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By Robert Sylvester
Objective:
To enable students acquire knowledge and techniques
necessary for executing cadastral survey tasks in
accordance with the land survey regulations of Tanzania
 Delivery mode: Lecture, Practical (GT284) & Project (GM284)
 Contact time: GT234: 3 hrs for lectures, 2 hrs for practical
9 weeks (12th April – 11th June)
GM284: 2 weeks for fieldwork (14th – 28th June)
2 weeks for office work
 Assessment : GT234: CA (2Asgnts+2Tests) = 40%, Exam = 60%
GM284: CA (Group Oral Presnt – 10%, Individual Assmnt
– 30%), Exam (Group Oral Presnt – 5%, Individual
Assmnt – 15%, Written Report – 40%)
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Topics: Part I
 Meaning and purpose of cadastral surveying
 Land parcel identifiers
 Boundary types, definition, delineation and restoration
 Cadastral surveying in urban areas
Field techniques
Accuracy specifications and standards
The main characteristic of cadastral surveys in urban
areas is “Plot setting out from plan data” i.e. block
setting out and sub-division for plots.
 Data processing, presentation and reporting – survey records
including Survey Plans & Standard Forms
 Cadastre and digital cadastral databases
 Laws governing cadastral surveys in Tanzania
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Topics: Part II
 Cadastral surveying in in rural areas
 Field techniques
 Accuracy specifications and standards
 The main characteristic of cadastral surveys in rural
areas is “Adjudication”
 Sub-division surveys
 Isolated surveys (….made easy by GPS today)
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Reference Books
 Dale, P. F., (1976), Cadastral surveying within
commonwealth, H. M. S. O., London.
 Silayo, E. H., (1997), Cadastral Surveying Practice in
Tanzania, Dar es Salaam University Press, Dar es Salaam.
 Survey and Mapping Division (SMD), (1957), The Land
Survey Ordinance (Cap. 390) & Tanzania Survey
Regulations, Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban
Development, Dar es Salaam.
 SMD Divisional Technical and Administrative Circulars
 Allan, A., (1993), Survey Practice and Computation,
Oxford.
 Ewan W. Anderson, (2006), International Boundaries.
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Background: Cadastral Surveying System in Tz
Cadastral Surveying concept was introduced in Tanzania by
the German colonial administration, which formed the
Department of Surveying and Agriculture in 1893.
British followed the footsteps of the German administration.
Initially cadastral surveys were used for the alienation of
land to European settlers.
Currently, the cadastral surveying system is administratively
placed in the Ministry of Lands as the other related
disciplines (Land Use/Physical Planning, Land Registration
& Titling, Management and Valuation)
A ministerial organ that administers cadastral surveys in
Tanzania is the Surveys and Mapping Division (SMD).
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When public demand for plots emerges,
Town-planners prepare TP drawings
Geomaticians implement approved TP drawings
& come up with Cadastral survey plans
Land managers use the survey plan info to
prepare titles & allocate plots to individuals
Prior to acquisition of Survey Instructions, your role
is to act and transfer the TP drawing dimensions to
the ground to physically define boundaries of
proposed plots, and ultimately come up with survey
plans providing cadastral information, a prerequisite
for acquisition of land ownership rights.
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General meaning of Cadastral surveying
… survey of land boundaries together with
significant physical features existing on the
land at the time of survey.
The boundaries to survey include:
 land parcel boundaries to obtain surveyed
plots (cadastral surveys in urban areas)
 land administrative boundaries
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Plot size categories
High density (HD) plots – covers an area of up to 400m2 (for
people of low income)
Medium density (MD) plots – covers an area from 401 up to
800m2
Low density (LD) plots – covers an area from 801 up to
1600m2 (for people of high income)
A land parcel covering an area greater than 1600m2 is treated
as a Farm or a plot for special use e.g. open space, play
ground, etc.
In most cases, farms are found in rural areas (cadastral
surveys in rural areas in which case TP drawings are not
necessary).
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Land administrative boundaries
include
 Village boundaries
 District boundaries
 Regional boundaries
 National boundaries
 International boundaries
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How land boundaries are realized on the ground?
 The surveyed boundaries are permanently marked on
the ground using boundary markers called beacons.
 Beacons are numbered, coordinated, mapped on
cadastral survey plans, approved and registered by the
government through the Ministry of Lands, SMD.
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Purpose of cadastral surveying
… to provide geometric description, sizes and locations
of land parcels for purposes of facilitating equitable
access to land and registration of land rights.
Based on this, an extract of the cadastral plan for one
land parcel – called Deed Plan - is always annexed {Take
illegally} to the Certificate of Title.
Recently, the primary objective has developed into fiscal
purposes whereby cadastral surveys are used as a basis
for collection of land rent/property tax and for
supporting land market.
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Cadastral surveying from legal perspective
 … is called legal survey as it provide crucial
info for legalization of property ownership.
 To own a plot legally, a Land Title/Certificate
(of which a deed plan showing the plot
location, extent, shape & area size is part of)
should be granted to an individual, by the
government.
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Cadastral survey vs development
As land is a base for development,
 cadastral surveyors can make land
development possible by just surveying land
parcels
… since sustainable developments take place
on surveyed lands
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Execution (carrying out) of Cadastral
Surveying
 Intro to of Cadastral Surveying Execution
 Demarcation survey
 Coordination survey
 Cadastral surveying in Urban areas
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Intro to Cadastral Surveying Execution
The execution of all cadastral surveys in Tz is
administered by the Surveys and Mapping Division
(SMD), including: monitoring, regulating & supervising
cadastral works undertaken by Government & Licensed
Private Surveyors.
So, SMD checks & ensures that all cadastral surveys in the
country are executed in accordance with the laid down
standards, approves cadastral tasks, keeps and maintains
records of approved surveys, prepares or causes the
preparation of deed plans needed for land titles,
establishes & densify controls upon which cadastral (and
other) surveys are connected/tied to.
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 The authority to execute cadastral surveys is vested with
duly qualified land surveyors or survey assistants
who discharge such mandate under the general
directions of the Director of SMD
 The technical execution of cadastral surveys in Tanzania
is governed by the provisions of the Land Survey
Ordinance (cap. 390).
… it provides for the making of subsidiary legislations
(regulations) which must be followed in carrying out
such surveys
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 The Land Survey Ordinance empowers the land surveyor
to enter the land for the purpose of executing cadastral
survey.
 But, before doing so the surveyor is supposed to give the
land owner a reasonable notice of his/her intention to
enter the land – why?
… to avoid penalty against any damage to the property
which may be happen in the due cause of executing the
survey.
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Demarcation survey
A process of physically marking boundaries of blocks
of land parcels on the ground to indicate their limits.
It often involves:
block setting out, and marking block corners & sometimes
where the block boundary meets other features (river,
shoreline, road, railway) by temporary boundary markers
(wooden pegs/ pins)
bush clearing along block boundary lines – to ensure inter-
visibility between corner points. Caution: You are required
to observe highest degree of carefulness, responsibility and
judgment during fieldwork to avoid conflicts that may rise
due to e.g. cutting down standing crops, valuable trees and
shrubs unnecessarily
replacing pegs with permanent boundary markers: Beacons
& IPC
 So, a survey whose aim is to demarcate and record the position of
boundaries of land is what we call cadastral survey
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Coordination survey
Following successful completion of demarcation,
 all block corner beacons are coordinated by traverse,
bearing & distance fixation, on-line methods or other
suitable methods
 The coordination survey is usually connected to a control
framework that exists in the area of survey (but, if
controls do not exist, it has to be established before
embarking on cadastral survey execution as the surveys
must be tied to a known & precise control framework)
 Results two things: beacons in the ground & the
cadastral survey plan; the latter being a graphic
description of the position of the former.
