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LIFE SAVING APPLIANCES
AT SEA
Importance of Life Saving Appliances
 To be used by crew and passengers in case of emergency to protect their lives at
sea.
 The carriage of life saving appliances are made mandatory as per the SOLAS
Convention.
Life Saving Appliances
 The carriage of life-saving appliances are made mandatory as per the SOLAS Convention.
 The International Life-Saving Appliance (LSA) Code provides more specific technical requirements for the
manufacturing, testing, maintenance and record keeping of life-saving appliances.
 The LSA Code gives specific technical requirements for LSAs and is mandatory under regulation 34
which states that all life saving appliances and arrangements shall comply with the applicable
requirements of the LSA Code.
Life Saving Appliances
The number, capacity and type of life-saving appliances differ from ship to ship depending on its size,
shipping activity and voyage, and the LSA Code stipulates minimum requirements to comply in order to
make a ship safe for its passengers and crew.
Life Saving Appliances
 Life Jacket
 Life Buoy
 Immersion suit
 Anti Exposure suit
 Thermal Protective Aid
 Pyrotechnics-Hand flares, Rocket Parachute flare, Smoke Signal
 Two-way VHF Radiotelephone Apparatus
 Search and Rescue locating devices.
 Lifeboat
 Life raft
 Lifeboat davits
LSA
 The classification of ships for life-saving appliances is typically based on international regulations established by
the International Maritime Organization (IMO).
 The classification takes into account the type and size of the ship, its intended use, and the number of people on
board. The main categories include:
SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) Convention Categories:
1. Passenger Ships: These are ships that carry more than 12 passengers.
2. Cargo Ships: Includes cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and above.
3. Tankers: Specifically designed to carry liquid cargo in bulk.
4. High-Speed Craft (HSC): Fast passenger craft capable of speeds equal to or exceeding 20 knots.
LIFE JACKET
 A Personal Flotation Device
 To prevent the wearer from drowning in water.
 Made up of buoyant or inflatable material.
 Will keep the wearer afloat with their head and
mouth above the surface.
 Do not have to swim in order to stay afloat.
 Available in different size to accommodate
variations in body weight.
 Designs differ depending on the activities and
conditions they are designed to be used and the
level of protection the wearer needs.
Two popular types of life jackets used
onboard-
Inflatable Life Jacket
 Requires to be inflated before use.
 This jacket needs inflation for buoyancy and is automatically/
manually inflated when immersed in water.
 Have a trigger mechanism (a small tablet that dissolve in
water) and a gas cartridge.
 Once it comes into contact with water, the trigger will pierce
the gas cartridge and the rescue jacket will inflate.
Non-Inflatable Life Jacket
 Kept always inflated.
 These jackets are fitted with buoyant materials, and they do
not need to inflate.
 Life jacket works on the principle of buoyancy.
 If something has a lower density than water ,then it will likely
float.
 Material-Plastic foams such as Polyvinyl chloride and
Polyethylene (most commonly used).
 Buoyant material has air trapped inside the fibers. This air
helps to minimize the density of the life jacket which means it
will be more buoyant when it is in the water .
Two popular types of life jackets used
onboard-
Inflatable Life Jacket Non-inflatable Life Jacket
LIFE JACKET
SOLAS REQUIREMENTS
CHAPTER III/7.2.1
 A lifejacket complying with the requirements of paragraph 2.2.1 or 2.2.2 of code
Shall be provided for every person on board the ship.
 Life jackets shall be carried out for persons on watch and for use at remotely
located survival craft stations. The lifejackets carried for persons on watch should
be stowed on the bridge, in the engine control room and at any other manned
watched station.
 Life jacket shall be so placed as to be readily accessible, and their position shall be
plainly indicated.
 Design of life jacket should be such that it does not interfere entry into the
lifeboat or seating including operation of the seat belts in the lifeboat.
LIFE JACKET
LSA CODE 2.2.1-GEN REQUIRMENTS OF
LIFEJACKETS
 Shall not sustain burning or continue melting after being totally enveloped in a fire for a period of
2 sec.
 An adult jacket shall be so constructed that
 75% of persons who are completely unfamiliar with the life jacket can correctly don it within a
period of 1 min without assistance or prior demonstration.
 After demonstration, all persons can correctly don it within a period of 1min without assistance.
 It is clearly capable of being worn in only one way .
 The method of securing the life jacket to the wearer has quick and positive means of closure that
do not require tying of knots.
LIFE JACKET
LSA CODE 2.2.1-GEN REQUIRMENTS OF
LIFEJACKETS
 It shall be comfortable to wear.
 It allows the wearer to jump into the water from a height of at least 4.5m while holding on to the life jacket
and from the height of at least 1m with the arms held overhead, without injury or damaging the life jacket.
 An adult life jacket shall allow the wearer to swim a short distance and to board a survival craft.
 A life jacket shall have buoyancy which is not reduced by more than 5% after 24hrs submersion in water.
 Each jacket shall be fitted with whistle firmly secured with lanyard.
Life jackets shall be provided in three sizes. Life jacket
shall be marked by either weight or height or by both
weight and height.
Lifejacket marking infant child adult
Weight (kg) Less than 15 15 or more but less
than 43
43 and more
Height(cm) Less than
100
100 or more but
less than 155
155 or more
LIFE JACKET
LSA CODE 2.2.2-REQUIRMENTS FOR
INFLATABLE LIFEJACKETS
 shall have at least two separate compartments and shall inflate automatically
upon immersion and be capable of having each chamber inflated by mouth.
LIFE BUOY
 Personal flotation device.
 to perform emergency
rescue.
LIFEBUOY
IMO REQUIREMENTS-SOLAS Reg Ch III/7.1
 cargo ships shall carry not less than
the number of lifebuoys prescribed in
the table.
Length of the ship Minimum no. of
lifebuoy
Under 100 8
100 and under 150 10
150 and under 200 12
200 and over 14
LIFEBUOY
IMO REQUIREMENTS-SOLAS Reg Ch III/7.1
 Lifebuoys shall be so distributed as to be readily available on the both sides of the ship and as far as
possible on all open decks extending to ships side, at least one shall be placed in the vicinity of of the
stern.
 Shall be capable of being rapidly cast loose.
 At least one lifebuoy on each side of the ship shall be fitted with buoyant line equal in length not less than
twice the height at which it is stowed above the waterline in the lightest seagoing draught or 30m
whichever is greater.
 At least, half of the total number of lifebuoy shall be fitted with self igniting lights.
 At least, two shall be provided with lifebuoy self activating smoke signals and self igniting lights and be
capable of quick release from the navigation bridge.
 Each life buoy shall be marked in block capitals of Roman Alphabets with the name and port of registry of
the ship on which it is carried.
LIFEBUOY
LIFEBUOY
LSA CODE 2.1- IMO REQUIRMENTS FOR
LIFEBUOY
 Every lifebuoy shall
 have an outer diameter of not more than 800mm and an inner diameter of not
less than 400mm.
 Be capable of supporting not less than 14.5kg of iron in fresh water for 24hrs.
 Not sustain burning or continue melting after being totally enveloped in a fire for
a period of 2 sec.
 Be constructed to withstand a drop into the water from a height at which it is
stowed above the waterline in the lightest seagoing condition or 30 m ,whichever
is greater.
LIFEBUOY
LSA CODE 2.1- IMO REQUIRMENTS FOR
LIFEBUOY
 Every lifebuoy shall
 Be fitted with a grab line not less than 9.5mm in diameter and not less than 4 times the outer diameter of the
body of the buoy in length.
 Shall have a mass of not less than 2.5 kg.
 If it is intended to operate the quick release arrangement provided for the self activated smoke signals and self
igniting lights, have a mass not less than 4kg.
 Self igniting lights shall be such that they cannot be extinguished by water (For the lifebuoy which are
provided by Self igniting lights).
 Self igniting lights shall be of white colour with luminous intensity of not less than 2cd (candela) for a period
of at least 2 hours, flashing at a rate of not less than 50 flashes and not more than 70 flashes per minute.
LIFEBUOY
LSA CODE 2.1- IMO REQUIRMENTS FOR
LIFEBUOY
 Lifebuoy self-activating smoke signals-shall emit smoke of a highly visible
colour for a period of at least 15min when floating in calm water.
 Lifebuoy self-activating smoke signals-shall continue to emit smoke when fully
submerged in water for a period of at least 10sec.
Immersion suit vs Anti Exposure Suit vs Thermal Protective Aid
Anti Exposure Suit-is a protective suit designed for use by rescue boat crews and
marine evacuation system parties. More focused on salvage and evacuation .
Immersion Suit-is a protective suit which reduces the body heat loss of a person
wearing it in cold.
Thermal Protective Aid-is a bag or suit made up of waterproof material with low
thermal conductance.
Immersion suit vs Anti Exposure Suit vs
Thermal Protective Aid
IMMERSION SUIT
IMMERSION SUIT
IMO Requirements
SOLAS Reg III/7.3
 An immersion suit shall be provided for every person on board ship.
 Immersion suit shall be provided for persons on watch and at any workstations
which are located remotely from the place where immersion suits are usually
stowed.
 If ship is constantly engaged in warm climates, where in the opinion of
administration thermal protection is unnecessary, this protective clothing need not
be caried.
IMMERSION SUIT
LSA CODE REG 2.3
 Shall be made up of waterproof material.
 Shall be so placed as to be readily accessible and their position shall be plainly indicated.
 Can be unpacked and donned without assistance within 2 min.
 It shall not sustain burning or melting after being enveloped in a fire for a period of 2 sec.
 It shall cover the whole body except the face. Covering of the hands may be provided by separate gloves
which shall be permanently attached to the suit.
 There shall not be ingress of water following a jump from a height of not less than 4.5m.
 It shall not get damaged or dislodged following a jump from a height of not less than 4.5m.
 An immersion suit shall permit the person to climb up and down a vertical ladder at least 5m in length.
 Wearer shall perform normal duties associated with abandonment.
IMMERSION SUIT
LSA CODE REG 2.3
 It shall be constructed such that wearer can swim a short distance and can board a survival craft.
 An immersion suit which has buoyancy and is designed to be worn without life jacket shall be
 fitted with light, whistle and buoyant line to secure it to a suit worn by another person in water(as prescribed
earlier).
 provided with a suitable means to allow a rescuer to lift the wearer from the water into a survival craft or rescue
boat.
 If an immersion suit is to be worn in conjunction with life jacket, the life jacket shall be worn over the immersion
suit.
 The immersion suit shall have buoyancy which is not reduced by more than 5% after 24 hrs submersion in fresh
water.
IMMERSION SUIT
LSA CODE REG 2.3
Thermal performance requirements
 If an immersion suit made up of material which has no inherent insulation-
shall be so constructed that when worn with warm clothing and with life jacket,
the immersion suit provides sufficient thermal protection to ensure that when it
worn for a period of 1 hr in calm circulating water at a temp of 5*c the wearer’s
body core temp does not fall more than 2*Celsius.
 If an immersion suit made up of material with inherent insulation- shall be
so constructed that when worn with life jacket, the immersion suit provides
sufficient thermal protection to ensure that the wearer’s body core temp doesn’t
fall more than 2*Celsius for a period of 6h immersion in calm circulating water at a
temp between 0* Celsius and 2*Celsius.
ANTI-EXPOSURE SUITS
LSA CODE REG 2.4
 An anti exposure suit shall be constructed with waterproof material.
 Shall Provide inherent buoyancy of at least 70N.
 Shall cover the whole body except the feet (where the administration so
permits).covering of hands and head may be provided by separate gloves and a hood
,both of which shall be permanently attached to the suit.
 Can be unpacked and donned without assistance within 2 mins.
 Shall not sustain burning or continue melting after being totally enveloped in fire for a
period of 2 sec.
 Shall be equipped with a pocket for a portable VHF telephone.
 Shall have a lateral field of vision of at least 120*.
ANTI-EXPOSURE SUITS
LSA CODE REG 2.4
 An anti-exposure suit shall permit the wearer to Climb up and down a vertical ladder of at least
5m in length.
 Shall allow the wearer to jump from a height of not less than 4.5m into the water without
damaging or dislodging the suit or its attachments or being injured.
 Swim through the water at least 25m and board a survival craft.
 Shall be donned a lifejacket without assistance.
 Wearer shall perform all duties associated with abandonment duties and operate rescue boat.
 An anti exposure suit shall be fitted with a light and whistle complying with requirements.
Anti Exposure suit
LSA CODE REG 2.4
Thermal performance requirements
 If an immersion suit made up of material which has no inherent insulation-
 marked with instructions that it must be worn in conjunction with warm clothing.
 shall be so constructed that when worn with warm clothing and with life jacket, the immersion
suit provides sufficient thermal protection to ensure that when it is worn for a period of 0.5 hr in
calm circulating water at a temp of 5*c the wearer’s body core temp does not fall at a rate more
than 1.5*Celsius per hour.
Anti Exposure suit
LSA CODE REG 2.4
 Stability requirements
 Wearer shall be able to turn from a face-down to face-up position in not more
than 5 sec and shall be stable face–up.
Difference between requirements of
Immersion Suit and Anti Exposure suit
IMMERSION SUIT
 It shall cover the whole body except the face. Covering of the
hands may be provided by separate gloves which shall be
permanently attached to the suit.
 The immersion suit shall have buoyancy which is not reduced
by more than 5% after 24 hrs submersion in fresh water.
Thermal performance Requirements.
INSULATION EFFECT OF IMMERISON SUIT IS BETTER THAN
AES WHICH CAN PROVIDE MORE PROTECTION FOR CREW.
ANTI EXPOSURE SUIT
 Shall cover the whole body except the feet (where the
administration so permits).covering of hands and head may be
provided by separate gloves and a hood ,both of which shall
be permanently attached to the suit.
 Shall Provide inherent buoyancy of at least 70N.
 Swim through the water at least 25m and board a survival
craft.
 Shall be equipped with a pocket for a portable VHF telephone.
 Shall have a lateral field of vision of at least 120*.
Thermal Protective Aid
 Protect from hypothermia.
 Used in the situation where life is threatened by loss of body
heat.
 Wearer can not swim.
 TPA is without life jacket. So, it is avoided to use in water.
 Wearer can not climb the ladder.
Thermal Protective Aid
IMO Requirements
 Shall be made up of waterproof material having a thermal conductance (measure of its
ability to conduct heat)of not more than 7800 w/(m2.k).
 Shall cover the whole body of person of all sizes wearing a life jacket except face
.Hands shall also be covered unless permanently attached gloves are provided.
 Shall be capable of being unpacked and easily donned without assistance in a survival
craft or rescue boat.
