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GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
  INDIA
  Research and collaboration in the new geography of science

OCTOBER 2009
JONATHAN ADAMS
CHRISTOPHER KING
VINAY SINGH




EVIDENCE
THE AUTHORS
Jonathan Adams is Director, Research Evaluation.
He was a founding Director of Evidence Ltd, the UK specialist on research performance analysis and interpretation.

Christopher King is Editor of Science Watch (ScienceWatch.com),
a newsletter and web resource tracking trends and performance in basic research.

Vinay Singh is National Manager of India, Healthcare & Science business of Thomson Reuters.
He has over 14 years of extensive experience in the academic publishing and information industry.

This report has been published by
	          Evidence Ltd, a Thomson Reuters company
	          103 Clarendon Road, Leeds LS2 9DF, UK
	          T/		                 +44 113 384 5680
	          F/		                 +44 113 384 5874
	          E/		                 enquiries@evidence.co.uk

Copyright © 2009 Thomson Reuters

ISBN: 1-904431-21-6
.......................................................................................................................
GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
THE NEW GEOGRAPHY OF SCIENCE:
RESEARCH AND COLLABORATION IN INDIA : OCTOBER 2009


INTRODUCTION
                        This report is part of a series launched by        Despite these achievements, recent years
                        Thomson Reuters to inform policymakers             have seen a growing realization among
                        about the changing landscape and dynamics          scholars, policymakers, and other observers
                        of the global research base.                       that India lags behind other key countries
                                                                           and some of its BRIC partners in research
                        The previous Global Research Report
                                                                           investment and output. The government
                        examined Brazil and its growing presence
                                                                           has made concerted efforts to invest in
                        on the world scientific stage. Here, we
                                                                           education by creating facilities such as
                        turn to another component nation in the
                                                                           the Indian Institutes of Science Education
                        so-called “BRIC” group: India, which, like
                                                                           and Research, dedicated to the highest
                        Brazil and fellow BRIC members Russia
                                                                           international standards of scientific research
                        and China, is building on its vast resources
                                                                           and science education. Funding for education
                        and potential in becoming a lead economic
                                                                           and research has been a priority and has risen
                        power. Underpinning the realization of that
                                                                           accordingly. The latest five-year plan, covering
                        economic potential will be a significant
                                                                           the years 2007 to 2012, includes a four-fold
                        expansion in its ability to generate and exploit
                                                                           increase for education over the previous plan.
                        its knowledge resources through research
                                                                           Overall, as Nature reported earlier in 2009,
                        and the related skills of its workforce. The
                                                                           government spending on science research
                        growth of knowledge and innovation capacity
                                                                           currently accounts for roughly 0.9% of gross
                        in the BRIC is already impacting on the global
                                                                           domestic product; by 2012, the figure is
                        research system.
                                                                           expected to rise to 1.2%.
                        The tradition of science in India, of course,
                                                                           A nagging problem, however—perhaps
                        extends back millennia, with Aryabhatta,
                                                                           paradoxically for the second-most populous
                        Bhaskara, Brahmagupta, and others still
                                                                           nation on earth—is a current lack of human
                        celebrated for their foundational contributions
                                                                           resources: the availability of qualified
                        to the fields of mathematics, astronomy,
                                                                           researchers has not kept pace with the
                        and chemistry. In the modern era, science
                                                                           increased funding. Government action has
                        and technology have been central to India’s
                                                                           made progress in this regard. A report from
                        development efforts since the nation achieved
                                                                           India’s National Council of Applied Economic
                        independence in 1947. Since then, via
                                                                           Research reported that the proportion of
                        government directives such as the Scientific
                                                                           the population holding graduate degrees
                        Policy Resolution (1958), the Technology
                                                                           increased from 2.4% of the population (20.5
                        Policy Statement (1983), and Science and
                                                                           million) in 1991 to 4.5% (48.7 million) in 2005.
                        Technology Policy (2003), the nation has
                                                                           Increase in government support of science,
                        achieved notable scientific successes.
                                                                           and the subsequent improvement of existing
                        These include self-sufficiency in food grain
                                                                           institutions or the establishment of new
                        production; a space program that has enabled
                                                                           ones, is beginning to result in the return of
                        satellite launches and a moon mission;
                                                                           expatriate researchers.
                        an atomic energy program; indigenously
                        developed missiles and aircraft; and exports       Against this background of impressive
                        in biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, and             achievement and ongoing challenges,
                        information-technology services.                   we can assess India’s current place in
                                                                           world science.




.......................................................................................................................
                                                                                             GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
THE NEW GEOGRAPHY OF SCIENCE:
RESEARCH AND COLLABORATION IN INDIA

  India’s recent increase is striking, rising sharply in contrast to
  the other nations’ largely static changes in growth since 2000.
  However, what many observers may note is the change in
  trajectory for India. References have been made in the science
  policy literature to India as a “sleeping giant.”