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Land boundary descriptions
Three systems of boundary descriptions used in Tanzania:
1. Verbal boundary description
2. Numerical boundary description
3. Graphical boundary description
A combination of verbal, numerical and graphical
description is used in the delineation of the national,
regional and district boundaries – making reference to
suitable topographic maps.
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Numerical boundary description system
… widely used in cadastral surveys whereby coordinates of
corners of blocks of land parcels are derived and plans
made. Several classifications of numerical descriptions
exist:
1. Coordinate system – widely used in urban areas.
Numerical (UTM coordinate) system is the boundary
description system used in Tanzania which is backed by
graphical description, the cadastral survey plan. The
coordinates are derived from measurements obtained
using land measurement systems e.g. Theodolite-tape
(and/or EDM) or Total station
2. Bearing & distance – used in the survey of farms and
estates in rural areas.
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Surveyed land boundaries & boundary markers
A boundary may be defined as a line, alone or together
with others, which encloses or defines the limits of a
land parcel. Such limits may be described:
1) in terms of numerical data (such as coordinate values
or bearings & distances) = fixed boundary: a line whose
position is precisely determined numerically, defined
physically by boundary markers and recorded by a
survey operation. Fixed boundary markers include
single beacon, double beacon & iron pin in concrete
(IPC).
Merits?
Demerits?
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2) by the locations of prominent physical features on
the ground (such as rivers, lakes, roads, etc.) = general
boundary: a line whose position is NOT precisely
determined by a survey operation, but rather defined by
prominent physical features.
 Merits?
 Demerits?
 Where a boundary is to be defined at the request of the
land owner (i.e. to be not created from plan data,
particularly in rural areas), the surveyor should always
encourage the land owner together with his
neighbors to walk along the bordering line in order
to agree upon the precise position of the boundary –
to avoid land disputes that rise due to
encroachment. This process is called adjudication
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Surveyed land - What is it?
… any land whose boundaries have been
surveyed by a duly authorized land surveyor.
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Cadastral surveying in Urban areas
 When cadastral surveying process in urban areas begin?
… when planners start preparing land use development
proposals for provision of plots and approval of the same by the
Director of physical planning at the ministry of lands.
 Urban cadastral surveys are executed in accordance with
approved layout plans.
 The surveyor’s task is to translate these land use proposals into
reality
 Survey regulations require surveyors to follow these proposals as
far as possible, except where local conditions drastically dictate
otherwise. Such drastic conditions are a common occurrence
when setting out plots in already developed areas with buildings
which have to be fitted into plots.
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Steps:
1. Obtain and study the layout plan/TP drawing carefully and
identify the location of the area to be surveyed.
2. Obtain and study the Survey instructions carefully
3. Data searching and Pre-computations. You need to do data search
to obtain base/guiding data or information that may be required for
planning the execution of the new survey. It could be
 Acquisition of information on adjacent surveys and geodetic
control points. In case survey instructions do not say anything, you
need to find out if there are adjacent (approved) surveys in the
neighborhood of the area of interest. If there is any, then identify and
obtain (a) plans, beacons/IPC coordinates and reports on such surveys,
and (b) coordinates of geodetic controls existing within or close
to the area of interest. Hence, prepare a sketch showing the
location of the new survey area relative to the adjacent surveys
and plot all the control points to realize their spatial
distribution
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 Gathering information relating to pending or
unsettled claims in land ownership –the so called
“Third Party Interests”. The area which is to be surveyed
might have property like buildings, crops, etc. that belong
to the out-going owners. If such owners have not yet
compensated or are not aware of the government plan to
have their land surveyed for re-allocation, they may
become obstacles to the surveying exercise. Occurrence of
this situation freezes the fieldwork for unknown length of
time waiting for clearance negotiation to allow the surveyor
to enter the land, to commence the fieldwork. To guard
against this problem, surveyors should develop a habit of
finding out whether all land related claims have been
cleared.
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After collecting the base/guiding information,
 earmark datum points to base on or that will tie the
survey work – they could be geodetic controls,
coordinated beacons & IPC
 do preliminary computations (pre-comps) that you think
will reveal useful information for the commencement of
the survey work. Such computations may include join
computations to obtain bearings & distances e.g. for
datum checks, setting out, and scaling coordinates and
sometimes angles & distances from the TP drawing.
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4.Reconnaissance
Do reconnaissance survey:
 to evaluate nature of the terrain & have an overview of
the area
 to assess the amount, types and magnitude of bush
clearing if necessary, level of existing development if any,
etc.
 to find out physically on the site, and recover on the
ground, the location of datum points and check for their
positional perfection.
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Note:
 Datum points and checks are among other things that must be
considered during reconnaissance as the new surveys starts from
the these points.
 Once found on the ground, datum points must be checked by
linear and/or angular measurements to prove their location
properness (i.e. datum check to find out if they are in-situ) as they
are sometimes disturbed by animals and/or human activities.
 A big variation between the measured distance (Sm) and
computed distance (Sc), in any set of points, is a reason enough to
suspect disturbance of any of or all the points.
 As accuracy specification for linear measurements for urban
surveys is One part in Six Thousand (1/6000), datum points are
proven to be in-situ if and only if (Sm – Sc)/Sc ≤ 1/6000 (and
therefore accepted as reference points for new surveys)
 This means that only a relative error of 1mm will be tolerated for a
measured distance of 6 meters for surveys executed in urban
areas, 20mm for 120m. To achieve this, lines should be measured
to higher accuracy. It is thus clear that surveyors need to be more
careful when measuring short distances.
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5. Job planning
 On the basis of the assessment done during
reconnaissance, the surveyor is now well set to plan,
organize and expeditiously undertake the survey work
efficiently and with confidence i.e.
 To conceive the most appropriate techniques to execute
the survey and thus derive reasonable cost estimates for
the survey work
 To workout a list of requirements including technical and
non-technical personnel, equipment, material, transport,
duration of the survey together with a time schedule plus
any other relevant logistics
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6. Control survey (if necessary)
If a control framework does not exist in the
neighborhood of the area of survey, the surveyor must
 establish,
 densify, or
 extend
new control points closer to the area of survey for
locating the new survey blocks.
 Triangulation, resection, intersection and traversing
techniques can do.
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7. Block demarcation
Once datum checks have yielded acceptable results,
setting out block boundaries from plan data can commence
on the basis of pre-computations.
Simple layouts are straight forward to set out on a relatively
flat terrain.
Complex layouts are more difficult to deal with, particularly
on undulating terrain, as they require more care and involve
setting up the machine at short distances.
As short distances are involved in complex layouts, more
regular check measurements have to be made to ensure that
demarcation work is in order; otherwise the whole layout
may swing in the undesired direction.
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 The speed of laying out the block corners, and hence the
total time required for field work is affected by the type
of layout plan in hand, nature of the terrain and weather
 Therefore these factors, except weather, should be taken
into account when making cost (budgeting) and
estimating project time.
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Block demarcation methods
 Staking out
 Scaling Angle and distance
 Scaling coordinates
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i) Scaling distances and angles
... from the layout plan, followed by setting out using a theodolite &
tape.
 One block is set out after another i.e. each block is build onto the
previous one – the same way a builder sets up a wall
The surveyor’s task is to:
 Scale off block distances from the layout plan using a scale ruler.
 Scale off/measure angles at all block corners using a protractor
Note: All scaled distances and angles must be recorded on the
sketch (field diagram). Preparation of field diagrams before
commencing the fieldwork is necessary - minimize chances of
committing scaling errors in the filed, and speed up field
operations
 Set out block corners on the ground using the scaled distances
and angles, and mark them initially by wooden pegs. Use iron
pins in areas where there is a lot of human activities going on.