 Permit the wearer to remove it in the water in not more than 2 min,if it impairs the
ability to swim.
 The thermal protective aid shall function properly throughout an air temp range -30*C
TO +20*C.
Communication
 Means of communication
 Two-way VHF Radiotelephone apparatus.
 Search and rescue locating devices
 Distress flares
 On-board communication and alarm systems.
 Public address system
Communication
Solas- Regulation III/6
 On every passenger ship and on every cargo ships of 500 GRT and upwards:-
 At least 3 two-way VHF Radiotelephone apparatus.
 At least one search and rescue locating device –on each side
 On every cargo ships of 300 GRT and upwards but less than 500 GRT.
 At least 2 two-way VHF Radiotelephone apparatus.
 At least one search and rescue locating device.
 Distress Flares
 At least 12 rocket parachute flares –on or near the navigation bridge.
Communication
Solas- Regulation III/6
 On-Board Communication and alarm systems
 Any emergency means (either fixed or portable equipment or both) shall be provided for emergency
control stations, muster and embarkation stations.
 A general emergency alarm system-for summoning passengers and crew to muster stations
 The system shall be supplemented by either a public address system or other suitable means of
communication.
 The general emergency alarm shall be audible throughout all the accommodation and normal crew
working spaces. On passenger ships, the system shall also be audible on all open decks.
Pyrotechnics
 Rocket parachute flare
 For use at night and on a clear night.
 They may be seen at a distance upto 30 miles.
 Hand flares
 For use by day or night and are used to pinpoint your position when help is near at hand.
 They may be seen at a distance up to 5 miles.
 Smoke signal/floats
 are to attract the attention of aircraft by day.
 It is of no use igniting a smoke float to attract an aircraft you can not see, even though u may be able to
hear it.
Distress Flares -Pyrotechnics
SOLAS Reg III/6.3
 Not less than 12 rocket parachute flares shall be carried and be stowed on or near the navigational
bridge.
 Normal equipment of every lifeboat shall consist of
 6 hand flares
 4 rocket parachute flares
 2 buoyant smoke signals
Distress Flares -Pyrotechnics
LSA CODE Reg IV/4.4.8
Visual Signals-Rocket Parachute Flares
LSA Code
 The rocket parachute shall
 Be contained in water resistant casing.
 Have brief instructions or diagram clearly illustrating
the use of the rocket parachute flare printed on its
casing.
 Have integral means of ignition.
 Be so designed as not to cause discomfort to the
person holding the casing.
Visual Signals-Rocket Parachute Flares
LSA Code
 The rocket shall, when fired vertically, reach an altitude of not less than 300m.At or
near the top of its trajectory, the rocket shall eject a parachute flare.
 Parachute flare shall burn with a bright red color.
 Luminous intensity not less than 30000 cd.
 Burning period not less than 40 sec.
 Have a rate of descent of not more than 5 m/s.
 Not damage its parachute or attachments while burning.
Visual Signals- Hand Flares
LSA Code
 The Hand Flares shall
 Be contained in water resistant casing.
 Have brief instructions or diagram clearly illustrating the use of the rocket
parachute flare printed on its casing.
 Have integral means of ignition.
 Be so designed as not to cause discomfort to the person holding the casing.
Visual Signals- Hand Flares
LSA Code
 Hand flare shall burn with a bright red color.
 Luminous intensity not less than 15000 cd.
 Burning period not less than 1min.
 Continue to burn after having been immersed for a
period of 10 sec under 100 mm of water.
Buoyant
Smoke
Signal
Visual Signals- Buoyant Smoke Signal
LSA Code
 The Buoyant smoke signal shall
 Be contained in water resistant casing.
 Have brief instructions or diagram clearly illustrating
the use of the rocket parachute flare printed on its
casing.
 Not ignite explosively when used in accordance with
the manufacturer’s operating instructions.
 Emit smoke of highly visible color for a period of not
less than 3 min when floating in calm water.
 Not emit any flame during the entire smoke
emission time.
 Continue to emit smoke when submerged in water
for a period of 10s under 100 mm of water.
LIFEBOAT
 LIFEBOAT is one of the most important life-saving equipment onboard a ship, which is
used at the time of extreme emergencies for abandoning a ship.
 Lifeboat is a smaller rigid vessel, secured onboard into davits so that it can be launched
over the side of the ship with least time and mechanical assistance possible for an early
escape of the crew from the ship.
 A lifeboat must carry all the types of equipment described under SOLAS and LSA
codes, which are passed for the survival at sea.
 This includes rations, freshwater, first aid, compass, distress signalling equipment like
rocket etc.
 A ship must carry one rescue boat for the rescuing purpose, along with other lifeboats.
One of the lifeboats can be designated as a rescue boat if two or more lifeboats are
present onboard a ship.
Types of Lifeboat
Most common types of lifeboats used on merchant vessels:
1. Open Lifeboats
2. Closed Lifeboats
3. Freefall lifeboats
0PEN LIFEBOAT
As the name suggests, the open lifeboat has no
roof and is normally propelled by manual power
by using hand-propelled ores.
Compression ignition engine may also be
provided for the propulsion purpose.
However, open lifeboats are becoming obsolete
now because of stringent safety norms, but one
may find them on an older ship.
The open lifeboat doesn’t help much in rain or
bad weather and the possibility of water ingress in
the highest.
Closed lifeboat
 Closed lifeboats are the most popular
lifeboats that are used on ships, for they are
enclosed which saves the crew from
seawater, strong wind and rough weather.
 Moreover, the watertight integrity is higher
in this type of lifeboat, and it can also get
upright on its own if toppled over by waves.
 Closed lifeboats are further classified as
1. Partially enclosed
2. fully enclosed lifeboats.
Freefall lifeboat
 Freefall lifeboat is similar to an enclosed
lifeboat but the process of launching is
entirely different.
 They are aerodynamic in nature and thus
the boat can penetrate the water without
damaging the body when launched from
the ship.
 The free-fall lifeboat is located at the aft
of the ship, which provides a maximum
clear area for free fall.
Types of releasing mechanisms
 There are different types of lifeboats used on board a ship on the basis of the type of ship and other
special requirements.
 Not all the lifeboats have the same type of releasing mechanisms, for the launching of a lifeboat
depends on several other factors.
 Types of lifeboat releases:
1. On load
2. Offload release.
Types of releasing mechanisms
 There are two types of lifeboat releasing mechanisms- on load and offload.
 These mechanisms release the boat from the davit, which is attached to a wire or
fall by means of a hook.
 By releasing the hook the lifeboat can be set free to propel away from the ship.
Types of releasing mechanisms
Offload Mechanism:
 The offload mechanism releases the boat after the load of the boat is transferred to water or the
boat has been lowered fully into the sea.
 There is a hydrostatic piston unit provided at the bottom.
 The piston is connected to the operating lever via a link.
 As the ship becomes waterborne, the water pressure will move the hydrostatic piston up.
 The piston will continue to move up, pushing the lever and as a result, it will operate the hook
arrangement releasing the fall wire.
 There is a safety pin arrangement provided near the clutch box, which disables the offload
release (in case of rough weather or hydrostatic piston malfunction) allowing the operator to
perform onload release of the lifeboat.
On-Load Mechanism
 On load mechanism can release the lifeboat from the wire, with the ship above the water level and with
all the crew members inside the boat.
 The load will be still in the fall as the boat would not have touched the water.
 Normally the on-load release is operated when the boat is about to touch the surface of the water(about
1m) so that the fall is smooth without damaging the boat and harming the crew inside.
 A lever is provided inside the boat to operate this mechanism.
 As the lever is operated from inside, it is safe to free the boat without going out of the lifeboat, when
there is a fire on the ship.
Free Fall lifeboat release:
 In Free fall lifeboat, the launching mechanism is similar to on load release.
 The only difference is that the freefall lifeboat is not lowered till 1m above water level, it is launched from
the stowed position by operating a lever located inside the boat which releases the boat from rest of the
davit and boat slides through the tilted ramp into the water.
Lifeboat Lowering Procedure
1. Make fast the other end of toggle painter on a strong point forward of ship.
2. Release forward and aft gripes/securing wires.
3. Remove harbour safety pins.
4. Ensure Deadman's handle safety pin is removed.
5. Disconnect electric charge cable.
6. Suitable jackets are to be worn by the boats crew.
7. Make sure ships side is free of everything.
8. Board the lifeboat.
9. Close drain plugs.
10. Operate Deadman's lever from inside lifeboat by using remote release wire arrangement .
11. Boat may swing during launch. Keep lowering boat at a steady rate.
12. Depending on the situation, operate on-load or off-load release mechanism.
SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code
Lifeboat
 Lifeboat shall be constructed in such a way that they have sufficient stability in a seaway, sufficient freeboard and
sufficient strength when loaded with their full complement of persons and equipment.
 Shall be capable of safely launched under all conditions of trim of up to 10 degrees and list up to 20 degrees.
 Shall have rigid hull.
 Each lifeboat shall be fitted with a permanently affixed approval plate endorsed by administration containing at
least following items
 Manufacturers name and address
 Lifeboat model and serial number.
 Month and year of manufacture
 Number of person lifeboat is approved to carry.
 Material of lifeboat
 Total mass when fully equipped and manned.
SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code
Lifeboat
Construction of lifeboat
 Shall be capable of being launched and towed when the ship is making headway at the speed of 5 knots.
 Hull and rigid covers shall be fire-retardant or non-combustible.
 Shall have sufficient strength to withstand a lateral impact against ships side at an impact velocity of at
least 3.5 m/s.
 Speed of lowering lifeboat shall be limited to 36 m/min (Centrifugal brakes is fitted and adjusted to these
limits of lowering).
 The speed of hoisting a lifeboat or a rescue boat should not be less than 0.3m/sec.
SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code
Lifeboat
Carrying capacity of lifeboat-
 Max capacity- 150 person.
 Each seating position shall be clearly indicated in the lifeboat.
Access into lifeboat-
 For Passenger Ship-lifeboat shall be so arranged that it can be boarded by its full compliment of person
within 10 mins.
 For Cargo ships-lifeboat shall be so arranged that it can be boarded by its full compliment of person within 3
mins.
 Lifeboat shall have boarding ladder that can be used at any boarding entrance of the lifeboat to enable
persons in the water to board the lifeboat.
 All surface on which persons might walk shall have a non-skid finish.
SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code
Lifeboat
 Lifeboat buoyancy
 All lifeboat shall have inherent buoyancy or shall be fitted with inherently buoyant
material which shall not be adversely affected by sea water, oil or oil product.
 Buoyancy shall be sufficient to float the lifeboat with all its equipment on board
when flooded and open to sea.
SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code
Lifeboat Propulsion
 Every lifeboat shall be powered by a compression-ignition engine. Flash point for fuel shall not be less than 43-degree
Celsius.
 The engine shall be provided with either a manual starting system or a power starting system with two independent
rechargeable energy sources.
 Engine shall be capable of starting at an ambient temperature of -15 deg C within 2 min of commencing the start
procedure.
 The engine shall be capable of operating when the lifeboat is flooded up to centerline of the crankshaft.
 The engine shall be capable of operating for not less than 5 mins after starting from the cold with the lifeboat out of
the water.
 The propeller shafting shall be so arranged that the propeller can be disengaged from the engine. Provision shall be
made for ahead and astern propulsion of the lifeboat.
 The exhaust pipe shall be so arranged as to prevent water from entering the engine in normal operation.
SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code
Lifeboat Propulsion
 The speed of the lifeboat shall not be less than 6 knots When proceeding ahead in calm water and when
loaded with its full complements of persons and equipment.
 The speed of the lifeboat shall not be less than 2 knots when towing the largest liferaft carried on the ship,
loaded with its full compliments of persons and equipment.
 Sufficient fuel shall be provided to run the fully loaded lifeboat at 6 knots for a period of not less than 24hrs.
 The lifeboat engine ,transmission and engine accessories shall be enclosed in a fire-retardant casing.
 Means shall be provided for recharging all engine starting ,radio and search light batteries.
 Water resisting instructions for starting and operating the engine shall be provided
SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code
Lifeboat Fittings
 All lifeboat except free fall lifeboats shall be provided with at least one drain valve fitted near the lowest
point in the hull.
1. Shall automatically open to drain water from the hull when lifeboat is not waterborne.
2. Shall automatically close to prevent entry of water when the lifeboat is waterborne.
 All lifeboat shall be provided with a rudder and tiller.
 Except in the vicinity of the rudder and propeller ,suitable handholds or buoyant lifeline shall be provided
(around the outside of the lifeboat above the waterline and within reach of a person in the water).
 All lifeboats shall be fitted with sufficient watertight lockers or compartments for storage of small items of
equipment, water and provision.
 The lifeboat shall be equipped with means of collecting rainwater.
SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code
Lifeboat Fittings
 Every lifeboat to be launched by a fall or falls ,except a free fall lifeboat, shall be fitted with a release
mechanism .
1. The release mechanism shall be so arranged that all hooks are released simultaneously.
2. The mechanism shall only open when the release mechanism is operated with the boat fully waterborne or
if not waterborne, deliberate action which shall include removal or bypassing safety interlocks designed to
prevent premature or inadvertent release.
3. Mechanism shall not open by its own due to wear etc.
4. The mechanism shall have two release capabilities –
Normal (off-load)Release capabilities.
On-Load Release capabilities.
SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code
Lifeboat Fittings
 Every lifeboat shall be fitted with a device to secure a painter near its bow.
 A manually controlled exterior lights shall be fitted. The light shall be white and be capable of operating
continuously for at least 12 h with a luminous intensity of not less than 4.3 cd in all directions.
 A manually controlled interior lights shall be fitted inside the lifeboat . The light shall be capable of
operating continuously for at least 12 h with a luminous intensity of not less than 0.5 cd in all directions.
 Every lifeboat shall be so arranged that an adequate view forward ,aft and to both sides is provided from
the control and steering position.
Lifeboat Markings
 The number of persons for which the lifeboat is approved shall be clearly marked on it in clear permanent
characters.
 The name and port of registry of the ship to which the lifeboat belongs shall be marked on each side of
the lifeboat’s bow in block capitals of the Roman alphabet.
 Means of identifying the ship to which the lifeboat belongs, and the number of the lifeboat shall be marked
in such a way that they are visible from above
Lifeboat Equipment
• Buoyant oars-Sufficient
• Day Light signaling Mirror/Heliograph-1
• Hand flaress-6
• Rocket parachute flares-4
• Buoyant smoke floats-2
• Jack Knife-1
• Six doses of anti sea sickness medicine and one sea sickness bag for
each person.
