds. In these environments it is essential to “catch” code mistakes before localisation, and that is what this tool does. The price of the software is not published on the website, but a free trial is available upon request. WORD COUNT WebBudget TX This is a word count tool used in localisation projects, because it supports a variety of formats, including most common tagged and scripting languages. It costs £320 but a 15-day demo is available for isolated needs. It says it works with PHP but it did not work when we tried to do word counts for sites using PHP. PractiCount This is another word count tool that also supports most common formats but the results were not good either, as it included duplicate files (it doesn’t recognize them as duplicate files because their file paths are different). The standard version costs £36. There is a business version with additional features like file converting and counting of files in other computers for £62. Quality Assurance QA Distiller This is the most specialized and powerful tool for quality control. It detects omissions, inconsistencies, formatting problems, and terminology errors. This program can be integrated into most CAT tools so that the errors are automatically tracked. The freelance version (only 3 languages supported) costs around £200. The professional (unlimited version) costs around £800. Apsic Xbench Xbench is similar to QA Distiller, although it lacks some of the features. However, it is used extensively because it is free. GILT:::Market research
  • 25. Relevant articles 24 Beninatto, R. (2011, 06 21). Three Takeaways from Localization World Barcelona. Retrieved 10 17, 2012, from Localization Industry 411: http://www.l10n411.com/2011/06/three-takeaways-from-localization-world.html Blau, A. (2012, 01 16). Comparing Software Tools for World Readiness (i18n). Retrieved 10 16, 2012, from i18nBlog.com: http://i18nblog.com/2012/01/16/comparing-software-tools-for-world-readiness-i18n/ Bracken, C. (2011, 02 15). The Lion, The Weaver and The Weird Valuations. Retrieved 10 25, 2012, from Andovar: http://www.andovar.com/blog/industry_valuations/ Brinton, D. (2011). Social & Mobile Apps and Globalization – Confessions of a g11n Veteran. Retrieved 10 25, 2012, from Lingoport: http://www.lingoport.com/software-internationalization-articles/social-mobile-apps- globalization-confessions-g11n-veteran/ Common Sense Advisory. (2012, 05 31). The Top 100 Language Service Providers. Retrieved 09 24, 2012, from Common Sense Advisory: http://www.commonsenseadvisory.com King, C. (2008, 02 22). Stop Pushing your Foreign Visitors Away. Retrieved 11 25, 2012, from cindyking: http:// cindyking.biz/stop-pushing-your-foreign-visitors-away/ The Globalization and Localization Association. (n.d.). Localization definitions. Retrieved 09 25, 2012, from Gala website: http://gal.gala-global.org Wheeler, P. (2009, 03 27). Who’s responsible for Localization in your organization? Retrieved 10 15, 2012, from Localization Localisation: http://localizationlocalisation.wordpress.com/2009/03/27/who%E2%80%99s- responsible-for-localization-in-your-organization/ ABOUT THE AUTHOR Mizar Becerril is a Spanish translator specialised in Localisation, with a wide experience in videogame localisation. She has worked in several important projects such as Guild Wars 2 and Monster Hunter Tri G, and she has recently collaborated with Kwintessential in a broad range of localisation-related assignments. She holds a BA in Translation and Interpreting and a Master’s Degree in Software and Multimedia Localisation from the Universidad Intenacional Menéndez Pelayo (Spain). GILT:::Relevant articles
  • 26. 25 ABOUT KWINTESSENTIAL Kwintessential aim to build a global brand which is synonymous with helping businesses thrive within the international, multilingual and culturally diverse marketplace. Our vision is to continue to develop Kwintessential as the ‘go-to company’ when it comes to business needs requiring expertise in languages and cultures. In realising our vision, our five goals are to provide: A consultative approach to business; with solutions fully tailored to the needs of our diverse client base World-class customer service Top quality services and products Provision of services across a global scope; utilising the skills of our global linguist teams Education of others in the work of our sector Our Services We drive our goals and vision through our five key services: 1 2 3 4 5 Contact Kwintessential 01460 279 900 info@kwintessential.co.uk www.kwintessential.co.uk @kwintessential linkedin.com/company/ kwintessential/
  • 27. 26 Contact Kwintessential 01460 279 900 info@kwintessential.co.uk www.kwintessential.co.uk @kwintessential linkedin.com/company/ kwintessential/ Our services achieve two goals: They help a client overcome an issue involving a different language/culture, or They help a client use language/culture to their competitive advantage in business. For example, a client may need a translation in order to understand what a contract in French says in English, or they may need a French translation of their website in order to tap French sales. Similarly, some training in team-building may help solve current communication issues with international teams, or be used during the formation of a team to strengthen it moving forward. Translation Comprehensive range of translation services covering all world languages, all formats and all business sectors. Interpreting Global coverage for consecutive and simultaneous interpreters available for all needs, from business meetings to conferences to legal hearings. Training Extensive training and education solutions that deliver ROI through helping businesses thrive internationally; from cultural awareness to management to remote working skills. Localisation In-depth localisation services covering websites, apps, social media, video, e-commerce and marketing consultancy. Design Complete, hands-on design services covering typesetting, graphic design, digital and social media. Our unique selling point involves a holistic view of the impact of globalisation on our clients’ businesses through each and every service we provide. We are able to tie them together, make sense of them and provide innovative solutions in response. 1 2