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 Assuming that A, B, and C are among the datum points
(adjacent survey monuments) to be used to tie the new
(block) survey.
 How block corner1 is set out on the ground?
… a straight forward task
… mark it peg1
 How block corner2 is set out on the ground?
… not a straight forward task. Two options are possible – either
by empirical method or road secant computational method
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Empirical method
 Set out block corner2 from corner1 as usual and put peg2 at the
scaled distance 1-2 from corner1
 Check the position of peg2 with the road width (say, 20m) to
determine the correct alignment/orientation for line 1-2.
Why? Because the position of peg2 cannot be treated as the
correct one - it is prone to scaling errors (when scaling distance
1-2 & angle1) and errors due to measurements taken on uneven
ground
 Use the correct alignment and the scaled distance 1-2 to mark
the correct position for peg2
 What if line 1-2 is obstructed, say by a building or hill, how can
block corner2 be set out? Go for ….
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Road secant computational method
Considering all possible cases e.g. when
 Two roads of equal width (e.g. W = 20m) are meeting at
block corner2
How can block corner2 be set out?
 Two roads of different widths (e.g. W1 = 20m & W2 = 10m)
are meeting at block corner2
How can block corner2 be set out?
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ii) Scaling coordinates
… from the layout plan for join computations to obtain bearings
and distances. This is followed by setting out using a theodolite
& tape.
Tasks:
(a) As part of pre-computations,
 Scale out coordinates of the block corners. Scaling error should
be ≤ 0.2mm. This accuracy is attained only if scaling is done
appropriately on a dimensionally stable layout plan paper
 Compute road width and parallelism. Note that parallel lines
must have equal bearings. If this situation is not attained, check
the scaled coordinates and re-compute accordingly. When OK,
 Plot the locating control/datum points on the layout plan to
visualize their spatial distribution
 Join-comp between the control points and block corners to
obtain bearings and distances for setting out
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(b) Start setting out block corners using the computed
bearings and distances
************
 Disadvantages of scaling techniques?
 Advantages of scaling techniques?
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iii) Staking-out
… using a total station
The surveyor’s task is to:
 Scan the layout plan and digitize all the block corners
 Extract coordinates for digitized block corners onto a
sheet of paper
 Key inn the Total station all digitized coordinates
 Start staking-out in the field
Advantages?
Disadvantages?
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Checking the work
 For any technique you opt, always ensure the use of
independent checks and self checking methods, both in
the field as well as in the computations. It is important
to provide self checks to your fixations by e.g.
 Comparing computed or measured and scaled distances
to findout if they differ to an acceptable limit:
(Ss-Sc)/Sc ≤ 1/6000
 comparing a feature on the topographical map and on
the ground
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To complete demarcation survey,
Replace all wooden pegs/pins (temporarily marking the
block corners) with permanent boundary markers:
beacons and IPCs (at the truncation points). Beacons
should be sunk into the ground so that they protrude
about 2 to 4cm above the ground level for ease of
identification.
Ensure that all beacons and IPCs are numbered serially.
You may need to consult the district/municipal/township
land surveyor for the starting beacon number – a number
next to the last beacon number of the last survey work
done in the council. The numbers must be recorded in the
field diagram as soon as the beacons are emplaced into
the ground.
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8. Block coordination
Following successful completion of the demarcation work
(including ensuring that beacons/IPCs are properly erected,
checking and adjusting road width and parallelism), all
major block corner beacons/IPCs are coordinated.
Block coordination survey should commence on approved
controls (part of the national control framework) existing
in the neighborhood
If the control framework does not exist in the
neighborhood, control extension should be considered &
implemented to bring controls close to the survey area.
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 When staking out technique is used for demarcation, there
is no need of executing a coordination survey since block
coordination is done simultaneously with demarcation. But
when you employ scaling techniques for demarcation, it is
vital to plan for coordination survey, and therefore you
must decide on the right coordination methods to employ.
The decision on which coordination method to opt is done
dependant on the site situation as well as on the way blocks
are laid down.
 Always apply self & independent checks to all points that
you have fixed in the field as well as in the computations.
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Block coordination methods
 Traverse method
 Polar methods
 On-line fixation method
 etc.
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Traverse method
A traverse route should pass through or close to all necessary
block corner points need be coordinated & close to details to
be surveyed. It should take the shortest and most convenient
way.
Orientation lines should be as longest as possible between
the available datum points
Traverse baseline should be long in length to make the
traverse close, not loop. If the existing datum points give
short baseline, then think of establishing others that will
provide a long baseline
Traverse legs should be as long as possible (100-300m) & of
equal lengths. If shorter legs have to be used, great care &
forced centering techniques should be adopted wherever
possible.
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Traverse stations should be located properly in a way
that they are safe/stable, accessible & inter-visible
Use at least two zeros/arcs & observe at least four
rounds/sets of angles at a stn
Measure each traverse leg twice i.e. to-and-fro & take
the average value
The traverse linear accuracy (misclosure) is quoted in
terms of total error over the entire distance traversed.
Thus the minimal acceptable traverse linear
misclosure for boundary definition should be ≤ 1/6000
for urban surveys
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Polar methods: Make use of bearings & distances to fix a
new point (say C) relative to known points (say A & B)
Two polar methods exist:
i) Single bearing and distance fixation
 Measure distance S from A to C
 Observe angle θ at A formed by the two lines originating from A
to B and C
 Compute the bearing of C from A using angle θ
 Work out coordinates C(Xc,Yc) using the computed bearing & S.
An independent check is necessary to check the accuracy of
C(Xc,Yc), as the method does not check by itself .
 This can be done by involving another datum point and
comparing the measured & computed distances i.e. (Sm-Sc)/Sc ≤
1/6000, otherwise reject & repeat the check.
 Always use ‘single B&D fixation with a check’
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ii) Double bearing and distance fixation
 A more reliable polar method for coordinating
unknown point (e.g. C)
 Point C is fixed from two independent datum points
(say A & P) by computing its coordinates from both
datum points
 If the difference between the two sets of coordinates is
not exceeding ±0.03m, take the average to deduce the
final coordinates for point C.
 This method checks by itself - self checking method
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On-line fixation method
A method for coordinating unknown points (e.g. P & Q)
which lie on-line between two known points, say A & B
 Measure distances: AP, PQ, QB separately i.e. independently
 Check distances: APm + PQm + QBm = ABc or
(ABm-ABc)/ABc ≤ 1/6000
 Compute coordinates for point P(Xp,Yp) and Q(Xq,Yq) from
point A & B
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Booking & presentation of the block coordination lines
At the end of the coordination survey, all lines of
coordination (i.e. traverse routes, B&D fixation lines, on-
line fixation lines, etc.) should be depicted
diagrammatically using conventional lines and colour.
Such a diagram is known as a working diagram.
Traverse routes are shown on the working diagram using
continuous red lines
Bearing & distance fixation lines are shown using
continuous and dotted red lines
On-line fixation lines are shown using continuous blue
lines
Independent check lines are shown using dotted green
lines
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9. Block Subdivision for Plots
 Set up the machine (e.g. Theodolite) at the block corner orienting to
another corner, measure truncation distances (5m) and plot sides using
scaled distances by steel tape and ranging poles. However, the simplest
method for plot side measurements is step chaining! All plot side
measurements must be recorded on the field diagram to two decimal
places of a meter, as soon as they are taken.
 To check against gross errors, the plot sides fronting onto a common
line should be summed up and the sum compared with
measured/computed distance between the block line terminals. This
should give a relative error of 1/300 or better.