• Manual pump-1
• sea anchor of adequate size-1
• One waterproof electric torch
• Whistle-1
• A buoyant bailer and two buckets
• A Survival Manual
• Two axes (hatchets) stowed one at each end of the boat.
• An efficient radar reflector, unless a survival craft radar transponder is
stowed in the boat.
• One copy of the life saving signals tables on a waterproof card or in a
waterproof container.
• Two efficient painters -one painter attached to the release device and
other painter shall be firmly secured.
• A binnacle containing an efficient compass.
• Sufficient tools for minor adjustments to the engine.
• Portable fire extinguishing equipment.
• A search light-width 18m at 180m distance for 6 hrs., working
continuously for not less than 3 hours.
• TPA-for at least 10% of total number of persons that the boat is
permitted to carry.
• A watertight receptacle- 3 liters of fresh water for each person.
• A rust proof dipper with lanyard.
• Tin openrs-3
• A food ration-not less than 10000 kJ for each person
• A first aid kit.
LIFE RAFT
 There are mainly two types of life rafts
1. Inflatable
2. Rigid Inflatable liferaft (RIB)
INFLATABLE LIFE RAFT
Inflatable life raft
 Inflatable life raft contain inflation cylinder which contain CO2 gas.
1. CO2 gas containing small amount percentage of NITROGEN gas to act as anti freeze.
2. Also,CO2 is non-flammable and heavier than air hence add buoyancy to raft.
3. Freezing point of CO2 is -78 deg Celsius, So it can inflate life raft even at -15deg c.
SOLAS /LSA Code Requirements
General (Inflatable & Rigid) Requirements for life raft
Section 4.1
Construction
 Capacity shall not less than six persons .
 The total weight of each raft, unless it is to be launched by an approved launching device, shall not exceed 185
kg, inclusive of the case and all fitments.
 Every life raft shall be capable of withstanding exposure for 30 days of sea conditions.
 Standard rafts shall be robust in construction to be launched from a height of 18 m and when inflated be able to
withstand repeated jumps on to its surface from heights up to 4.5 m.
 The liferaft and its fittings shall be so constructed as to enable it to be towed at a speed of 3 knots in calm water
when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment and with one of its sea-anchors streamed.
SOLAS /LSA Code Requirements
General (Inflatable & Rigid) Requirements for life raft
Section 4.1
Construction
Shall have a canopy to protect the occupants from exposure. The canopy shall comply with the
following -
 shall be provided with the means for collecting rainwater.
 Shall have at least one viewing port .
 Entrances shall be clearly indicated and fitted with efficient adjustable closing arrangements.
 A ventilation system shall be provided which allows the passage of sufficient air but excludes the passage
of sea water and cold.
 Overall construction of the raft shall include sufficient headroom for sitting occupants under all parts of the
canopy.
 All materials used in the manufacture should be corrosive- resistant, unaffected by sunlight and not duly
affected by sea water, oil or fungi attack. Retro-reflective material should be prominently displayed to
assist in detection of the raft.
SOLAS /LSA Code Requirements
General (Inflatable & Rigid) Requirements for life raft
Section 4.1
Life Raft Fittings
 shall be fitted with becketed lifelines both inside and outside every life raft.
 The liferaft shall be fitted with an efficient painter of length equal to not less than
 (10 m + the distance from the stowed position to the waterline in the lightest seagoing condition)
or
 15 m whichever is the greater.
 The breaking strength of the painter system shall be
 not less than 15.0 kN for liferafts with capacity more than 25 persons,
 not less than 10.0 kN for liferafts with capacity between 9 to 25 persons
 not less than 7.5 kN for any other liferaft.
SOLAS /LSA Code Requirements
General (Inflatable & Rigid) Requirements for life raft
Section 4.1
Illumination
 A manually controlled lamp shall be fitted to the top of the life raft canopy.
 The light shall be white and capable of operating for a period of not less than 12 hours with
luminous intensity not less than 4.3 cd.
 If the light is a flashing light it shall flash at a rate of not less than 50 flashes not more than 70
per minute.
 A manually controlled lamp shall be fitted inside the life raft capable of continuous operation for
a period of at least 12 hours.
 This lamp will light automatically when the life raft inflates. Its intensity should be sufficient to
allow the reading of the survival instructions.
General Requirements for Davit Launched liferaft
LSA Code Section 4.1
 When the liferaft is loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment,
 Shall be capable of withstanding a lateral impact against the ship's side at an impact velocity of not less than 3.5
m/s and a drop into the water from a height of not less than 3 m without damage that will affect its function;
 Liferaft be provided with means for bringing the liferaft alongside the embarkation deck and holding it securely
during embarkation.
 Every cargo ship davit-launched liferaft shall be so arranged that it can be boarded by its full complement of
persons in not more than 3 min from the time the instruction to board is given.
Liferaft Equipment
LSA Code –Section 4.1
• Buoyant paddles-2
• Day Light signaling Mirror-1
• Hand flaress-6
• Rocket parachute flares-4
• Buoyant smoke floats-2
• Non-Foldable knife with buoyant handle and lanyard attached to it
and stowed in the pocket on the exterior of canopy near the point
at which painter is attached.-1
• Anti sea sickness medicine sufficient for at least 48 hrs. and and
one sea sickness bag for each person..
• At least one repair outfit for repairing punctures in buoyancy
compartments.
• Topping up pump or bellows-1
• sea anchor-2
• One waterproof electric torch with one spare set of batteries and
one spare bulb in waterproof container.
• Whistle-1
• An efficient radar reflector, unless a survival craft radar transponder is
stowed in the boat.
• One copy of the life saving signals tables on a waterproof card or in a
waterproof container.
• TPA-for at least 10% of total number of persons that the boat is
permitted to carry.
• Drinking Water - 1.5 liters of fresh water for each person.
• A rust proof graduated drinking vessel.
• Tin openrs-3
• A food ration-not less than 10000 kJ for each person
• A first aid kit.
• One set of fishing tackle.
• Sponges-2
• Buoyant rescue quoit-attached to not less than 30m of buoyant
line.
• If capacity not more than 12 persons-1 buoyant bailer and if
capacity more than 12---2 buoyant bailer
• A Survival instruction Manual
General Requirements for Liferaft Painter System and weak
link
LSA code-Section 4.1
 The liferaft painter system shall provide a connection between ship and the liferaft and shall be so arranged
as to ensure that the liferaft when released and inflated is not dragged under by the sinking ship.
 Weak link shall not be broken by the force required to pull the painter from the liferaft container.
 Weak link shall break under a strain of 2.2 +/- 0.4 KN.
Requirements for Liferaft HRU
 HRU shall be constructed of compatible materials to prevent malfunction of the unit.
 It shall automatically release the liferaft at a depth of not more than 4m.
 Have drains to prevent the accumulation of water in the hydro-static chamber when the unit is in its normal
position.
 It shall be so constructed as to prevent release when seas wash over the unit.
 It shall be permanently marked on its exterior with its type and serial number.
 It shall be such that each part connected to the painter system has a strength of not less than that required
for the painter.
 If disposable, be marked with a means of determining its date of expiry.
The inflatable life raft
LSA Code Requirements
Section 4.2
 Inflatable life raft shall comply with the requirements of LSA Code, Section 4.1.
 The main buoyancy chamber shall be divided into not less than two separate compartments, each inflated
through a nonreturn inflation valve on each compartment.
 The buoyancy chambers shall be so arranged that, in the event of any one of the compartments being
damaged or failing to inflate, the intact compartments shall be able to support, with positive freeboard over the
liferaft's entire periphery, the number of persons which the liferaft is permitted to accommodate, each having a
mass of 75 kg and seated in their normal positions.
 The liferaft shall be capable of being inflated by one person.
 The liferaft shall be inflated with a nontoxic gas. Inflation shall be completed within a period of 1 min at an
ambient temperature of between 18°C and 20°C and within a period of 3 min at an ambient temperature of -
30°C.
The inflatable life raft
LSA Code Requirements
Section 4.2
 Access into inflatable liferafts
 At least one entrance shall be fitted with a semi-rigid boarding ramp ,capable of supporting a person weighing
100 kg, to enable persons to board the liferaft from the sea.
 Entrances not provided with a boarding ramp shall have a boarding ladder, the lowest step of which shall be
situated not less than 0.4 m below the liferaft's light waterline.
 There shall be means inside the liferaft to assist persons to pull themselves into the liferaft from the ladder.
 Stability of inflatable liferafts
 The stability of the liferaft when in the inverted position shall be such that it can be righted in a seaway and in
calm water by one person.
 The stability of the liferaft when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment shall be such that it
can be towed at speeds of up to 3 knots in calm water.
 The liferaft shall be fitted with water pockets complying with the following requirements:
1. The water pockets shall be of a highly visible colour;
2. The design shall be such that the pockets fill to at least 60% of their capacity within 25 s of deployment;
The Davit Launched inflatable liferafts
LSA Code Requirements
Section 4.2
 A liferaft for use with a launching appliance shall, when suspended from its lifting hook, withstand a load of:
 4 times the mass of its full complement of persons and equipment, at an ambient temperature and a
stabilized liferaft temperature of 20 ± 3°C with all relief valves inoperative; and
 1.1 times the mass of its full complement of persons and equipment at an ambient temperature and a
stabilized liferaft temperature of -30°C with all relief valves operative.
Rigid liferafts
Solas /LSA Code
 Rigid liferafts shall comply with the requirements of section 4.1 and, in addition, shall comply with the
requirements of this section.
Construction of rigid liferafts
 The buoyancy of the liferaft shall be provided by approved inherently buoyant material placed as near as
possible to the periphery of the liferaft.
 The buoyant material shall be fire-retardant or be protected by a fire-retardant covering.
 The floor of the liferaft shall prevent the ingress of water and shall effectively support the occupants out of
the water and insulate them from cold.
Rigid liferafts
Solas /LSA Code
Access into rigid liferafts
 At least one entrance shall be fitted with a rigid boarding ramp to enable persons to board the liferaft from
the sea.
 Entrances not provided with a boarding ramp shall have a boarding ladder, the lowest step of which shall
be situated not less than 0.4 m below the liferaft's light waterline.
 There shall be means inside the liferaft to assist persons to pull themselves into the liferaft from the ladder.
Stability of rigid liferafts
 Its strength and stability shall be such that it is either self-righting or can be readily righted in a seaway and
in calm water by one person.
 The stability of a liferaft when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment shall be such that
it can be towed at speeds of up to 3 knots in calm water.
Rigid liferafts
Solas /LSA Code
Davit-launched rigid liferafts
 In addition to the above requirements, a rigid liferaft for use with an approved launching appliance shall,
when suspended from its lifting hook or bridle, withstand a load of 4 times the mass of its full complement
of persons and equipment.
Rigid liferafts
Solas /LSA Code
Markings on rigid liferafts
Name and Port of registry of the ship to which it belongs;
1. Maker's name or trademark;
2. Serial number;
3. Name of approving authority;
4. Number of persons it is permitted to accommodate over each entrance in characters not less than 100 mm in
height of a colour contrasting with that of the liferaft;
5. Length of painter;
6. Maximum permitted height of stowage above waterline (drop-test height); and
7. Launching instructions.
Liferaft Launching Methods
 The life raft on board ship are released or launched into the water by three different methods:
1. Auto release with Hydrostatic Release Unit (HRU).
2. Manually launching.
3. Launching by Davits.
Auto Release with Hydrostatic Release Unit
(HRU):
 The life raft HRU plays an important role when it comes to saving a life during an abandon ship situation.
 SOLAS 74 clearly specify the requirements for construction and positioning of the HRU at the life raft.
 The Working of HRU:
 HRU acts as a connecting media between life raft container and ship deck, where it is stored.
 The HRU comes in action under the pressure of water exerted on HRU when the ship sinks below 4m of
water level.
 The HRU consists of a sharp knife or chisel which is used to cut the strap lashed over the container
carrying life raft, but it still holds the painter at the weak link.
 The HRU is connected to the container through a lashing arrangement which can be disengaged quickly
by means of slip hook when launching the raft manually.
Auto Release with Hydrostatic Release Unit
(HRU):
 The HRU is connected to a strong point on deck through a weak link.
 When vessel sinks, the HRU cuts the rope and the container floats to the
surface of water.
 As vessel sinks further, the tension in the painter causes the life raft to
inflate out of the container.
 The tension acting on the weak link will cause it to break making the life
raft free from the ship.
 When vessel sinks, the HRU cuts the rope and the container floats to the
surface of water.
Manual Launching Procedure of Life
raft:
 Check that one end of the painter of the raft is well secured to a strong point on ship’s
deck or structure.
 Remove the lashing from the container of the raft and open the way to portable rail if
available.
 Check the ship side where the raft to be launched is clear.
 Two people should lift the container from both sides horizontally and throw the container.
 Make sure the painter is still fixed at a strong point so that the raft should not be waved
away by waters.
 Pull the painter with a hard jerk to fire the gas bottle to inflate the raft.
 The life raft will take 20-30 sec to inflate.
 Board the life raft one by one using ladder or rope.
 Avoid sharp objects like knives, shoes and other sharp objects etc which may
damage the raft surface.
 When everybody is aboard, after a headcount, cut the painter with a sharp
knife.
Manual Launching Procedure of Life raft:
Launching by Davits.
 Open the lashing and remove the raft container from HRU by opening the
manual slip hook or bottle screw arrangement.
 Tie up the one end of the painter of raft into a strong point at deck.
 Keep the container in the open and attach the davit hook to the given eye in the
canister/ container
 Take up the raft load by davit and keep the container hanging at embarkation
deck area.
 Pull the painter and inflate the raft. Have a thorough check on the inflated raft.
 Start boarding the raft without the shoes and other sharp object.
Launching by Davits.
 After the boarding is completed, check the bottom is clear and release the
securing lines, if any.
 Someone inside the raft will detach the hook of the davit from the raft when the
raft is just above the water.
 The davit operating person will board the raft either by jumping into the sea, raft
or by other boarding means if provided.
 Cut the painter and cast away the raft from ship.
Rigid inflatable liferaft vs inflatable liferaft
 The main difference between an inflatable life raft and a rigid life raft lies in their construction and functionality.
Here are the key distinctions:
1. Structure:
 Inflatable life rafts have flexible sides and are primarily constructed from airtight, reinforced fabric materials.
They are designed to be compact and lightweight for easy storage and deployment.
 On the other hand, rigid life rafts have a rigid hull made of materials like fiberglass, aluminum, or composites,
which provide a solid and durable structure.
2. Inflation:
 Inflatable life rafts require inflation to provide buoyancy and stability. They typically have one or more inflation
chambers that are filled with gas, usually compressed air or carbon dioxide, using an automatic or manual
inflation system.