 All plot corners must be marked by pins, and later the pins for (i) HD
plots be cemented to become IPCs defining the plot corners, (ii) MD
and LD plots be replaced with beacons.
 It is important that plots appearing rectangular in shape on the TP
drawing be set out as rectangular as possible i.e. observe rectangularity
of plots intended to be rectangular notably HD plots.
6/4/2024 MSOKWA
56
10. Detail survey
 Picking predominant man-made and natural features existing on
the on the ground at the time of survey is an important activity as
in one way or another may affect the use of, or influence the value
of a plot.
 Accuracy specification for linear measurements to features during
detail surveys is 1/1000
 Note that a survey which give rise to a production of plan showing
plot boundaries without positions and extents of predominant
features existing on the ground at the time of survey is simply
referred to as a boundary survey (as it does not fulfill the
requirements of a Cadastre). Such requirements can only be met
by a cadastral survey which embraces detail surveys and hence
produce a plan showing both plot boundaries and predominant
features – called the Cadastral Survey Plan.
6/4/2024 MSOKWA
57
11. Compilation of the Cadastral survey work
 The cadastral survey work is usually compiled in the
form of a plan known as Cadastral Survey Plan, and Job
File containing a survey report with other survey data.
 Both the cadastral survey plan and the Job File are
dispatched to the Director of Surveys and Mapping
(SMD) for scrutiny and approval.
6/4/2024 MSOKWA
58
Job File
 Write a report on the survey work (Survey Report) and
assemble it with other survey data in the Job (paper) file.
 The survey data is usually organized in Standard Survey
Forms (SF) or Sheets and assembled in the job file.
 The arrangement starts from the back cover of the file
(inside face) with:
6/4/2024 MSOKWA
59
1. Field sheets
- Angle Sheets (SF1) - numbered AS1, AS2,
AS3, etc.
- Measurement sheets (SF2) - numbered MS1,
MS2, etc.
- Detail Sheets (SF3) – numbered DS1, DS2,
DS3, etc.
They must be
tied together
at the back
file cover
inside face,
one above the
other
2. Pre-computation sheets, if any – numbered i, ii, iii, etc.
3. Summary Sheet (SF4) – Record of type & standardization of
the equipment used
4. Approved Layout proposal/TP drawing
5. Survey Instructions (SF37)
6. On-line Computations (SF7)
7. Bearing and distance fixes (SF6)
8. Traverse Computations (SF5)
9. Datum Join Computations & check distances
(SF8)
10. Area Computations (from coordinates) (SF9)
11. Area Computations (from irregular plots) (SF10)
6/4/2024 MSOKWA 60
12. Triangle Solutions, if any (SF11)
13. Scaled/digitized and Staked out
coordinates
14. Data sheet (Coordinate list) (SF12)
15. Sketch/Field diagrams (SF14)
16. Certificate of Acceptance of Boundary Beacons - BC1
(SF32) - Signed by Land Officer
17. Certificate of Erection of Beacons - BC2 (SF34) - Signed by
Surveyor
18. Certificate of Inspection of Boundary Beacons (BC3)
19. Cost sheet, if relevant
20. Survey Report (SF15,16,17,18) - Signed by the Licensed
surveyor
21. Working Diagram
22. Covering Letter (by the Licensed surveyor) – 1st page when
you open the file
23. Index (a list of Job file content) – on top of the file cover
6/4/2024 MSOKWA
61
NB: Send the job file to any professional surveyor
to ink-check the work (in green) before you
dispatch it to the Director SMD for scrutiny &
approval.
6/4/2024 MSOKWA
62
Cadastral Survey Plan
(i) Scale selection
 Consideration should be given to the choice of a suitable
scale as it determines the amount of mapping space, &
hence the amount of information which can be portrayed
on the plan.
 While choosing a scale, ensure that there will be enough
space on the mapping plane for writing all the descriptive
plot/marginal information
6/4/2024 MSOKWA
63
Considerations for selection of a suitable scale
 Size & shape of the plot(s) to be plotted
 Relative sizes of the shortest & longest boundary lines
 Density of information vs clarity & legibility/readability,
 Size of grid interval
 Size of drafting & reproduction material available (taking
into consideration that the minimum size of a plan
should not be less than 20cm x 30cm)
 Size of reproduction equipment available e.g. printer,
plotter
 Storage & handling convenience of the resulting plans
and copies made from them
6/4/2024 MSOKWA
64
Scale specifications
Regulation No.53 sets out general scales to be used for cadastral
survey plans:
 Scales for urban surveys: 1:500, 1:1,000, 1:2,000, 1:2,500 & 1:5,000
 Scales for rural surveys:
1:5,000 for 10-40 hectares,
1:10,000 for 41-400 hectares,
1:50,000 for 401-2,000 hectares,
1:100,000 for 2,001-4,000 hectares
NB:
 The SMD has recently directed that all cadastral surveys in urban
areas should be drawn at a scale of 1:1000.
 The chosen scale must be indicated at the bottom of the plan
6/4/2024 MSOKWA
65
(ii) Plan drawing/plotting
 After choosing the suitable scale, a plan is plotted
 Regulation No.54 directs that all plans be plotted by
rectangular coordinates
 Plotting is done either manually using conventional
cartographic tools or digitally using spatial software
which include GIS (e.g. ArcGIS) and CAD (e.g. AutoCAD
Land Development)
 The original (drawn) cadastral survey plan is normally
rolled and dispatched separately to the Director SMD for
scrutiny and approval.
6/4/2024 MSOKWA
66
Typical information presented on the plan
 Information that may facilitate identification of the
physical location of the surveyed area which include
heading (title), North arrow & locality sketch (for rural
surveys as an inset map)
 Boundary information which include location, dimensions
& direction of the surveyed plot(s). The location of a plot is
often defined by coordinated boundary makers. A table
below shows conventional symbols for boundary makers
used on plans
6/4/2024 MSOKWA
67
Feature Symbol Colour Remarks
Iron Pin in
concrete (IPC)
● IPC22 Black Placed at the
truncation and on-
line points
Single Concrete
Beacon ○ KAF88
Black
Double
Concrete
Beacon (DCB)
○KAF89(DCB) Black
Water Beacon ○ KAF90(WB) Black
Placed at the high
water mark level of
the coastline or at
the flood level of
river banks
6/4/2024 MSOKWA
68
 Plot & estate (farm) size/area - computed in squire
meters
 Details (Regulation No. 56)
 Adjacent Boundaries shown on the plan by dotted lines
(Regulation No. 57)
NB: At this stage, the plan is complete. It must be signed by
the cartographer & licensed surveyor before sending it
to the Director SMD for further checking and approval.
6/4/2024 MSOKWA
69
At SMD: Officials make amendments to the plan (in red)
… such as inserting:
(i) Plot Numbers
 every surveyed plot is given a number by which it is
registered and known
 The name & date of the official who inserted plot numbers
must be indicated in the space provided for this purpose at
the bottom of the plan.
6/4/2024 MSOKWA
70
(ii) Plan Numbers
 The cadastral survey plan is always identified by two unique numbers
namely the registration number, which is serial and the plan
number. These numbers are written on the plan, at the bottom.
 The plan number is alphanumeric and appears in two forms, either
preceded by letter D or E.
 Letter D is used for urban area surveys, while letter E is used for rural
area surveys E.g.
 An urban plan number would be D19 483/6, in which the superscript
(denote regional/district headquarters) i.e. 19 is a number for
Kigoma/Ujiji Township, 483 is the Block number i.e. 483rd block in Ujiji
township and 6 is the serial number of the plan in block 483 i.e. 6th plan
in block 483.
 A rural plan number would be E1 14/5, in which the superscript 1 is a
number for Dar es Salaam region (denote rural area), 14 is the
fourteenth Block number and 5 is the fifth plan in Block 14.
6/4/2024 MSOKWA
71
Cadastral information
 Upon approval by the Director of Surveys and Mapping,
the original plan + the job file information (= cadastral
information) are kept in the Director’s office thereby
become government property.
 The government has full control over the cadastral
information
6/4/2024 MSOKWA
72

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GT234 CADASTRAL SURVEYING gggggggggg.ppt

  • 2. Objective: To enable students acquire knowledge and techniques necessary for executing cadastral survey tasks in accordance with the land survey regulations of Tanzania  Delivery mode: Lecture, Practical (GT284) & Project (GM284)  Contact time: GT234: 3 hrs for lectures, 2 hrs for practical 9 weeks (12th April – 11th June) GM284: 2 weeks for fieldwork (14th – 28th June) 2 weeks for office work  Assessment : GT234: CA (2Asgnts+2Tests) = 40%, Exam = 60% GM284: CA (Group Oral Presnt – 10%, Individual Assmnt – 30%), Exam (Group Oral Presnt – 5%, Individual Assmnt – 15%, Written Report – 40%) 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 2
  • 3. Topics: Part I  Meaning and purpose of cadastral surveying  Land parcel identifiers  Boundary types, definition, delineation and restoration  Cadastral surveying in urban areas Field techniques Accuracy specifications and standards The main characteristic of cadastral surveys in urban areas is “Plot setting out from plan data” i.e. block setting out and sub-division for plots.  Data processing, presentation and reporting – survey records including Survey Plans & Standard Forms  Cadastre and digital cadastral databases  Laws governing cadastral surveys in Tanzania 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 3
  • 4. Topics: Part II  Cadastral surveying in in rural areas  Field techniques  Accuracy specifications and standards  The main characteristic of cadastral surveys in rural areas is “Adjudication”  Sub-division surveys  Isolated surveys (….made easy by GPS today) 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 4
  • 5. Reference Books  Dale, P. F., (1976), Cadastral surveying within commonwealth, H. M. S. O., London.  Silayo, E. H., (1997), Cadastral Surveying Practice in Tanzania, Dar es Salaam University Press, Dar es Salaam.  Survey and Mapping Division (SMD), (1957), The Land Survey Ordinance (Cap. 390) & Tanzania Survey Regulations, Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, Dar es Salaam.  SMD Divisional Technical and Administrative Circulars  Allan, A., (1993), Survey Practice and Computation, Oxford.  Ewan W. Anderson, (2006), International Boundaries. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 5
  • 6. Background: Cadastral Surveying System in Tz Cadastral Surveying concept was introduced in Tanzania by the German colonial administration, which formed the Department of Surveying and Agriculture in 1893. British followed the footsteps of the German administration. Initially cadastral surveys were used for the alienation of land to European settlers. Currently, the cadastral surveying system is administratively placed in the Ministry of Lands as the other related disciplines (Land Use/Physical Planning, Land Registration & Titling, Management and Valuation) A ministerial organ that administers cadastral surveys in Tanzania is the Surveys and Mapping Division (SMD). 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 6
  • 7. When public demand for plots emerges, Town-planners prepare TP drawings Geomaticians implement approved TP drawings & come up with Cadastral survey plans Land managers use the survey plan info to prepare titles & allocate plots to individuals Prior to acquisition of Survey Instructions, your role is to act and transfer the TP drawing dimensions to the ground to physically define boundaries of proposed plots, and ultimately come up with survey plans providing cadastral information, a prerequisite for acquisition of land ownership rights. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 7
  • 8. General meaning of Cadastral surveying … survey of land boundaries together with significant physical features existing on the land at the time of survey. The boundaries to survey include:  land parcel boundaries to obtain surveyed plots (cadastral surveys in urban areas)  land administrative boundaries 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 8
  • 9. Plot size categories High density (HD) plots – covers an area of up to 400m2 (for people of low income) Medium density (MD) plots – covers an area from 401 up to 800m2 Low density (LD) plots – covers an area from 801 up to 1600m2 (for people of high income) A land parcel covering an area greater than 1600m2 is treated as a Farm or a plot for special use e.g. open space, play ground, etc. In most cases, farms are found in rural areas (cadastral surveys in rural areas in which case TP drawings are not necessary). 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 9
  • 10. Land administrative boundaries include  Village boundaries  District boundaries  Regional boundaries  National boundaries  International boundaries 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 10
  • 11. How land boundaries are realized on the ground?  The surveyed boundaries are permanently marked on the ground using boundary markers called beacons.  Beacons are numbered, coordinated, mapped on cadastral survey plans, approved and registered by the government through the Ministry of Lands, SMD. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 11
  • 12. Purpose of cadastral surveying … to provide geometric description, sizes and locations of land parcels for purposes of facilitating equitable access to land and registration of land rights. Based on this, an extract of the cadastral plan for one land parcel – called Deed Plan - is always annexed {Take illegally} to the Certificate of Title. Recently, the primary objective has developed into fiscal purposes whereby cadastral surveys are used as a basis for collection of land rent/property tax and for supporting land market. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 12
  • 14. Cadastral surveying from legal perspective  … is called legal survey as it provide crucial info for legalization of property ownership.  To own a plot legally, a Land Title/Certificate (of which a deed plan showing the plot location, extent, shape & area size is part of) should be granted to an individual, by the government. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 14
  • 15. Cadastral survey vs development As land is a base for development,  cadastral surveyors can make land development possible by just surveying land parcels … since sustainable developments take place on surveyed lands 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 15
  • 16. Execution (carrying out) of Cadastral Surveying  Intro to of Cadastral Surveying Execution  Demarcation survey  Coordination survey  Cadastral surveying in Urban areas 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 16
  • 17. Intro to Cadastral Surveying Execution The execution of all cadastral surveys in Tz is administered by the Surveys and Mapping Division (SMD), including: monitoring, regulating & supervising cadastral works undertaken by Government & Licensed Private Surveyors. So, SMD checks & ensures that all cadastral surveys in the country are executed in accordance with the laid down standards, approves cadastral tasks, keeps and maintains records of approved surveys, prepares or causes the preparation of deed plans needed for land titles, establishes & densify controls upon which cadastral (and other) surveys are connected/tied to. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 17
  • 18.  The authority to execute cadastral surveys is vested with duly qualified land surveyors or survey assistants who discharge such mandate under the general directions of the Director of SMD  The technical execution of cadastral surveys in Tanzania is governed by the provisions of the Land Survey Ordinance (cap. 390). … it provides for the making of subsidiary legislations (regulations) which must be followed in carrying out such surveys 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 18
  • 19.  The Land Survey Ordinance empowers the land surveyor to enter the land for the purpose of executing cadastral survey.  But, before doing so the surveyor is supposed to give the land owner a reasonable notice of his/her intention to enter the land – why? … to avoid penalty against any damage to the property which may be happen in the due cause of executing the survey. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 19
  • 20. Demarcation survey A process of physically marking boundaries of blocks of land parcels on the ground to indicate their limits. It often involves: block setting out, and marking block corners & sometimes where the block boundary meets other features (river, shoreline, road, railway) by temporary boundary markers (wooden pegs/ pins) bush clearing along block boundary lines – to ensure inter- visibility between corner points. Caution: You are required to observe highest degree of carefulness, responsibility and judgment during fieldwork to avoid conflicts that may rise due to e.g. cutting down standing crops, valuable trees and shrubs unnecessarily replacing pegs with permanent boundary markers: Beacons & IPC  So, a survey whose aim is to demarcate and record the position of boundaries of land is what we call cadastral survey 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 20