 Rigid life rafts, however, have inflatable tubes attached to their rigid hulls, which provide additional buoyancy
and shock absorption but are not the primary means of keeping the raft afloat.
Rigid inflatable liferaft vs inflatable liferaft
4. Deployment:
 Inflatable life rafts are designed to be manually or automatically deployed by throwing or releasing them into
the water. Once in the water, they inflate and take their proper shape.
 Rigid life rafts, on the other hand, are usually stored in a fixed or semi-fixed position on a vessel, such as on
the deck or in dedicated compartments. They can be launched using mechanical davits or other launching
systems.
5. Stability and Durability:
 Rigid life rafts offer greater stability and durability compared to inflatable life rafts due to their rigid hull
structure.
 This makes them more resistant to punctures, abrasion, and damage from rough sea conditions. Rigid life rafts
also have self-righting capabilities, meaning they can automatically flip back into an upright position if capsized,
which enhances the safety of the occupants.
Rigid inflatable liferaft and inflatable liferaft
6. Capacity and Space:
 Inflatable life rafts come in various sizes and capacities, ranging from a few individuals to larger groups. They
are designed to maximize space efficiency when packed and stored.
 Rigid life rafts can also accommodate different numbers of occupants, but their larger size and rigid construction
may require more space for storage and deployment.
 Both types of life rafts are designed to provide emergency flotation and shelter in the event of a marine disaster.
 The choice between an inflatable life raft and a rigid life raft depends on factors such as vessel type, intended
use, capacity requirements, and regulatory compliance.
Davit Launch Methods
 There are several davit launch methods commonly used for life rafts.
 Davits are mechanical devices designed to safely lower life rafts from a vessel into the water.
 The specific davit launch method depends on the type of davit system installed on the vessel. Here are some
common davit launch methods:
1. Gravity Davit Launch:
 Gravity davits are a simple and common type of davit system.
 In this method, the life raft is secured to the davit arm, which is then rotated or swung outboard over the vessel's
side.
 The life raft is lowered into the water using gravity, controlled by a brake or locking mechanism on the davit.
 This method is manually operated and does not require any external power sources.
Davit Launch Methods
2. Free-fall Davit Launch:
 Free-fall davits are used for larger life rafts or in situations where a rapid deployment is required.
 In this method, the life raft is secured to a cradle or frame on the davit arm.
 The davit arm is then released, allowing the life raft to free-fall from a height into the water.
 The free-fall method provides quick deployment and is often used in offshore or high-speed craft applications.
3. Mechanical Davit Launch:
 Some davit systems are equipped with mechanical winches or electric/hydraulic systems to assist in launching
the life raft.
 These systems use power to lower the life raft into the water, providing controlled descent and preventing rapid
or uncontrolled deployment.
 The mechanical launch method allows for precise control and is often used for larger or heavier life rafts.
Davit Launch Methods
4. Swing-arm Davit Launch:
 Swing-arm davits are commonly used on smaller vessels or recreational boats.
 In this method, the life raft is secured to a swing arm attached to the vessel's structure.
 The swing arm is rotated outboard, extending over the water, and the life raft is manually released into the
water. The swing-arm davit launch is a straightforward and manually operated method.
Line Throwing Appliances
 Line throwing apparatus refers to a class of life-saving appliances (LSA) that are found on every vessel.
 It uses a variety of launching methods and can be used for numerous maritime applications. From
hauling supplies, connecting ships, and providing supply lines, to aiding in rescue operations, line
throwing apparatus are an essential component of any ship.
Line Throwing Appliances
LTA
Line Throwing Appliances
Solas/LSA Requirments
 Line-throwing appliance complying with the requirements of section 7.1 of the Code shall be provided.
 Every line throwing appliances shall
 Be capable of throwing a line with reasonably accuracy.
 Include not less than four line, each having a breaking strength of not less than 2kn.
 Have brief instructions or diagram clearly illustrating the use of the line throwing appliance.
 The rocket, in case of a pistol-fired rocket ,or the assembly in the case of an integral rocket and line ,shall be
contained in a water –resistant casing.
Emergency training and drills
SOLAS/LSA Requirements-Reg III/19
 Familiarity with safety installations and practice musters
 Every crew member with assigned emergency duties shall be familiar with these duties before the voyage
begins.
 Passengers shall be instructed in the use of the lifejackets and the action to take in an emergency.
 Whenever new passengers embark, a passenger safety briefing shall be given immediately before departure,
or immediately after departure.
Emergency training and drills
SOLAS/LSA Requirements-Reg III/19
 Drills
 Shall, as far as practicable, be conducted as if there were an actual emergency.
 Every crew member shall participate in at least one abandon ship drill and one fire drill every month.
 The drills of the crew shall take place within 24 h of the ship leaving a port if more than 25% of the crew
have not participated in abandon ship and fire drills on board that particular ship in the previous month
Emergency training and drills
SOLAS/LSA Requirements
 Each abandon ship drill shall include :
 Summoning of passengers and crew to muster stations with the alarm followed by drill announcement on the
public address or other communication system and ensuring that they are made aware of the order to abandon
ship;
 Reporting to stations and preparing for the duties described in the muster list;
 checking that passengers and crew are suitably dressed.
 checking that lifejackets are correctly donned;
 lowering of at least one lifeboat after any necessary preparation for launching;
 starting and operating the lifeboat engine;
 operation of davits used for launching liferafts;
 a mock search and rescue of passengers trapped in their staterooms
 instruction in the use of radio life-saving appliances.
 Emergency lighting for mustering and abandonment shall be tested at each abandon ship drill.
Emergency training and drills
SOLAS/LSA Requirements
 Different lifeboats shall, as far as practicable, be lowered at successive drills.
 Each lifeboat shall be launched and manoeuvred in the water by its assigned operating crew, at least once
every three months during an abandon ship drill.
 In the case of a lifeboat arranged for free-fall launching, at least once every three months during an abandon
ship drill the crew shall board the lifeboat, properly secure themselves in their seats and commence launch
procedures up to but not including the actual release of the lifeboat (i.e., the release hook shall not be
released).
 As far as is reasonable and practicable, rescue boats other than lifeboats which are also rescue boats, shall
be launched each month with their assigned crew aboard and manoeuvred in the water. In all cases this
requirement shall be complied with at least once every 3 months.
 Emergency lighting for mustering and abandonment shall be tested at each abandon ship drill.
Fire drills
 Each fire drill shall include;
 Reporting to stations and preparing for the duties
 Starting of a fire pump, using at least the two required jets of water to show that the system is in proper
working order;
 checking of fireman's outfit and other personal rescue equipment;
 checking of relevant communication equipment;
 checking the operation of watertight doors, fire doors, fire dampers and main inlets and outlets of ventilation
systems in the drill area
 The equipment used during drills shall immediately be brought back to its fully operational condition and any
faults and defects discovered during the drills shall be remedied as soon as possible.
Enclosed Space Entry and Rescue Drill
 Crew members with enclosed space entry or rescue responsibilities shall participate in an enclosed space entry
and rescue drill to be held on board the ship at least once every two months.
 Each enclosed space entry and rescue drill shall include:
 checking and use of personal protective equipment required for entry;
 checking and use of communication equipment and procedures;
 checking and use of instruments for measuring the atmosphere in enclosed spaces;
 checking and use of rescue equipment and procedures
Onboard Training –use of davit launched
liferaft
 On-board training in the use of davit-launched liferafts shall take place at intervals of not more than 4
months on every ship fitted with such appliances.
On-board training and instructions
 On-board training in the use of the ship's life-saving appliances, including survival craft equipment, and in the
use of the ship's fire-extinguishing appliances shall be given as soon as possible but not later than 2 weeks
after a crew member joins the ship.
 Every crew member shall be given instructions which shall include but not necessarily be limited to:
 operation and use of the ship's inflatable liferafts;
 problems of hypothermia, first-aid treatment for hypothermia and other appropriate first-aid procedures;
 special instructions necessary for use of the ship's life-saving appliances in severe weather and severe sea
conditions;
 operation and use of fire-extinguishing appliances
 Risks associated with enclosed spaces and onboard procedures for safe entry into such spaces which should take into
account, as appropriate, the guidance provided in recommendations developed by the Organization
Records
 The date when musters are held, details of abandon ship drills and fire drills, enclosed space entry and rescue
drills .
 Drills of other life-saving appliances and on board training shall be recorded in such log-book as may be
prescribed by the Administration.
 If a full muster, drill or training session is not held at the appointed time, an entry shall be made in the log-
book stating the circumstances and the extent of the muster, drill or training session held.
Operational readiness, maintenance and
inspections
Reg III/20
 Before the ship leaves port and at all times during the voyage, all life-saving appliances shall be in working
order and ready for immediate use.
Instructions for on-board maintenance
 Instructions for on-board maintenance
 Instructions for on-board maintenance of life-saving appliances shall be easily understood, illustrated
wherever possible, and, as appropriate, shall include the following for each appliance:
 a checklist for use when carrying out the inspections;
 maintenance and repair instructions;
 schedule of periodic maintenance;
 diagram of lubrication points with the recommended lubricants;
 list of replaceable parts;
 list of sources of spare parts
log for records of inspections and maintenance.
MAINTENANCE
 Maintenance of falls
 Falls used in launching shall be inspected periodically* and renewed when necessary due to deterioration of the
falls or at intervals of not more than 5 years, whichever is the earlier.
 Spares and repair equipment
 Spares and repair equipment shall be provided for life-saving appliances and their components which are subject to
excessive wear or consumption and need to be replaced regularly.
Weekly inspection
 all survival craft, rescue boats and launching appliances shall be visually inspected to ensure that they are ready for use.
The inspection shall include, but is not limited to, the condition of hooks, their attachment to the lifeboat and the on-
load release gear being properly and completely reset;
 all engines in lifeboats and rescue boats shall be run for a total period of not less than 3 min.
 lifeboats, except free-fall lifeboats, on cargo ships shall be moved from their stowed position, without any persons on
board, to the extent necessary to demonstrate satisfactory operation of launching appliances, if weather and sea
conditions so allow
 the general emergency alarm shall be tested.
Monthly inspection
 All lifeboats, except free-fall lifeboats, shall be turned out from their stowed position, without any persons on board if
weather and sea conditions so allow.
 Inspection of the life-saving appliances, including lifeboat equipment, shall be carried out monthly to ensure that they
are complete and in good order. A report of the inspection shall be entered in the log-book.
Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets,
maintenance and repair of inflated rescue boats
 Every inflatable liferaft, inflatable lifejacket, and marine evacuation system shall be serviced:
 at intervals not exceeding 12 months, provided where in any case this is impracticable, the Administration
may extend this period to 17 months
 at an approved servicing station which is competent to service them, maintains proper servicing facilities
and used only properly trained personnel.*
 All repairs and maintenance of inflated rescue boats shall be carried out in accordance with the
manufacturer's instructions.
 Emergency repairs may be carried out on board the ship;however, permanent repairs shall be effected at
an approved servicing station.
Periodic servicing of hydrostatic release units
 Hydrostatic release units, other than disposable hydrostatic release units, shall be serviced:
 at intervals not exceeding 12 months, the Administration may extend this period to 17 months*; and
 at a servicing station which is competent to service them, maintains proper servicing facilities and uses only
properly trained personnel.
Lifeboat, lifer raft, rescue boat-Launching
appliances
 Launching appliances shall be:
 subject to a thorough examination at the annual surveys
 Lifeboat and rescue boat release gear, including fast rescue boat release gear and free-fall lifeboat
release systems, shall be:
 subject to a thorough examination and operational test during the annual surveys
LIFEBOAT AND LIFERAFT REPAIR
 Only small holes and tears in the buoyancy chamber and floor are to be repaired, it should be returned to
authorised service agent for assessment and or replaced.
Patching Limits:
 Repairs to the life raft are limited to patching of small holes or tears on the buoyancy chamber and floor.
 Life Rafts are to be replaced if the following damage is discovered during inspection or testing:
• Holes or tears on the webbing and attachments.
• Holes or tears on the welded seam.
• Over pressure Valve.
• Topping up Valve.
• Damage to the welded attachment points.
• Exposed to extremes of (UV) sunlight temperatures.
LIFEBOAT AND LIFERAFT REPAIR
The following items are to be repaired by replacements
only:
• Co2 Cylinder.
• SOLAS Light.
• Painter Line.
• Automatic operating Valve.
• Schrader Valve.
• Life Raft Valise.
• Sea Anchor (Drogue)
• Lifeline & rubber ring (Quoit)
• Safety Knife.
• SOLAS reflective Tape.
• Hand Pump & bag.
• Spare survival aid bag.
LIFEBOAT AND LIFERAFT REPAIR
 Replacement of SOLAS Reflective Tape:
1. Removal of reflective tape; remove easily by peeling back the damage tape. - Clean the surface of the
buoyancy and remove any glue or primer residue.
Use a template to mark the area where the tape is to be placed.
Clean with a dry cloth before applying the Primer to the marked area.
2. Apply the reflective tape by peeling back the protective film. The tape should be 50mm wide with corners
rounded to the surface of the buoyancy within the marked area.
3. Using a hand roller remove all creases and air bubbles for maximum adhesion being careful not to scratch
the surface of the tape.
4. Check for full contact after application
LIFEBOAT AND LIFERAFT REPAIR
 FRP LIFEBOAT
 Fiberglass reinforced plastic, or FRP, is a composite of several materials (mainly fibreglass fibres and resin) laid down in
alternating layers and hardened to form a solid laminate.
 FRP materials should be protected from sun, wind and rain
Handling of FRP materials
 Here are some guidelines to follow when carrying out simple FRP repair work.
• Always check that you actually get what you have ordered from the supplier.
• Keep the fibreglass dry and clean.
• All polyester-related materials should be stored in as dark and cool places as possible, and the hardener
• should be stored separately.
• Ensure that gelcoat and resins have been properly mixed in the drum or container before use, to avoid
• additives settling at the bottom.
• Ideally, when undertaking repair work, all raw materials, the boat itself and the environment should be at
• the same temperature.
LIFEBOAT AND LIFERAFT REPAIR
 Mark the area on the surface of the laminate to be grinded.
 Prior to grinding, all surface contamination, such as oil and silicone, should be washed off and removed with
an appropriate solvent.
 For grinding, 40 grit paper, or coarser, is a good choice.
 The area should be grinded with grit paper, either manually or by power tools, such as disc grinders. All
damaged fibreglass must be removed. Remember that the scarf should be at least 1:20.
Mixing the resin and hardener
 A cut-off plastic bottle may be used to measure the resin. It should contain exactly 500 ml (17.6 oz).
 The resin is poured into a bucket.