  • 21. Coordination survey Following successful completion of demarcation,  all block corner beacons are coordinated by traverse, bearing & distance fixation, on-line methods or other suitable methods  The coordination survey is usually connected to a control framework that exists in the area of survey (but, if controls do not exist, it has to be established before embarking on cadastral survey execution as the surveys must be tied to a known & precise control framework)  Results two things: beacons in the ground & the cadastral survey plan; the latter being a graphic description of the position of the former. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 21
  • 22. Land boundary descriptions Three systems of boundary descriptions used in Tanzania: 1. Verbal boundary description 2. Numerical boundary description 3. Graphical boundary description A combination of verbal, numerical and graphical description is used in the delineation of the national, regional and district boundaries – making reference to suitable topographic maps. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 22
  • 23. Numerical boundary description system … widely used in cadastral surveys whereby coordinates of corners of blocks of land parcels are derived and plans made. Several classifications of numerical descriptions exist: 1. Coordinate system – widely used in urban areas. Numerical (UTM coordinate) system is the boundary description system used in Tanzania which is backed by graphical description, the cadastral survey plan. The coordinates are derived from measurements obtained using land measurement systems e.g. Theodolite-tape (and/or EDM) or Total station 2. Bearing & distance – used in the survey of farms and estates in rural areas. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 23
  • 24. Surveyed land boundaries & boundary markers A boundary may be defined as a line, alone or together with others, which encloses or defines the limits of a land parcel. Such limits may be described: 1) in terms of numerical data (such as coordinate values or bearings & distances) = fixed boundary: a line whose position is precisely determined numerically, defined physically by boundary markers and recorded by a survey operation. Fixed boundary markers include single beacon, double beacon & iron pin in concrete (IPC). Merits? Demerits? 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 24
  • 25. 2) by the locations of prominent physical features on the ground (such as rivers, lakes, roads, etc.) = general boundary: a line whose position is NOT precisely determined by a survey operation, but rather defined by prominent physical features.  Merits?  Demerits?  Where a boundary is to be defined at the request of the land owner (i.e. to be not created from plan data, particularly in rural areas), the surveyor should always encourage the land owner together with his neighbors to walk along the bordering line in order to agree upon the precise position of the boundary – to avoid land disputes that rise due to encroachment. This process is called adjudication 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 25
  • 26. Surveyed land - What is it? … any land whose boundaries have been surveyed by a duly authorized land surveyor. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 26
  • 27. Cadastral surveying in Urban areas  When cadastral surveying process in urban areas begin? … when planners start preparing land use development proposals for provision of plots and approval of the same by the Director of physical planning at the ministry of lands.  Urban cadastral surveys are executed in accordance with approved layout plans.  The surveyor’s task is to translate these land use proposals into reality  Survey regulations require surveyors to follow these proposals as far as possible, except where local conditions drastically dictate otherwise. Such drastic conditions are a common occurrence when setting out plots in already developed areas with buildings which have to be fitted into plots. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 27
  • 28. Steps: 1. Obtain and study the layout plan/TP drawing carefully and identify the location of the area to be surveyed. 2. Obtain and study the Survey instructions carefully 3. Data searching and Pre-computations. You need to do data search to obtain base/guiding data or information that may be required for planning the execution of the new survey. It could be  Acquisition of information on adjacent surveys and geodetic control points. In case survey instructions do not say anything, you need to find out if there are adjacent (approved) surveys in the neighborhood of the area of interest. If there is any, then identify and obtain (a) plans, beacons/IPC coordinates and reports on such surveys, and (b) coordinates of geodetic controls existing within or close to the area of interest. Hence, prepare a sketch showing the location of the new survey area relative to the adjacent surveys and plot all the control points to realize their spatial distribution 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 28
  • 29.  Gathering information relating to pending or unsettled claims in land ownership –the so called “Third Party Interests”. The area which is to be surveyed might have property like buildings, crops, etc. that belong to the out-going owners. If such owners have not yet compensated or are not aware of the government plan to have their land surveyed for re-allocation, they may become obstacles to the surveying exercise. Occurrence of this situation freezes the fieldwork for unknown length of time waiting for clearance negotiation to allow the surveyor to enter the land, to commence the fieldwork. To guard against this problem, surveyors should develop a habit of finding out whether all land related claims have been cleared. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 29
  • 30. After collecting the base/guiding information,  earmark datum points to base on or that will tie the survey work – they could be geodetic controls, coordinated beacons & IPC  do preliminary computations (pre-comps) that you think will reveal useful information for the commencement of the survey work. Such computations may include join computations to obtain bearings & distances e.g. for datum checks, setting out, and scaling coordinates and sometimes angles & distances from the TP drawing. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 30
  • 31. 4.Reconnaissance Do reconnaissance survey:  to evaluate nature of the terrain & have an overview of the area  to assess the amount, types and magnitude of bush clearing if necessary, level of existing development if any, etc.  to find out physically on the site, and recover on the ground, the location of datum points and check for their positional perfection. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 31
  • 32. Note:  Datum points and checks are among other things that must be considered during reconnaissance as the new surveys starts from the these points.  Once found on the ground, datum points must be checked by linear and/or angular measurements to prove their location properness (i.e. datum check to find out if they are in-situ) as they are sometimes disturbed by animals and/or human activities.  A big variation between the measured distance (Sm) and computed distance (Sc), in any set of points, is a reason enough to suspect disturbance of any of or all the points.  As accuracy specification for linear measurements for urban surveys is One part in Six Thousand (1/6000), datum points are proven to be in-situ if and only if (Sm – Sc)/Sc ≤ 1/6000 (and therefore accepted as reference points for new surveys)  This means that only a relative error of 1mm will be tolerated for a measured distance of 6 meters for surveys executed in urban areas, 20mm for 120m. To achieve this, lines should be measured to higher accuracy. It is thus clear that surveyors need to be more careful when measuring short distances. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 32
  • 33. 5. Job planning  On the basis of the assessment done during reconnaissance, the surveyor is now well set to plan, organize and expeditiously undertake the survey work efficiently and with confidence i.e.  To conceive the most appropriate techniques to execute the survey and thus derive reasonable cost estimates for the survey work  To workout a list of requirements including technical and non-technical personnel, equipment, material, transport, duration of the survey together with a time schedule plus any other relevant logistics 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 33
  • 34. 6. Control survey (if necessary) If a control framework does not exist in the neighborhood of the area of survey, the surveyor must  establish,  densify, or  extend new control points closer to the area of survey for locating the new survey blocks.  Triangulation, resection, intersection and traversing techniques can do. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 34
  • 35. 7. Block demarcation Once datum checks have yielded acceptable results, setting out block boundaries from plan data can commence on the basis of pre-computations. Simple layouts are straight forward to set out on a relatively flat terrain. Complex layouts are more difficult to deal with, particularly on undulating terrain, as they require more care and involve setting up the machine at short distances. As short distances are involved in complex layouts, more regular check measurements have to be made to ensure that demarcation work is in order; otherwise the whole layout may swing in the undesired direction. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 35
  • 36.  The speed of laying out the block corners, and hence the total time required for field work is affected by the type of layout plan in hand, nature of the terrain and weather  Therefore these factors, except weather, should be taken into account when making cost (budgeting) and estimating project time. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 36