 The correct amount of hardener to resin is 1 percent, however 0.8 percent will normally also work in
the tropics.
 This is the correct amount of polyester resin to fibreglass. For example, the amount of resin for 1.0 m2
of 450g/m2 CSM is 1000 g (or 1 KG)
 A coat of resin should always be applied before applying the fibreglass mat.
 Another coat of resin should be applied after applying the fibreglass mat.
GSK & SEAMANSHIP-IV LIFE SAVING APPLIANCES .pptx
GSK & SEAMANSHIP-IV LIFE SAVING APPLIANCES .pptx
GSK & SEAMANSHIP-IV LIFE SAVING APPLIANCES .pptx

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GSK & SEAMANSHIP-IV LIFE SAVING APPLIANCES .pptx

  • 2. Importance of Life Saving Appliances  To be used by crew and passengers in case of emergency to protect their lives at sea.  The carriage of life saving appliances are made mandatory as per the SOLAS Convention.
  • 3. Life Saving Appliances  The carriage of life-saving appliances are made mandatory as per the SOLAS Convention.  The International Life-Saving Appliance (LSA) Code provides more specific technical requirements for the manufacturing, testing, maintenance and record keeping of life-saving appliances.  The LSA Code gives specific technical requirements for LSAs and is mandatory under regulation 34 which states that all life saving appliances and arrangements shall comply with the applicable requirements of the LSA Code.
  • 4. Life Saving Appliances The number, capacity and type of life-saving appliances differ from ship to ship depending on its size, shipping activity and voyage, and the LSA Code stipulates minimum requirements to comply in order to make a ship safe for its passengers and crew.
  • 5. Life Saving Appliances  Life Jacket  Life Buoy  Immersion suit  Anti Exposure suit  Thermal Protective Aid  Pyrotechnics-Hand flares, Rocket Parachute flare, Smoke Signal  Two-way VHF Radiotelephone Apparatus  Search and Rescue locating devices.  Lifeboat  Life raft  Lifeboat davits
  • 6.
  • 7. LSA
  • 8.  The classification of ships for life-saving appliances is typically based on international regulations established by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).  The classification takes into account the type and size of the ship, its intended use, and the number of people on board. The main categories include: SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) Convention Categories: 1. Passenger Ships: These are ships that carry more than 12 passengers. 2. Cargo Ships: Includes cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and above. 3. Tankers: Specifically designed to carry liquid cargo in bulk. 4. High-Speed Craft (HSC): Fast passenger craft capable of speeds equal to or exceeding 20 knots.
  • 9. LIFE JACKET  A Personal Flotation Device  To prevent the wearer from drowning in water.  Made up of buoyant or inflatable material.  Will keep the wearer afloat with their head and mouth above the surface.  Do not have to swim in order to stay afloat.  Available in different size to accommodate variations in body weight.  Designs differ depending on the activities and conditions they are designed to be used and the level of protection the wearer needs.
  • 10. Two popular types of life jackets used onboard- Inflatable Life Jacket  Requires to be inflated before use.  This jacket needs inflation for buoyancy and is automatically/ manually inflated when immersed in water.  Have a trigger mechanism (a small tablet that dissolve in water) and a gas cartridge.  Once it comes into contact with water, the trigger will pierce the gas cartridge and the rescue jacket will inflate. Non-Inflatable Life Jacket  Kept always inflated.  These jackets are fitted with buoyant materials, and they do not need to inflate.  Life jacket works on the principle of buoyancy.  If something has a lower density than water ,then it will likely float.  Material-Plastic foams such as Polyvinyl chloride and Polyethylene (most commonly used).  Buoyant material has air trapped inside the fibers. This air helps to minimize the density of the life jacket which means it will be more buoyant when it is in the water .
  • 11. Two popular types of life jackets used onboard- Inflatable Life Jacket Non-inflatable Life Jacket
  • 12. LIFE JACKET SOLAS REQUIREMENTS CHAPTER III/7.2.1  A lifejacket complying with the requirements of paragraph 2.2.1 or 2.2.2 of code Shall be provided for every person on board the ship.  Life jackets shall be carried out for persons on watch and for use at remotely located survival craft stations. The lifejackets carried for persons on watch should be stowed on the bridge, in the engine control room and at any other manned watched station.  Life jacket shall be so placed as to be readily accessible, and their position shall be plainly indicated.  Design of life jacket should be such that it does not interfere entry into the lifeboat or seating including operation of the seat belts in the lifeboat.
  • 13. LIFE JACKET LSA CODE 2.2.1-GEN REQUIRMENTS OF LIFEJACKETS  Shall not sustain burning or continue melting after being totally enveloped in a fire for a period of 2 sec.  An adult jacket shall be so constructed that  75% of persons who are completely unfamiliar with the life jacket can correctly don it within a period of 1 min without assistance or prior demonstration.  After demonstration, all persons can correctly don it within a period of 1min without assistance.  It is clearly capable of being worn in only one way .  The method of securing the life jacket to the wearer has quick and positive means of closure that do not require tying of knots.
  • 14. LIFE JACKET LSA CODE 2.2.1-GEN REQUIRMENTS OF LIFEJACKETS  It shall be comfortable to wear.  It allows the wearer to jump into the water from a height of at least 4.5m while holding on to the life jacket and from the height of at least 1m with the arms held overhead, without injury or damaging the life jacket.  An adult life jacket shall allow the wearer to swim a short distance and to board a survival craft.  A life jacket shall have buoyancy which is not reduced by more than 5% after 24hrs submersion in water.  Each jacket shall be fitted with whistle firmly secured with lanyard.
  • 15. Life jackets shall be provided in three sizes. Life jacket shall be marked by either weight or height or by both weight and height. Lifejacket marking infant child adult Weight (kg) Less than 15 15 or more but less than 43 43 and more Height(cm) Less than 100 100 or more but less than 155 155 or more
  • 16. LIFE JACKET LSA CODE 2.2.2-REQUIRMENTS FOR INFLATABLE LIFEJACKETS  shall have at least two separate compartments and shall inflate automatically upon immersion and be capable of having each chamber inflated by mouth.
  • 17. LIFE BUOY  Personal flotation device.  to perform emergency rescue.
  • 18. LIFEBUOY IMO REQUIREMENTS-SOLAS Reg Ch III/7.1  cargo ships shall carry not less than the number of lifebuoys prescribed in the table. Length of the ship Minimum no. of lifebuoy Under 100 8 100 and under 150 10 150 and under 200 12 200 and over 14
  • 19. LIFEBUOY IMO REQUIREMENTS-SOLAS Reg Ch III/7.1  Lifebuoys shall be so distributed as to be readily available on the both sides of the ship and as far as possible on all open decks extending to ships side, at least one shall be placed in the vicinity of of the stern.  Shall be capable of being rapidly cast loose.  At least one lifebuoy on each side of the ship shall be fitted with buoyant line equal in length not less than twice the height at which it is stowed above the waterline in the lightest seagoing draught or 30m whichever is greater.  At least, half of the total number of lifebuoy shall be fitted with self igniting lights.  At least, two shall be provided with lifebuoy self activating smoke signals and self igniting lights and be capable of quick release from the navigation bridge.  Each life buoy shall be marked in block capitals of Roman Alphabets with the name and port of registry of the ship on which it is carried.
  • 21. LIFEBUOY LSA CODE 2.1- IMO REQUIRMENTS FOR LIFEBUOY  Every lifebuoy shall  have an outer diameter of not more than 800mm and an inner diameter of not less than 400mm.  Be capable of supporting not less than 14.5kg of iron in fresh water for 24hrs.  Not sustain burning or continue melting after being totally enveloped in a fire for a period of 2 sec.  Be constructed to withstand a drop into the water from a height at which it is stowed above the waterline in the lightest seagoing condition or 30 m ,whichever is greater.
  • 22. LIFEBUOY LSA CODE 2.1- IMO REQUIRMENTS FOR LIFEBUOY  Every lifebuoy shall  Be fitted with a grab line not less than 9.5mm in diameter and not less than 4 times the outer diameter of the body of the buoy in length.  Shall have a mass of not less than 2.5 kg.  If it is intended to operate the quick release arrangement provided for the self activated smoke signals and self igniting lights, have a mass not less than 4kg.  Self igniting lights shall be such that they cannot be extinguished by water (For the lifebuoy which are provided by Self igniting lights).  Self igniting lights shall be of white colour with luminous intensity of not less than 2cd (candela) for a period of at least 2 hours, flashing at a rate of not less than 50 flashes and not more than 70 flashes per minute.
  • 23. LIFEBUOY LSA CODE 2.1- IMO REQUIRMENTS FOR LIFEBUOY  Lifebuoy self-activating smoke signals-shall emit smoke of a highly visible colour for a period of at least 15min when floating in calm water.  Lifebuoy self-activating smoke signals-shall continue to emit smoke when fully submerged in water for a period of at least 10sec.
  • 24. Immersion suit vs Anti Exposure Suit vs Thermal Protective Aid Anti Exposure Suit-is a protective suit designed for use by rescue boat crews and marine evacuation system parties. More focused on salvage and evacuation . Immersion Suit-is a protective suit which reduces the body heat loss of a person wearing it in cold. Thermal Protective Aid-is a bag or suit made up of waterproof material with low thermal conductance.
  • 25. Immersion suit vs Anti Exposure Suit vs Thermal Protective Aid
  • 27. IMMERSION SUIT IMO Requirements SOLAS Reg III/7.3  An immersion suit shall be provided for every person on board ship.  Immersion suit shall be provided for persons on watch and at any workstations which are located remotely from the place where immersion suits are usually stowed.  If ship is constantly engaged in warm climates, where in the opinion of administration thermal protection is unnecessary, this protective clothing need not be caried.
  • 28. IMMERSION SUIT LSA CODE REG 2.3  Shall be made up of waterproof material.  Shall be so placed as to be readily accessible and their position shall be plainly indicated.  Can be unpacked and donned without assistance within 2 min.  It shall not sustain burning or melting after being enveloped in a fire for a period of 2 sec.  It shall cover the whole body except the face. Covering of the hands may be provided by separate gloves which shall be permanently attached to the suit.  There shall not be ingress of water following a jump from a height of not less than 4.5m.  It shall not get damaged or dislodged following a jump from a height of not less than 4.5m.  An immersion suit shall permit the person to climb up and down a vertical ladder at least 5m in length.  Wearer shall perform normal duties associated with abandonment.
  • 29. IMMERSION SUIT LSA CODE REG 2.3  It shall be constructed such that wearer can swim a short distance and can board a survival craft.  An immersion suit which has buoyancy and is designed to be worn without life jacket shall be  fitted with light, whistle and buoyant line to secure it to a suit worn by another person in water(as prescribed earlier).  provided with a suitable means to allow a rescuer to lift the wearer from the water into a survival craft or rescue boat.  If an immersion suit is to be worn in conjunction with life jacket, the life jacket shall be worn over the immersion suit.  The immersion suit shall have buoyancy which is not reduced by more than 5% after 24 hrs submersion in fresh water.
  • 30. IMMERSION SUIT LSA CODE REG 2.3 Thermal performance requirements  If an immersion suit made up of material which has no inherent insulation- shall be so constructed that when worn with warm clothing and with life jacket, the immersion suit provides sufficient thermal protection to ensure that when it worn for a period of 1 hr in calm circulating water at a temp of 5*c the wearer’s body core temp does not fall more than 2*Celsius.  If an immersion suit made up of material with inherent insulation- shall be so constructed that when worn with life jacket, the immersion suit provides sufficient thermal protection to ensure that the wearer’s body core temp doesn’t fall more than 2*Celsius for a period of 6h immersion in calm circulating water at a temp between 0* Celsius and 2*Celsius.
  • 31. ANTI-EXPOSURE SUITS LSA CODE REG 2.4  An anti exposure suit shall be constructed with waterproof material.  Shall Provide inherent buoyancy of at least 70N.  Shall cover the whole body except the feet (where the administration so permits).covering of hands and head may be provided by separate gloves and a hood ,both of which shall be permanently attached to the suit.  Can be unpacked and donned without assistance within 2 mins.  Shall not sustain burning or continue melting after being totally enveloped in fire for a period of 2 sec.  Shall be equipped with a pocket for a portable VHF telephone.  Shall have a lateral field of vision of at least 120*.
  • 32. ANTI-EXPOSURE SUITS LSA CODE REG 2.4  An anti-exposure suit shall permit the wearer to Climb up and down a vertical ladder of at least 5m in length.  Shall allow the wearer to jump from a height of not less than 4.5m into the water without damaging or dislodging the suit or its attachments or being injured.  Swim through the water at least 25m and board a survival craft.  Shall be donned a lifejacket without assistance.  Wearer shall perform all duties associated with abandonment duties and operate rescue boat.  An anti exposure suit shall be fitted with a light and whistle complying with requirements.
  • 33. Anti Exposure suit LSA CODE REG 2.4 Thermal performance requirements  If an immersion suit made up of material which has no inherent insulation-  marked with instructions that it must be worn in conjunction with warm clothing.  shall be so constructed that when worn with warm clothing and with life jacket, the immersion suit provides sufficient thermal protection to ensure that when it is worn for a period of 0.5 hr in calm circulating water at a temp of 5*c the wearer’s body core temp does not fall at a rate more than 1.5*Celsius per hour.
  • 34. Anti Exposure suit LSA CODE REG 2.4  Stability requirements  Wearer shall be able to turn from a face-down to face-up position in not more than 5 sec and shall be stable face–up.
  • 35. Difference between requirements of Immersion Suit and Anti Exposure suit IMMERSION SUIT  It shall cover the whole body except the face. Covering of the hands may be provided by separate gloves which shall be permanently attached to the suit.  The immersion suit shall have buoyancy which is not reduced by more than 5% after 24 hrs submersion in fresh water. Thermal performance Requirements. INSULATION EFFECT OF IMMERISON SUIT IS BETTER THAN AES WHICH CAN PROVIDE MORE PROTECTION FOR CREW. ANTI EXPOSURE SUIT  Shall cover the whole body except the feet (where the administration so permits).covering of hands and head may be provided by separate gloves and a hood ,both of which shall be permanently attached to the suit.  Shall Provide inherent buoyancy of at least 70N.  Swim through the water at least 25m and board a survival craft.  Shall be equipped with a pocket for a portable VHF telephone.  Shall have a lateral field of vision of at least 120*.
  • 36. Thermal Protective Aid  Protect from hypothermia.  Used in the situation where life is threatened by loss of body heat.  Wearer can not swim.  TPA is without life jacket. So, it is avoided to use in water.  Wearer can not climb the ladder.
  • 37. Thermal Protective Aid IMO Requirements  Shall be made up of waterproof material having a thermal conductance (measure of its ability to conduct heat)of not more than 7800 w/(m2.k).  Shall cover the whole body of person of all sizes wearing a life jacket except face .Hands shall also be covered unless permanently attached gloves are provided.  Shall be capable of being unpacked and easily donned without assistance in a survival craft or rescue boat.  Permit the wearer to remove it in the water in not more than 2 min,if it impairs the ability to swim.  The thermal protective aid shall function properly throughout an air temp range -30*C TO +20*C.
  • 38. Communication  Means of communication  Two-way VHF Radiotelephone apparatus.  Search and rescue locating devices  Distress flares  On-board communication and alarm systems.  Public address system
  • 39. Communication Solas- Regulation III/6  On every passenger ship and on every cargo ships of 500 GRT and upwards:-  At least 3 two-way VHF Radiotelephone apparatus.  At least one search and rescue locating device –on each side  On every cargo ships of 300 GRT and upwards but less than 500 GRT.  At least 2 two-way VHF Radiotelephone apparatus.  At least one search and rescue locating device.  Distress Flares  At least 12 rocket parachute flares –on or near the navigation bridge.
  • 40. Communication Solas- Regulation III/6  On-Board Communication and alarm systems  Any emergency means (either fixed or portable equipment or both) shall be provided for emergency control stations, muster and embarkation stations.  A general emergency alarm system-for summoning passengers and crew to muster stations  The system shall be supplemented by either a public address system or other suitable means of communication.  The general emergency alarm shall be audible throughout all the accommodation and normal crew working spaces. On passenger ships, the system shall also be audible on all open decks.
  • 41. Pyrotechnics  Rocket parachute flare  For use at night and on a clear night.  They may be seen at a distance upto 30 miles.  Hand flares  For use by day or night and are used to pinpoint your position when help is near at hand.  They may be seen at a distance up to 5 miles.  Smoke signal/floats  are to attract the attention of aircraft by day.  It is of no use igniting a smoke float to attract an aircraft you can not see, even though u may be able to hear it.
  • 42. Distress Flares -Pyrotechnics SOLAS Reg III/6.3  Not less than 12 rocket parachute flares shall be carried and be stowed on or near the navigational bridge.
  • 43.  Normal equipment of every lifeboat shall consist of  6 hand flares  4 rocket parachute flares  2 buoyant smoke signals Distress Flares -Pyrotechnics LSA CODE Reg IV/4.4.8
  • 44. Visual Signals-Rocket Parachute Flares LSA Code  The rocket parachute shall  Be contained in water resistant casing.  Have brief instructions or diagram clearly illustrating the use of the rocket parachute flare printed on its casing.  Have integral means of ignition.  Be so designed as not to cause discomfort to the person holding the casing.
  • 45. Visual Signals-Rocket Parachute Flares LSA Code  The rocket shall, when fired vertically, reach an altitude of not less than 300m.At or near the top of its trajectory, the rocket shall eject a parachute flare.  Parachute flare shall burn with a bright red color.  Luminous intensity not less than 30000 cd.  Burning period not less than 40 sec.  Have a rate of descent of not more than 5 m/s.  Not damage its parachute or attachments while burning.
  • 46. Visual Signals- Hand Flares LSA Code  The Hand Flares shall  Be contained in water resistant casing.  Have brief instructions or diagram clearly illustrating the use of the rocket parachute flare printed on its casing.  Have integral means of ignition.  Be so designed as not to cause discomfort to the person holding the casing.
  • 47. Visual Signals- Hand Flares LSA Code  Hand flare shall burn with a bright red color.  Luminous intensity not less than 15000 cd.  Burning period not less than 1min.  Continue to burn after having been immersed for a period of 10 sec under 100 mm of water.
  • 49. Visual Signals- Buoyant Smoke Signal LSA Code  The Buoyant smoke signal shall  Be contained in water resistant casing.  Have brief instructions or diagram clearly illustrating the use of the rocket parachute flare printed on its casing.  Not ignite explosively when used in accordance with the manufacturer’s operating instructions.  Emit smoke of highly visible color for a period of not less than 3 min when floating in calm water.  Not emit any flame during the entire smoke emission time.  Continue to emit smoke when submerged in water for a period of 10s under 100 mm of water.
  • 50. LIFEBOAT  LIFEBOAT is one of the most important life-saving equipment onboard a ship, which is used at the time of extreme emergencies for abandoning a ship.  Lifeboat is a smaller rigid vessel, secured onboard into davits so that it can be launched over the side of the ship with least time and mechanical assistance possible for an early escape of the crew from the ship.  A lifeboat must carry all the types of equipment described under SOLAS and LSA codes, which are passed for the survival at sea.  This includes rations, freshwater, first aid, compass, distress signalling equipment like rocket etc.  A ship must carry one rescue boat for the rescuing purpose, along with other lifeboats. One of the lifeboats can be designated as a rescue boat if two or more lifeboats are present onboard a ship.
  • 51. Types of Lifeboat Most common types of lifeboats used on merchant vessels: 1. Open Lifeboats 2. Closed Lifeboats 3. Freefall lifeboats
  • 52. 0PEN LIFEBOAT As the name suggests, the open lifeboat has no roof and is normally propelled by manual power by using hand-propelled ores. Compression ignition engine may also be provided for the propulsion purpose. However, open lifeboats are becoming obsolete now because of stringent safety norms, but one may find them on an older ship. The open lifeboat doesn’t help much in rain or bad weather and the possibility of water ingress in the highest.
  • 53. Closed lifeboat  Closed lifeboats are the most popular lifeboats that are used on ships, for they are enclosed which saves the crew from seawater, strong wind and rough weather.  Moreover, the watertight integrity is higher in this type of lifeboat, and it can also get upright on its own if toppled over by waves.  Closed lifeboats are further classified as 1. Partially enclosed 2. fully enclosed lifeboats.
  • 54. Freefall lifeboat  Freefall lifeboat is similar to an enclosed lifeboat but the process of launching is entirely different.  They are aerodynamic in nature and thus the boat can penetrate the water without damaging the body when launched from the ship.  The free-fall lifeboat is located at the aft of the ship, which provides a maximum clear area for free fall.
  • 55.
  • 56. Types of releasing mechanisms  There are different types of lifeboats used on board a ship on the basis of the type of ship and other special requirements.  Not all the lifeboats have the same type of releasing mechanisms, for the launching of a lifeboat depends on several other factors.  Types of lifeboat releases: 1. On load 2. Offload release.
  • 57. Types of releasing mechanisms  There are two types of lifeboat releasing mechanisms- on load and offload.  These mechanisms release the boat from the davit, which is attached to a wire or fall by means of a hook.  By releasing the hook the lifeboat can be set free to propel away from the ship.
  • 58. Types of releasing mechanisms
  • 59. Offload Mechanism:  The offload mechanism releases the boat after the load of the boat is transferred to water or the boat has been lowered fully into the sea.  There is a hydrostatic piston unit provided at the bottom.  The piston is connected to the operating lever via a link.  As the ship becomes waterborne, the water pressure will move the hydrostatic piston up.  The piston will continue to move up, pushing the lever and as a result, it will operate the hook arrangement releasing the fall wire.  There is a safety pin arrangement provided near the clutch box, which disables the offload release (in case of rough weather or hydrostatic piston malfunction) allowing the operator to perform onload release of the lifeboat.
  • 60. On-Load Mechanism  On load mechanism can release the lifeboat from the wire, with the ship above the water level and with all the crew members inside the boat.  The load will be still in the fall as the boat would not have touched the water.  Normally the on-load release is operated when the boat is about to touch the surface of the water(about 1m) so that the fall is smooth without damaging the boat and harming the crew inside.  A lever is provided inside the boat to operate this mechanism.  As the lever is operated from inside, it is safe to free the boat without going out of the lifeboat, when there is a fire on the ship.
  • 61. Free Fall lifeboat release:  In Free fall lifeboat, the launching mechanism is similar to on load release.  The only difference is that the freefall lifeboat is not lowered till 1m above water level, it is launched from the stowed position by operating a lever located inside the boat which releases the boat from rest of the davit and boat slides through the tilted ramp into the water.
  • 62. Lifeboat Lowering Procedure 1. Make fast the other end of toggle painter on a strong point forward of ship. 2. Release forward and aft gripes/securing wires. 3. Remove harbour safety pins. 4. Ensure Deadman's handle safety pin is removed. 5. Disconnect electric charge cable. 6. Suitable jackets are to be worn by the boats crew. 7. Make sure ships side is free of everything. 8. Board the lifeboat. 9. Close drain plugs. 10. Operate Deadman's lever from inside lifeboat by using remote release wire arrangement . 11. Boat may swing during launch. Keep lowering boat at a steady rate. 12. Depending on the situation, operate on-load or off-load release mechanism.
  • 63. SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code Lifeboat  Lifeboat shall be constructed in such a way that they have sufficient stability in a seaway, sufficient freeboard and sufficient strength when loaded with their full complement of persons and equipment.  Shall be capable of safely launched under all conditions of trim of up to 10 degrees and list up to 20 degrees.  Shall have rigid hull.  Each lifeboat shall be fitted with a permanently affixed approval plate endorsed by administration containing at least following items  Manufacturers name and address  Lifeboat model and serial number.  Month and year of manufacture  Number of person lifeboat is approved to carry.  Material of lifeboat  Total mass when fully equipped and manned.
  • 64. SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code Lifeboat Construction of lifeboat  Shall be capable of being launched and towed when the ship is making headway at the speed of 5 knots.  Hull and rigid covers shall be fire-retardant or non-combustible.  Shall have sufficient strength to withstand a lateral impact against ships side at an impact velocity of at least 3.5 m/s.  Speed of lowering lifeboat shall be limited to 36 m/min (Centrifugal brakes is fitted and adjusted to these limits of lowering).  The speed of hoisting a lifeboat or a rescue boat should not be less than 0.3m/sec.
  • 65. SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code Lifeboat Carrying capacity of lifeboat-  Max capacity- 150 person.  Each seating position shall be clearly indicated in the lifeboat. Access into lifeboat-  For Passenger Ship-lifeboat shall be so arranged that it can be boarded by its full compliment of person within 10 mins.  For Cargo ships-lifeboat shall be so arranged that it can be boarded by its full compliment of person within 3 mins.  Lifeboat shall have boarding ladder that can be used at any boarding entrance of the lifeboat to enable persons in the water to board the lifeboat.  All surface on which persons might walk shall have a non-skid finish.
  • 66. SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code Lifeboat  Lifeboat buoyancy  All lifeboat shall have inherent buoyancy or shall be fitted with inherently buoyant material which shall not be adversely affected by sea water, oil or oil product.  Buoyancy shall be sufficient to float the lifeboat with all its equipment on board when flooded and open to sea.
  • 67. SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code Lifeboat Propulsion  Every lifeboat shall be powered by a compression-ignition engine. Flash point for fuel shall not be less than 43-degree Celsius.  The engine shall be provided with either a manual starting system or a power starting system with two independent rechargeable energy sources.  Engine shall be capable of starting at an ambient temperature of -15 deg C within 2 min of commencing the start procedure.  The engine shall be capable of operating when the lifeboat is flooded up to centerline of the crankshaft.  The engine shall be capable of operating for not less than 5 mins after starting from the cold with the lifeboat out of the water.  The propeller shafting shall be so arranged that the propeller can be disengaged from the engine. Provision shall be made for ahead and astern propulsion of the lifeboat.  The exhaust pipe shall be so arranged as to prevent water from entering the engine in normal operation.
  • 68. SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code Lifeboat Propulsion  The speed of the lifeboat shall not be less than 6 knots When proceeding ahead in calm water and when loaded with its full complements of persons and equipment.  The speed of the lifeboat shall not be less than 2 knots when towing the largest liferaft carried on the ship, loaded with its full compliments of persons and equipment.  Sufficient fuel shall be provided to run the fully loaded lifeboat at 6 knots for a period of not less than 24hrs.  The lifeboat engine ,transmission and engine accessories shall be enclosed in a fire-retardant casing.  Means shall be provided for recharging all engine starting ,radio and search light batteries.  Water resisting instructions for starting and operating the engine shall be provided
  • 69. SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code Lifeboat Fittings  All lifeboat except free fall lifeboats shall be provided with at least one drain valve fitted near the lowest point in the hull. 1. Shall automatically open to drain water from the hull when lifeboat is not waterborne. 2. Shall automatically close to prevent entry of water when the lifeboat is waterborne.  All lifeboat shall be provided with a rudder and tiller.  Except in the vicinity of the rudder and propeller ,suitable handholds or buoyant lifeline shall be provided (around the outside of the lifeboat above the waterline and within reach of a person in the water).  All lifeboats shall be fitted with sufficient watertight lockers or compartments for storage of small items of equipment, water and provision.  The lifeboat shall be equipped with means of collecting rainwater.
  • 70. SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code Lifeboat Fittings  Every lifeboat to be launched by a fall or falls ,except a free fall lifeboat, shall be fitted with a release mechanism . 1. The release mechanism shall be so arranged that all hooks are released simultaneously. 2. The mechanism shall only open when the release mechanism is operated with the boat fully waterborne or if not waterborne, deliberate action which shall include removal or bypassing safety interlocks designed to prevent premature or inadvertent release. 3. Mechanism shall not open by its own due to wear etc. 4. The mechanism shall have two release capabilities – Normal (off-load)Release capabilities. On-Load Release capabilities.
  • 71. SOLAS Requirements/LSA Code Lifeboat Fittings  Every lifeboat shall be fitted with a device to secure a painter near its bow.  A manually controlled exterior lights shall be fitted. The light shall be white and be capable of operating continuously for at least 12 h with a luminous intensity of not less than 4.3 cd in all directions.  A manually controlled interior lights shall be fitted inside the lifeboat . The light shall be capable of operating continuously for at least 12 h with a luminous intensity of not less than 0.5 cd in all directions.  Every lifeboat shall be so arranged that an adequate view forward ,aft and to both sides is provided from the control and steering position.