  • 37. Block demarcation methods  Staking out  Scaling Angle and distance  Scaling coordinates 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 37
  • 38. i) Scaling distances and angles ... from the layout plan, followed by setting out using a theodolite & tape.  One block is set out after another i.e. each block is build onto the previous one – the same way a builder sets up a wall The surveyor’s task is to:  Scale off block distances from the layout plan using a scale ruler.  Scale off/measure angles at all block corners using a protractor Note: All scaled distances and angles must be recorded on the sketch (field diagram). Preparation of field diagrams before commencing the fieldwork is necessary - minimize chances of committing scaling errors in the filed, and speed up field operations  Set out block corners on the ground using the scaled distances and angles, and mark them initially by wooden pegs. Use iron pins in areas where there is a lot of human activities going on. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 38
  • 39.  Assuming that A, B, and C are among the datum points (adjacent survey monuments) to be used to tie the new (block) survey.  How block corner1 is set out on the ground? … a straight forward task … mark it peg1  How block corner2 is set out on the ground? … not a straight forward task. Two options are possible – either by empirical method or road secant computational method 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 39
  • 40. Empirical method  Set out block corner2 from corner1 as usual and put peg2 at the scaled distance 1-2 from corner1  Check the position of peg2 with the road width (say, 20m) to determine the correct alignment/orientation for line 1-2. Why? Because the position of peg2 cannot be treated as the correct one - it is prone to scaling errors (when scaling distance 1-2 & angle1) and errors due to measurements taken on uneven ground  Use the correct alignment and the scaled distance 1-2 to mark the correct position for peg2  What if line 1-2 is obstructed, say by a building or hill, how can block corner2 be set out? Go for …. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 40
  • 41. Road secant computational method Considering all possible cases e.g. when  Two roads of equal width (e.g. W = 20m) are meeting at block corner2 How can block corner2 be set out?  Two roads of different widths (e.g. W1 = 20m & W2 = 10m) are meeting at block corner2 How can block corner2 be set out? 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 41
  • 42. ii) Scaling coordinates … from the layout plan for join computations to obtain bearings and distances. This is followed by setting out using a theodolite & tape. Tasks: (a) As part of pre-computations,  Scale out coordinates of the block corners. Scaling error should be ≤ 0.2mm. This accuracy is attained only if scaling is done appropriately on a dimensionally stable layout plan paper  Compute road width and parallelism. Note that parallel lines must have equal bearings. If this situation is not attained, check the scaled coordinates and re-compute accordingly. When OK,  Plot the locating control/datum points on the layout plan to visualize their spatial distribution  Join-comp between the control points and block corners to obtain bearings and distances for setting out 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 42
  • 43. (b) Start setting out block corners using the computed bearings and distances ************  Disadvantages of scaling techniques?  Advantages of scaling techniques? 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 43
  • 44. iii) Staking-out … using a total station The surveyor’s task is to:  Scan the layout plan and digitize all the block corners  Extract coordinates for digitized block corners onto a sheet of paper  Key inn the Total station all digitized coordinates  Start staking-out in the field Advantages? Disadvantages? 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 44
  • 45. Checking the work  For any technique you opt, always ensure the use of independent checks and self checking methods, both in the field as well as in the computations. It is important to provide self checks to your fixations by e.g.  Comparing computed or measured and scaled distances to findout if they differ to an acceptable limit: (Ss-Sc)/Sc ≤ 1/6000  comparing a feature on the topographical map and on the ground 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 45
  • 46. To complete demarcation survey, Replace all wooden pegs/pins (temporarily marking the block corners) with permanent boundary markers: beacons and IPCs (at the truncation points). Beacons should be sunk into the ground so that they protrude about 2 to 4cm above the ground level for ease of identification. Ensure that all beacons and IPCs are numbered serially. You may need to consult the district/municipal/township land surveyor for the starting beacon number – a number next to the last beacon number of the last survey work done in the council. The numbers must be recorded in the field diagram as soon as the beacons are emplaced into the ground. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 46
  • 47. 8. Block coordination Following successful completion of the demarcation work (including ensuring that beacons/IPCs are properly erected, checking and adjusting road width and parallelism), all major block corner beacons/IPCs are coordinated. Block coordination survey should commence on approved controls (part of the national control framework) existing in the neighborhood If the control framework does not exist in the neighborhood, control extension should be considered & implemented to bring controls close to the survey area. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 47
  • 48.  When staking out technique is used for demarcation, there is no need of executing a coordination survey since block coordination is done simultaneously with demarcation. But when you employ scaling techniques for demarcation, it is vital to plan for coordination survey, and therefore you must decide on the right coordination methods to employ. The decision on which coordination method to opt is done dependant on the site situation as well as on the way blocks are laid down.  Always apply self & independent checks to all points that you have fixed in the field as well as in the computations. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 48
  • 49. Block coordination methods  Traverse method  Polar methods  On-line fixation method  etc. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 49
  • 50. Traverse method A traverse route should pass through or close to all necessary block corner points need be coordinated & close to details to be surveyed. It should take the shortest and most convenient way. Orientation lines should be as longest as possible between the available datum points Traverse baseline should be long in length to make the traverse close, not loop. If the existing datum points give short baseline, then think of establishing others that will provide a long baseline Traverse legs should be as long as possible (100-300m) & of equal lengths. If shorter legs have to be used, great care & forced centering techniques should be adopted wherever possible. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 50
  • 51. Traverse stations should be located properly in a way that they are safe/stable, accessible & inter-visible Use at least two zeros/arcs & observe at least four rounds/sets of angles at a stn Measure each traverse leg twice i.e. to-and-fro & take the average value The traverse linear accuracy (misclosure) is quoted in terms of total error over the entire distance traversed. Thus the minimal acceptable traverse linear misclosure for boundary definition should be ≤ 1/6000 for urban surveys 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 51
  • 52. Polar methods: Make use of bearings & distances to fix a new point (say C) relative to known points (say A & B) Two polar methods exist: i) Single bearing and distance fixation  Measure distance S from A to C  Observe angle θ at A formed by the two lines originating from A to B and C  Compute the bearing of C from A using angle θ  Work out coordinates C(Xc,Yc) using the computed bearing & S. An independent check is necessary to check the accuracy of C(Xc,Yc), as the method does not check by itself .  This can be done by involving another datum point and comparing the measured & computed distances i.e. (Sm-Sc)/Sc ≤ 1/6000, otherwise reject & repeat the check.  Always use ‘single B&D fixation with a check’ 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 52
  • 53. ii) Double bearing and distance fixation  A more reliable polar method for coordinating unknown point (e.g. C)  Point C is fixed from two independent datum points (say A & P) by computing its coordinates from both datum points  If the difference between the two sets of coordinates is not exceeding ±0.03m, take the average to deduce the final coordinates for point C.  This method checks by itself - self checking method 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 53
  • 54. On-line fixation method A method for coordinating unknown points (e.g. P & Q) which lie on-line between two known points, say A & B  Measure distances: AP, PQ, QB separately i.e. independently  Check distances: APm + PQm + QBm = ABc or (ABm-ABc)/ABc ≤ 1/6000  Compute coordinates for point P(Xp,Yp) and Q(Xq,Yq) from point A & B 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 54