  • 72. Lifeboat Markings  The number of persons for which the lifeboat is approved shall be clearly marked on it in clear permanent characters.  The name and port of registry of the ship to which the lifeboat belongs shall be marked on each side of the lifeboat’s bow in block capitals of the Roman alphabet.  Means of identifying the ship to which the lifeboat belongs, and the number of the lifeboat shall be marked in such a way that they are visible from above
  • 73. Lifeboat Equipment • Buoyant oars-Sufficient • Day Light signaling Mirror/Heliograph-1 • Hand flaress-6 • Rocket parachute flares-4 • Buoyant smoke floats-2 • Jack Knife-1 • Six doses of anti sea sickness medicine and one sea sickness bag for each person. • Manual pump-1 • sea anchor of adequate size-1 • One waterproof electric torch • Whistle-1 • A buoyant bailer and two buckets • A Survival Manual • Two axes (hatchets) stowed one at each end of the boat. • An efficient radar reflector, unless a survival craft radar transponder is stowed in the boat. • One copy of the life saving signals tables on a waterproof card or in a waterproof container. • Two efficient painters -one painter attached to the release device and other painter shall be firmly secured. • A binnacle containing an efficient compass. • Sufficient tools for minor adjustments to the engine. • Portable fire extinguishing equipment. • A search light-width 18m at 180m distance for 6 hrs., working continuously for not less than 3 hours. • TPA-for at least 10% of total number of persons that the boat is permitted to carry. • A watertight receptacle- 3 liters of fresh water for each person. • A rust proof dipper with lanyard. • Tin openrs-3 • A food ration-not less than 10000 kJ for each person • A first aid kit.
  • 74. LIFE RAFT  There are mainly two types of life rafts 1. Inflatable 2. Rigid Inflatable liferaft (RIB)
  • 76. Inflatable life raft  Inflatable life raft contain inflation cylinder which contain CO2 gas. 1. CO2 gas containing small amount percentage of NITROGEN gas to act as anti freeze. 2. Also,CO2 is non-flammable and heavier than air hence add buoyancy to raft. 3. Freezing point of CO2 is -78 deg Celsius, So it can inflate life raft even at -15deg c.
  • 77. SOLAS /LSA Code Requirements General (Inflatable & Rigid) Requirements for life raft Section 4.1 Construction  Capacity shall not less than six persons .  The total weight of each raft, unless it is to be launched by an approved launching device, shall not exceed 185 kg, inclusive of the case and all fitments.  Every life raft shall be capable of withstanding exposure for 30 days of sea conditions.  Standard rafts shall be robust in construction to be launched from a height of 18 m and when inflated be able to withstand repeated jumps on to its surface from heights up to 4.5 m.  The liferaft and its fittings shall be so constructed as to enable it to be towed at a speed of 3 knots in calm water when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment and with one of its sea-anchors streamed.
  • 78. SOLAS /LSA Code Requirements General (Inflatable & Rigid) Requirements for life raft Section 4.1 Construction Shall have a canopy to protect the occupants from exposure. The canopy shall comply with the following -  shall be provided with the means for collecting rainwater.  Shall have at least one viewing port .  Entrances shall be clearly indicated and fitted with efficient adjustable closing arrangements.  A ventilation system shall be provided which allows the passage of sufficient air but excludes the passage of sea water and cold.  Overall construction of the raft shall include sufficient headroom for sitting occupants under all parts of the canopy.  All materials used in the manufacture should be corrosive- resistant, unaffected by sunlight and not duly affected by sea water, oil or fungi attack. Retro-reflective material should be prominently displayed to assist in detection of the raft.
  • 79. SOLAS /LSA Code Requirements General (Inflatable & Rigid) Requirements for life raft Section 4.1 Life Raft Fittings  shall be fitted with becketed lifelines both inside and outside every life raft.  The liferaft shall be fitted with an efficient painter of length equal to not less than  (10 m + the distance from the stowed position to the waterline in the lightest seagoing condition) or  15 m whichever is the greater.  The breaking strength of the painter system shall be  not less than 15.0 kN for liferafts with capacity more than 25 persons,  not less than 10.0 kN for liferafts with capacity between 9 to 25 persons  not less than 7.5 kN for any other liferaft.
  • 80. SOLAS /LSA Code Requirements General (Inflatable & Rigid) Requirements for life raft Section 4.1 Illumination  A manually controlled lamp shall be fitted to the top of the life raft canopy.  The light shall be white and capable of operating for a period of not less than 12 hours with luminous intensity not less than 4.3 cd.  If the light is a flashing light it shall flash at a rate of not less than 50 flashes not more than 70 per minute.  A manually controlled lamp shall be fitted inside the life raft capable of continuous operation for a period of at least 12 hours.  This lamp will light automatically when the life raft inflates. Its intensity should be sufficient to allow the reading of the survival instructions.
  • 81. General Requirements for Davit Launched liferaft LSA Code Section 4.1  When the liferaft is loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment,  Shall be capable of withstanding a lateral impact against the ship's side at an impact velocity of not less than 3.5 m/s and a drop into the water from a height of not less than 3 m without damage that will affect its function;  Liferaft be provided with means for bringing the liferaft alongside the embarkation deck and holding it securely during embarkation.  Every cargo ship davit-launched liferaft shall be so arranged that it can be boarded by its full complement of persons in not more than 3 min from the time the instruction to board is given.
  • 82. Liferaft Equipment LSA Code –Section 4.1 • Buoyant paddles-2 • Day Light signaling Mirror-1 • Hand flaress-6 • Rocket parachute flares-4 • Buoyant smoke floats-2 • Non-Foldable knife with buoyant handle and lanyard attached to it and stowed in the pocket on the exterior of canopy near the point at which painter is attached.-1 • Anti sea sickness medicine sufficient for at least 48 hrs. and and one sea sickness bag for each person.. • At least one repair outfit for repairing punctures in buoyancy compartments. • Topping up pump or bellows-1 • sea anchor-2 • One waterproof electric torch with one spare set of batteries and one spare bulb in waterproof container. • Whistle-1 • An efficient radar reflector, unless a survival craft radar transponder is stowed in the boat. • One copy of the life saving signals tables on a waterproof card or in a waterproof container. • TPA-for at least 10% of total number of persons that the boat is permitted to carry. • Drinking Water - 1.5 liters of fresh water for each person. • A rust proof graduated drinking vessel. • Tin openrs-3 • A food ration-not less than 10000 kJ for each person • A first aid kit. • One set of fishing tackle. • Sponges-2 • Buoyant rescue quoit-attached to not less than 30m of buoyant line. • If capacity not more than 12 persons-1 buoyant bailer and if capacity more than 12---2 buoyant bailer • A Survival instruction Manual
  • 83. General Requirements for Liferaft Painter System and weak link LSA code-Section 4.1  The liferaft painter system shall provide a connection between ship and the liferaft and shall be so arranged as to ensure that the liferaft when released and inflated is not dragged under by the sinking ship.  Weak link shall not be broken by the force required to pull the painter from the liferaft container.  Weak link shall break under a strain of 2.2 +/- 0.4 KN.
  • 84. Requirements for Liferaft HRU  HRU shall be constructed of compatible materials to prevent malfunction of the unit.  It shall automatically release the liferaft at a depth of not more than 4m.  Have drains to prevent the accumulation of water in the hydro-static chamber when the unit is in its normal position.  It shall be so constructed as to prevent release when seas wash over the unit.  It shall be permanently marked on its exterior with its type and serial number.  It shall be such that each part connected to the painter system has a strength of not less than that required for the painter.  If disposable, be marked with a means of determining its date of expiry.
  • 85. The inflatable life raft LSA Code Requirements Section 4.2  Inflatable life raft shall comply with the requirements of LSA Code, Section 4.1.  The main buoyancy chamber shall be divided into not less than two separate compartments, each inflated through a nonreturn inflation valve on each compartment.  The buoyancy chambers shall be so arranged that, in the event of any one of the compartments being damaged or failing to inflate, the intact compartments shall be able to support, with positive freeboard over the liferaft's entire periphery, the number of persons which the liferaft is permitted to accommodate, each having a mass of 75 kg and seated in their normal positions.  The liferaft shall be capable of being inflated by one person.  The liferaft shall be inflated with a nontoxic gas. Inflation shall be completed within a period of 1 min at an ambient temperature of between 18°C and 20°C and within a period of 3 min at an ambient temperature of - 30°C.
  • 86. The inflatable life raft LSA Code Requirements Section 4.2  Access into inflatable liferafts  At least one entrance shall be fitted with a semi-rigid boarding ramp ,capable of supporting a person weighing 100 kg, to enable persons to board the liferaft from the sea.  Entrances not provided with a boarding ramp shall have a boarding ladder, the lowest step of which shall be situated not less than 0.4 m below the liferaft's light waterline.  There shall be means inside the liferaft to assist persons to pull themselves into the liferaft from the ladder.  Stability of inflatable liferafts  The stability of the liferaft when in the inverted position shall be such that it can be righted in a seaway and in calm water by one person.  The stability of the liferaft when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment shall be such that it can be towed at speeds of up to 3 knots in calm water.  The liferaft shall be fitted with water pockets complying with the following requirements: 1. The water pockets shall be of a highly visible colour; 2. The design shall be such that the pockets fill to at least 60% of their capacity within 25 s of deployment;
  • 87. The Davit Launched inflatable liferafts LSA Code Requirements Section 4.2  A liferaft for use with a launching appliance shall, when suspended from its lifting hook, withstand a load of:  4 times the mass of its full complement of persons and equipment, at an ambient temperature and a stabilized liferaft temperature of 20 ± 3°C with all relief valves inoperative; and  1.1 times the mass of its full complement of persons and equipment at an ambient temperature and a stabilized liferaft temperature of -30°C with all relief valves operative.
  • 88. Rigid liferafts Solas /LSA Code  Rigid liferafts shall comply with the requirements of section 4.1 and, in addition, shall comply with the requirements of this section. Construction of rigid liferafts  The buoyancy of the liferaft shall be provided by approved inherently buoyant material placed as near as possible to the periphery of the liferaft.  The buoyant material shall be fire-retardant or be protected by a fire-retardant covering.  The floor of the liferaft shall prevent the ingress of water and shall effectively support the occupants out of the water and insulate them from cold.
  • 89. Rigid liferafts Solas /LSA Code Access into rigid liferafts  At least one entrance shall be fitted with a rigid boarding ramp to enable persons to board the liferaft from the sea.  Entrances not provided with a boarding ramp shall have a boarding ladder, the lowest step of which shall be situated not less than 0.4 m below the liferaft's light waterline.  There shall be means inside the liferaft to assist persons to pull themselves into the liferaft from the ladder. Stability of rigid liferafts  Its strength and stability shall be such that it is either self-righting or can be readily righted in a seaway and in calm water by one person.  The stability of a liferaft when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment shall be such that it can be towed at speeds of up to 3 knots in calm water.
  • 90. Rigid liferafts Solas /LSA Code Davit-launched rigid liferafts  In addition to the above requirements, a rigid liferaft for use with an approved launching appliance shall, when suspended from its lifting hook or bridle, withstand a load of 4 times the mass of its full complement of persons and equipment.
  • 91. Rigid liferafts Solas /LSA Code Markings on rigid liferafts Name and Port of registry of the ship to which it belongs; 1. Maker's name or trademark; 2. Serial number; 3. Name of approving authority; 4. Number of persons it is permitted to accommodate over each entrance in characters not less than 100 mm in height of a colour contrasting with that of the liferaft; 5. Length of painter; 6. Maximum permitted height of stowage above waterline (drop-test height); and 7. Launching instructions.
  • 92. Liferaft Launching Methods  The life raft on board ship are released or launched into the water by three different methods: 1. Auto release with Hydrostatic Release Unit (HRU). 2. Manually launching. 3. Launching by Davits.
  • 93. Auto Release with Hydrostatic Release Unit (HRU):  The life raft HRU plays an important role when it comes to saving a life during an abandon ship situation.  SOLAS 74 clearly specify the requirements for construction and positioning of the HRU at the life raft.  The Working of HRU:  HRU acts as a connecting media between life raft container and ship deck, where it is stored.  The HRU comes in action under the pressure of water exerted on HRU when the ship sinks below 4m of water level.  The HRU consists of a sharp knife or chisel which is used to cut the strap lashed over the container carrying life raft, but it still holds the painter at the weak link.  The HRU is connected to the container through a lashing arrangement which can be disengaged quickly by means of slip hook when launching the raft manually.
  • 94. Auto Release with Hydrostatic Release Unit (HRU):  The HRU is connected to a strong point on deck through a weak link.  When vessel sinks, the HRU cuts the rope and the container floats to the surface of water.  As vessel sinks further, the tension in the painter causes the life raft to inflate out of the container.  The tension acting on the weak link will cause it to break making the life raft free from the ship.  When vessel sinks, the HRU cuts the rope and the container floats to the surface of water.
  • 95. Manual Launching Procedure of Life raft:  Check that one end of the painter of the raft is well secured to a strong point on ship’s deck or structure.  Remove the lashing from the container of the raft and open the way to portable rail if available.  Check the ship side where the raft to be launched is clear.  Two people should lift the container from both sides horizontally and throw the container.  Make sure the painter is still fixed at a strong point so that the raft should not be waved away by waters.  Pull the painter with a hard jerk to fire the gas bottle to inflate the raft.  The life raft will take 20-30 sec to inflate.  Board the life raft one by one using ladder or rope.
  • 96.  Avoid sharp objects like knives, shoes and other sharp objects etc which may damage the raft surface.  When everybody is aboard, after a headcount, cut the painter with a sharp knife. Manual Launching Procedure of Life raft:
  • 97. Launching by Davits.  Open the lashing and remove the raft container from HRU by opening the manual slip hook or bottle screw arrangement.  Tie up the one end of the painter of raft into a strong point at deck.  Keep the container in the open and attach the davit hook to the given eye in the canister/ container  Take up the raft load by davit and keep the container hanging at embarkation deck area.  Pull the painter and inflate the raft. Have a thorough check on the inflated raft.  Start boarding the raft without the shoes and other sharp object.
  • 98. Launching by Davits.  After the boarding is completed, check the bottom is clear and release the securing lines, if any.  Someone inside the raft will detach the hook of the davit from the raft when the raft is just above the water.  The davit operating person will board the raft either by jumping into the sea, raft or by other boarding means if provided.  Cut the painter and cast away the raft from ship.
  • 99. Rigid inflatable liferaft vs inflatable liferaft  The main difference between an inflatable life raft and a rigid life raft lies in their construction and functionality. Here are the key distinctions: 1. Structure:  Inflatable life rafts have flexible sides and are primarily constructed from airtight, reinforced fabric materials. They are designed to be compact and lightweight for easy storage and deployment.  On the other hand, rigid life rafts have a rigid hull made of materials like fiberglass, aluminum, or composites, which provide a solid and durable structure. 2. Inflation:  Inflatable life rafts require inflation to provide buoyancy and stability. They typically have one or more inflation chambers that are filled with gas, usually compressed air or carbon dioxide, using an automatic or manual inflation system.  Rigid life rafts, however, have inflatable tubes attached to their rigid hulls, which provide additional buoyancy and shock absorption but are not the primary means of keeping the raft afloat.
  • 100. Rigid inflatable liferaft vs inflatable liferaft 4. Deployment:  Inflatable life rafts are designed to be manually or automatically deployed by throwing or releasing them into the water. Once in the water, they inflate and take their proper shape.  Rigid life rafts, on the other hand, are usually stored in a fixed or semi-fixed position on a vessel, such as on the deck or in dedicated compartments. They can be launched using mechanical davits or other launching systems. 5. Stability and Durability:  Rigid life rafts offer greater stability and durability compared to inflatable life rafts due to their rigid hull structure.  This makes them more resistant to punctures, abrasion, and damage from rough sea conditions. Rigid life rafts also have self-righting capabilities, meaning they can automatically flip back into an upright position if capsized, which enhances the safety of the occupants.
  • 101. Rigid inflatable liferaft and inflatable liferaft 6. Capacity and Space:  Inflatable life rafts come in various sizes and capacities, ranging from a few individuals to larger groups. They are designed to maximize space efficiency when packed and stored.  Rigid life rafts can also accommodate different numbers of occupants, but their larger size and rigid construction may require more space for storage and deployment.  Both types of life rafts are designed to provide emergency flotation and shelter in the event of a marine disaster.  The choice between an inflatable life raft and a rigid life raft depends on factors such as vessel type, intended use, capacity requirements, and regulatory compliance.
  • 102. Davit Launch Methods  There are several davit launch methods commonly used for life rafts.  Davits are mechanical devices designed to safely lower life rafts from a vessel into the water.  The specific davit launch method depends on the type of davit system installed on the vessel. Here are some common davit launch methods: 1. Gravity Davit Launch:  Gravity davits are a simple and common type of davit system.  In this method, the life raft is secured to the davit arm, which is then rotated or swung outboard over the vessel's side.  The life raft is lowered into the water using gravity, controlled by a brake or locking mechanism on the davit.  This method is manually operated and does not require any external power sources.
  • 103. Davit Launch Methods 2. Free-fall Davit Launch:  Free-fall davits are used for larger life rafts or in situations where a rapid deployment is required.  In this method, the life raft is secured to a cradle or frame on the davit arm.  The davit arm is then released, allowing the life raft to free-fall from a height into the water.  The free-fall method provides quick deployment and is often used in offshore or high-speed craft applications. 3. Mechanical Davit Launch:  Some davit systems are equipped with mechanical winches or electric/hydraulic systems to assist in launching the life raft.  These systems use power to lower the life raft into the water, providing controlled descent and preventing rapid or uncontrolled deployment.  The mechanical launch method allows for precise control and is often used for larger or heavier life rafts.
  • 104. Davit Launch Methods 4. Swing-arm Davit Launch:  Swing-arm davits are commonly used on smaller vessels or recreational boats.  In this method, the life raft is secured to a swing arm attached to the vessel's structure.  The swing arm is rotated outboard, extending over the water, and the life raft is manually released into the water. The swing-arm davit launch is a straightforward and manually operated method.
  • 105. Line Throwing Appliances  Line throwing apparatus refers to a class of life-saving appliances (LSA) that are found on every vessel.  It uses a variety of launching methods and can be used for numerous maritime applications. From hauling supplies, connecting ships, and providing supply lines, to aiding in rescue operations, line throwing apparatus are an essential component of any ship.
  • 106.
  • 108. LTA
  • 109. Line Throwing Appliances Solas/LSA Requirments  Line-throwing appliance complying with the requirements of section 7.1 of the Code shall be provided.  Every line throwing appliances shall  Be capable of throwing a line with reasonably accuracy.  Include not less than four line, each having a breaking strength of not less than 2kn.  Have brief instructions or diagram clearly illustrating the use of the line throwing appliance.  The rocket, in case of a pistol-fired rocket ,or the assembly in the case of an integral rocket and line ,shall be contained in a water –resistant casing.
  • 110. Emergency training and drills SOLAS/LSA Requirements-Reg III/19  Familiarity with safety installations and practice musters  Every crew member with assigned emergency duties shall be familiar with these duties before the voyage begins.  Passengers shall be instructed in the use of the lifejackets and the action to take in an emergency.  Whenever new passengers embark, a passenger safety briefing shall be given immediately before departure, or immediately after departure.
  • 111. Emergency training and drills SOLAS/LSA Requirements-Reg III/19  Drills  Shall, as far as practicable, be conducted as if there were an actual emergency.  Every crew member shall participate in at least one abandon ship drill and one fire drill every month.  The drills of the crew shall take place within 24 h of the ship leaving a port if more than 25% of the crew have not participated in abandon ship and fire drills on board that particular ship in the previous month
  • 112. Emergency training and drills SOLAS/LSA Requirements  Each abandon ship drill shall include :  Summoning of passengers and crew to muster stations with the alarm followed by drill announcement on the public address or other communication system and ensuring that they are made aware of the order to abandon ship;  Reporting to stations and preparing for the duties described in the muster list;  checking that passengers and crew are suitably dressed.  checking that lifejackets are correctly donned;  lowering of at least one lifeboat after any necessary preparation for launching;  starting and operating the lifeboat engine;  operation of davits used for launching liferafts;  a mock search and rescue of passengers trapped in their staterooms  instruction in the use of radio life-saving appliances.  Emergency lighting for mustering and abandonment shall be tested at each abandon ship drill.
  • 113. Emergency training and drills SOLAS/LSA Requirements  Different lifeboats shall, as far as practicable, be lowered at successive drills.  Each lifeboat shall be launched and manoeuvred in the water by its assigned operating crew, at least once every three months during an abandon ship drill.  In the case of a lifeboat arranged for free-fall launching, at least once every three months during an abandon ship drill the crew shall board the lifeboat, properly secure themselves in their seats and commence launch procedures up to but not including the actual release of the lifeboat (i.e., the release hook shall not be released).  As far as is reasonable and practicable, rescue boats other than lifeboats which are also rescue boats, shall be launched each month with their assigned crew aboard and manoeuvred in the water. In all cases this requirement shall be complied with at least once every 3 months.  Emergency lighting for mustering and abandonment shall be tested at each abandon ship drill.
  • 114. Fire drills  Each fire drill shall include;  Reporting to stations and preparing for the duties  Starting of a fire pump, using at least the two required jets of water to show that the system is in proper working order;  checking of fireman's outfit and other personal rescue equipment;  checking of relevant communication equipment;  checking the operation of watertight doors, fire doors, fire dampers and main inlets and outlets of ventilation systems in the drill area  The equipment used during drills shall immediately be brought back to its fully operational condition and any faults and defects discovered during the drills shall be remedied as soon as possible.
  • 115. Enclosed Space Entry and Rescue Drill  Crew members with enclosed space entry or rescue responsibilities shall participate in an enclosed space entry and rescue drill to be held on board the ship at least once every two months.  Each enclosed space entry and rescue drill shall include:  checking and use of personal protective equipment required for entry;  checking and use of communication equipment and procedures;  checking and use of instruments for measuring the atmosphere in enclosed spaces;  checking and use of rescue equipment and procedures
  • 116. Onboard Training –use of davit launched liferaft  On-board training in the use of davit-launched liferafts shall take place at intervals of not more than 4 months on every ship fitted with such appliances.
  • 117. On-board training and instructions  On-board training in the use of the ship's life-saving appliances, including survival craft equipment, and in the use of the ship's fire-extinguishing appliances shall be given as soon as possible but not later than 2 weeks after a crew member joins the ship.  Every crew member shall be given instructions which shall include but not necessarily be limited to:  operation and use of the ship's inflatable liferafts;  problems of hypothermia, first-aid treatment for hypothermia and other appropriate first-aid procedures;  special instructions necessary for use of the ship's life-saving appliances in severe weather and severe sea conditions;  operation and use of fire-extinguishing appliances  Risks associated with enclosed spaces and onboard procedures for safe entry into such spaces which should take into account, as appropriate, the guidance provided in recommendations developed by the Organization
  • 118. Records  The date when musters are held, details of abandon ship drills and fire drills, enclosed space entry and rescue drills .  Drills of other life-saving appliances and on board training shall be recorded in such log-book as may be prescribed by the Administration.  If a full muster, drill or training session is not held at the appointed time, an entry shall be made in the log- book stating the circumstances and the extent of the muster, drill or training session held.
  • 119. Operational readiness, maintenance and inspections Reg III/20  Before the ship leaves port and at all times during the voyage, all life-saving appliances shall be in working order and ready for immediate use.
  • 120. Instructions for on-board maintenance  Instructions for on-board maintenance  Instructions for on-board maintenance of life-saving appliances shall be easily understood, illustrated wherever possible, and, as appropriate, shall include the following for each appliance:  a checklist for use when carrying out the inspections;  maintenance and repair instructions;  schedule of periodic maintenance;  diagram of lubrication points with the recommended lubricants;  list of replaceable parts;  list of sources of spare parts log for records of inspections and maintenance.
  • 121. MAINTENANCE  Maintenance of falls  Falls used in launching shall be inspected periodically* and renewed when necessary due to deterioration of the falls or at intervals of not more than 5 years, whichever is the earlier.  Spares and repair equipment  Spares and repair equipment shall be provided for life-saving appliances and their components which are subject to excessive wear or consumption and need to be replaced regularly.
  • 122. Weekly inspection  all survival craft, rescue boats and launching appliances shall be visually inspected to ensure that they are ready for use. The inspection shall include, but is not limited to, the condition of hooks, their attachment to the lifeboat and the on- load release gear being properly and completely reset;  all engines in lifeboats and rescue boats shall be run for a total period of not less than 3 min.  lifeboats, except free-fall lifeboats, on cargo ships shall be moved from their stowed position, without any persons on board, to the extent necessary to demonstrate satisfactory operation of launching appliances, if weather and sea conditions so allow  the general emergency alarm shall be tested.
  • 123. Monthly inspection  All lifeboats, except free-fall lifeboats, shall be turned out from their stowed position, without any persons on board if weather and sea conditions so allow.  Inspection of the life-saving appliances, including lifeboat equipment, shall be carried out monthly to ensure that they are complete and in good order. A report of the inspection shall be entered in the log-book.
  • 124. Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, maintenance and repair of inflated rescue boats  Every inflatable liferaft, inflatable lifejacket, and marine evacuation system shall be serviced:  at intervals not exceeding 12 months, provided where in any case this is impracticable, the Administration may extend this period to 17 months  at an approved servicing station which is competent to service them, maintains proper servicing facilities and used only properly trained personnel.*  All repairs and maintenance of inflated rescue boats shall be carried out in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.  Emergency repairs may be carried out on board the ship;however, permanent repairs shall be effected at an approved servicing station.
  • 125. Periodic servicing of hydrostatic release units  Hydrostatic release units, other than disposable hydrostatic release units, shall be serviced:  at intervals not exceeding 12 months, the Administration may extend this period to 17 months*; and  at a servicing station which is competent to service them, maintains proper servicing facilities and uses only properly trained personnel.
  • 126. Lifeboat, lifer raft, rescue boat-Launching appliances  Launching appliances shall be:  subject to a thorough examination at the annual surveys  Lifeboat and rescue boat release gear, including fast rescue boat release gear and free-fall lifeboat release systems, shall be:  subject to a thorough examination and operational test during the annual surveys
  • 127. LIFEBOAT AND LIFERAFT REPAIR  Only small holes and tears in the buoyancy chamber and floor are to be repaired, it should be returned to authorised service agent for assessment and or replaced. Patching Limits:  Repairs to the life raft are limited to patching of small holes or tears on the buoyancy chamber and floor.  Life Rafts are to be replaced if the following damage is discovered during inspection or testing: • Holes or tears on the webbing and attachments. • Holes or tears on the welded seam. • Over pressure Valve. • Topping up Valve. • Damage to the welded attachment points. • Exposed to extremes of (UV) sunlight temperatures.
  • 128. LIFEBOAT AND LIFERAFT REPAIR The following items are to be repaired by replacements only: • Co2 Cylinder. • SOLAS Light. • Painter Line. • Automatic operating Valve. • Schrader Valve. • Life Raft Valise. • Sea Anchor (Drogue) • Lifeline & rubber ring (Quoit) • Safety Knife. • SOLAS reflective Tape. • Hand Pump & bag. • Spare survival aid bag.
  • 129. LIFEBOAT AND LIFERAFT REPAIR  Replacement of SOLAS Reflective Tape: 1. Removal of reflective tape; remove easily by peeling back the damage tape. - Clean the surface of the buoyancy and remove any glue or primer residue. Use a template to mark the area where the tape is to be placed. Clean with a dry cloth before applying the Primer to the marked area. 2. Apply the reflective tape by peeling back the protective film. The tape should be 50mm wide with corners rounded to the surface of the buoyancy within the marked area. 3. Using a hand roller remove all creases and air bubbles for maximum adhesion being careful not to scratch the surface of the tape. 4. Check for full contact after application
  • 130. LIFEBOAT AND LIFERAFT REPAIR  FRP LIFEBOAT  Fiberglass reinforced plastic, or FRP, is a composite of several materials (mainly fibreglass fibres and resin) laid down in alternating layers and hardened to form a solid laminate.  FRP materials should be protected from sun, wind and rain Handling of FRP materials  Here are some guidelines to follow when carrying out simple FRP repair work. • Always check that you actually get what you have ordered from the supplier. • Keep the fibreglass dry and clean. • All polyester-related materials should be stored in as dark and cool places as possible, and the hardener • should be stored separately. • Ensure that gelcoat and resins have been properly mixed in the drum or container before use, to avoid • additives settling at the bottom. • Ideally, when undertaking repair work, all raw materials, the boat itself and the environment should be at • the same temperature.
  • 131.
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  • 133. LIFEBOAT AND LIFERAFT REPAIR  Mark the area on the surface of the laminate to be grinded.  Prior to grinding, all surface contamination, such as oil and silicone, should be washed off and removed with an appropriate solvent.  For grinding, 40 grit paper, or coarser, is a good choice.  The area should be grinded with grit paper, either manually or by power tools, such as disc grinders. All damaged fibreglass must be removed. Remember that the scarf should be at least 1:20.
  • 134. Mixing the resin and hardener  A cut-off plastic bottle may be used to measure the resin. It should contain exactly 500 ml (17.6 oz).  The resin is poured into a bucket.  The correct amount of hardener to resin is 1 percent, however 0.8 percent will normally also work in the tropics.  This is the correct amount of polyester resin to fibreglass. For example, the amount of resin for 1.0 m2 of 450g/m2 CSM is 1000 g (or 1 KG)  A coat of resin should always be applied before applying the fibreglass mat.  Another coat of resin should be applied after applying the fibreglass mat.