  • 55. Booking & presentation of the block coordination lines At the end of the coordination survey, all lines of coordination (i.e. traverse routes, B&D fixation lines, on- line fixation lines, etc.) should be depicted diagrammatically using conventional lines and colour. Such a diagram is known as a working diagram. Traverse routes are shown on the working diagram using continuous red lines Bearing & distance fixation lines are shown using continuous and dotted red lines On-line fixation lines are shown using continuous blue lines Independent check lines are shown using dotted green lines 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 55
  • 56. 9. Block Subdivision for Plots  Set up the machine (e.g. Theodolite) at the block corner orienting to another corner, measure truncation distances (5m) and plot sides using scaled distances by steel tape and ranging poles. However, the simplest method for plot side measurements is step chaining! All plot side measurements must be recorded on the field diagram to two decimal places of a meter, as soon as they are taken.  To check against gross errors, the plot sides fronting onto a common line should be summed up and the sum compared with measured/computed distance between the block line terminals. This should give a relative error of 1/300 or better.  All plot corners must be marked by pins, and later the pins for (i) HD plots be cemented to become IPCs defining the plot corners, (ii) MD and LD plots be replaced with beacons.  It is important that plots appearing rectangular in shape on the TP drawing be set out as rectangular as possible i.e. observe rectangularity of plots intended to be rectangular notably HD plots. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 56
  • 57. 10. Detail survey  Picking predominant man-made and natural features existing on the on the ground at the time of survey is an important activity as in one way or another may affect the use of, or influence the value of a plot.  Accuracy specification for linear measurements to features during detail surveys is 1/1000  Note that a survey which give rise to a production of plan showing plot boundaries without positions and extents of predominant features existing on the ground at the time of survey is simply referred to as a boundary survey (as it does not fulfill the requirements of a Cadastre). Such requirements can only be met by a cadastral survey which embraces detail surveys and hence produce a plan showing both plot boundaries and predominant features – called the Cadastral Survey Plan. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 57
  • 58. 11. Compilation of the Cadastral survey work  The cadastral survey work is usually compiled in the form of a plan known as Cadastral Survey Plan, and Job File containing a survey report with other survey data.  Both the cadastral survey plan and the Job File are dispatched to the Director of Surveys and Mapping (SMD) for scrutiny and approval. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 58
  • 59. Job File  Write a report on the survey work (Survey Report) and assemble it with other survey data in the Job (paper) file.  The survey data is usually organized in Standard Survey Forms (SF) or Sheets and assembled in the job file.  The arrangement starts from the back cover of the file (inside face) with: 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 59
  • 60. 1. Field sheets - Angle Sheets (SF1) - numbered AS1, AS2, AS3, etc. - Measurement sheets (SF2) - numbered MS1, MS2, etc. - Detail Sheets (SF3) – numbered DS1, DS2, DS3, etc. They must be tied together at the back file cover inside face, one above the other 2. Pre-computation sheets, if any – numbered i, ii, iii, etc. 3. Summary Sheet (SF4) – Record of type & standardization of the equipment used 4. Approved Layout proposal/TP drawing 5. Survey Instructions (SF37) 6. On-line Computations (SF7) 7. Bearing and distance fixes (SF6) 8. Traverse Computations (SF5) 9. Datum Join Computations & check distances (SF8) 10. Area Computations (from coordinates) (SF9) 11. Area Computations (from irregular plots) (SF10) 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 60
  • 61. 12. Triangle Solutions, if any (SF11) 13. Scaled/digitized and Staked out coordinates 14. Data sheet (Coordinate list) (SF12) 15. Sketch/Field diagrams (SF14) 16. Certificate of Acceptance of Boundary Beacons - BC1 (SF32) - Signed by Land Officer 17. Certificate of Erection of Beacons - BC2 (SF34) - Signed by Surveyor 18. Certificate of Inspection of Boundary Beacons (BC3) 19. Cost sheet, if relevant 20. Survey Report (SF15,16,17,18) - Signed by the Licensed surveyor 21. Working Diagram 22. Covering Letter (by the Licensed surveyor) – 1st page when you open the file 23. Index (a list of Job file content) – on top of the file cover 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 61
  • 62. NB: Send the job file to any professional surveyor to ink-check the work (in green) before you dispatch it to the Director SMD for scrutiny & approval. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 62
  • 63. Cadastral Survey Plan (i) Scale selection  Consideration should be given to the choice of a suitable scale as it determines the amount of mapping space, & hence the amount of information which can be portrayed on the plan.  While choosing a scale, ensure that there will be enough space on the mapping plane for writing all the descriptive plot/marginal information 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 63
  • 64. Considerations for selection of a suitable scale  Size & shape of the plot(s) to be plotted  Relative sizes of the shortest & longest boundary lines  Density of information vs clarity & legibility/readability,  Size of grid interval  Size of drafting & reproduction material available (taking into consideration that the minimum size of a plan should not be less than 20cm x 30cm)  Size of reproduction equipment available e.g. printer, plotter  Storage & handling convenience of the resulting plans and copies made from them 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 64
  • 65. Scale specifications Regulation No.53 sets out general scales to be used for cadastral survey plans:  Scales for urban surveys: 1:500, 1:1,000, 1:2,000, 1:2,500 & 1:5,000  Scales for rural surveys: 1:5,000 for 10-40 hectares, 1:10,000 for 41-400 hectares, 1:50,000 for 401-2,000 hectares, 1:100,000 for 2,001-4,000 hectares NB:  The SMD has recently directed that all cadastral surveys in urban areas should be drawn at a scale of 1:1000.  The chosen scale must be indicated at the bottom of the plan 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 65
  • 66. (ii) Plan drawing/plotting  After choosing the suitable scale, a plan is plotted  Regulation No.54 directs that all plans be plotted by rectangular coordinates  Plotting is done either manually using conventional cartographic tools or digitally using spatial software which include GIS (e.g. ArcGIS) and CAD (e.g. AutoCAD Land Development)  The original (drawn) cadastral survey plan is normally rolled and dispatched separately to the Director SMD for scrutiny and approval. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 66
  • 67. Typical information presented on the plan  Information that may facilitate identification of the physical location of the surveyed area which include heading (title), North arrow & locality sketch (for rural surveys as an inset map)  Boundary information which include location, dimensions & direction of the surveyed plot(s). The location of a plot is often defined by coordinated boundary makers. A table below shows conventional symbols for boundary makers used on plans 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 67
  • 68. Feature Symbol Colour Remarks Iron Pin in concrete (IPC) ● IPC22 Black Placed at the truncation and on- line points Single Concrete Beacon ○ KAF88 Black Double Concrete Beacon (DCB) ○KAF89(DCB) Black Water Beacon ○ KAF90(WB) Black Placed at the high water mark level of the coastline or at the flood level of river banks 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 68
  • 69.  Plot & estate (farm) size/area - computed in squire meters  Details (Regulation No. 56)  Adjacent Boundaries shown on the plan by dotted lines (Regulation No. 57) NB: At this stage, the plan is complete. It must be signed by the cartographer & licensed surveyor before sending it to the Director SMD for further checking and approval. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 69
  • 70. At SMD: Officials make amendments to the plan (in red) … such as inserting: (i) Plot Numbers  every surveyed plot is given a number by which it is registered and known  The name & date of the official who inserted plot numbers must be indicated in the space provided for this purpose at the bottom of the plan. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 70
  • 71. (ii) Plan Numbers  The cadastral survey plan is always identified by two unique numbers namely the registration number, which is serial and the plan number. These numbers are written on the plan, at the bottom.  The plan number is alphanumeric and appears in two forms, either preceded by letter D or E.  Letter D is used for urban area surveys, while letter E is used for rural area surveys E.g.  An urban plan number would be D19 483/6, in which the superscript (denote regional/district headquarters) i.e. 19 is a number for Kigoma/Ujiji Township, 483 is the Block number i.e. 483rd block in Ujiji township and 6 is the serial number of the plan in block 483 i.e. 6th plan in block 483.  A rural plan number would be E1 14/5, in which the superscript 1 is a number for Dar es Salaam region (denote rural area), 14 is the fourteenth Block number and 5 is the fifth plan in Block 14. 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 71
  • 72. Cadastral information  Upon approval by the Director of Surveys and Mapping, the original plan + the job file information (= cadastral information) are kept in the Director’s office thereby become government property.  The government has full control over the cadastral information 6/4/2024 MSOKWA 72