DATA ON RESEARCH
The data described in this report are drawn from the databases of Thomson
Reuters, which regularly indexes data on articles in about 10,000 journals
published worldwide. Numerous studies have confirmed that Thomson Reuters
data-management policy ensures that its databases cover serials regarded by
researchers as the most significant in their field.
The Thomson Reuters data allow us to examine India’s particular areas of scientific
concentration and strength, as well as the nation’s international links. International
collaboration is an important marker of the significance of research activity to
partners and of those other countries’ ability to engage with the domestic
research base.
Joint projects, and specific data on funding for joint research, are valuable
information but tend to be collated inconsistently and incompletely. By contrast,
joint publications are a sound and valid marker. Publication data are readily
available, cover a wide range of countries, and can be grouped by year and subject.
Every research paper includes the names and addresses of the authors. Thus, both
the country of origin of authors and the association between co-authoring nations
can be indexed and evaluated.




.......................................................................................................................
GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
INDIA AND RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS
                                                                                                                   Growth in Papers
                                                                                                                   Within the last decade or so, India has seen a substantial and recent growth in its annual output of scientific
                                                                                                                   publications. Figure 1, covering 1998 to 2007, charts the increase in the number of Thomson Reuters-
                                                                                                                   indexed papers bearing at least one author address in India. From an essentially flat line between 1998 and
                                                                                                                   2000, the quantity of publication outputs begins rising steadily, increasing from roughly 16,500 papers in
                                                                                                                   1998 to nearly 30,000 in 2007.


FIGURE 1
India’s research output has increased substantially since 1998
                                                                                                                                                                                                 The rise is even more impressive given that, in 1981,
                                                                                        30000
                                                                                                                                                                                                 India accounted for just above 14,000 papers in
                                                                                                                                                                                                 the Thomson Reuters database. The 2007 total
                                                                                                                                                                                                 constitutes an increase of roughly 80% in seven
                                                                                                                                                                                                 years from 2000. Nonetheless, the absolute volume
                                                                                        25000
                                                                                                                                                                                                 for India is still only about half that for countries
                                                                                                                                                                                                 such as the UK, Germany, China or Japan. This is a
                                                Annual publications in Web of Science




                                                                                                                                                                                                 surprise given the capacity of its economy. It has
                                                                                                                                                                                                 typically taken a 2.5%, now rising to 3%, share of
                                                                                        20000                                                                                                    world outputs.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 We can assess India’s increased output in another
                                                                                                                                                                                                 way, because the world literature indexed by
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Thomson Reuters databases is growing. We can
                                                                                        15000
                                                                                                                                                                                                 index each country’s “relative growth” by setting the
                                                                                                                                                                                                 volume of publication output on Web of Science® for
                                                                                                                                                                                                 each of a set of nations at a standard “100” in 1981,
                                                                                                1998	     1999	   2000	      2001	   2002	      2003	   2004	   2005	          2006	    2007     and then work forwards. In Figure 2 we compare
                                                                                                                                                                                                 India to such well-established research nations as
                                                                                                                                                                                                 France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The
                                                                                                                                                                                                 analysis charts each nation’s year-by-year rise over
                                                                                                                                                                                                 its respective starting point.
FIGURE 2
India’s recent year-by-year growth has begun to increase sharply compared                                                                                                                        India’s recent increase is striking, rising sharply
to well-established European and Asian research nations in the G8                                                                                                                                in contrast to the other nations’ largely static
                                                                                                                                                                                                 changes in growth since 2000. However, what many
                                                                                                                                                                                                 observers may note is the change in trajectory for
                                                                                                                                                                                                 India. References have been made in the science
                                                             250                                                                                                                                 policy literature to India as a “sleeping giant.” The
                                                                                                                                                                                       JAPAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                 reasons for that emerge in this analysis. Compared
                                                                                                                                                                                       FRANCE

                                                                                                                                                                                       GERMANY
                                                                                                                                                                                                 to other nations with a major research base it did
                                                                                                                                                                                       WORLD     indeed slumber—deeply through the 1980s and only
                                                            200
                                                                                                                                                                                                 starting to awaken in the 1990s. But its research
  Volume of publications compared to 1981=100




                                                                                                                                                                                       UK

                                                                                                                                                                                       INDIA     capacity and experience are such that, once moved,
                                                                                                                                                                                                 it has caught up with other nations in a strikingly
                                                                  150                                                                                                                            brief period.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 If this trajectory continues then India’s productivity
                                                                                                                                                                                                 will be on a par with most G8 nations within 7-8
                                                                 100                                                                                                                             years and overtake them between 2015-2020.


                                                                                         1981           1986	             1991	         1996	           2001	           2006




.......................................................................................................................
                                                                                             GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
Where is India focused?                                    papers published in journals indexed by Thomson
Along with charting India’s increase in scientific         Reuters. Here we examine how that share panned
output in the last decade, we must also examine            out across different subject areas.
its scientific focus and assess the ways in which its
                                                           India’s publications are analyzed here by Essential
areas of concentration map to the rest of the world.
                                                           Science Indicators categories for two successive
These matters are important for those interested in
                                                           five-year periods. The top ten categories ranked by
how best to engage with India’s growing research
                                                           India’s share of world publications in 2004-2008
base and to take advantage of the opportunities for
                                                           are shown.
innovation that they will surely create.
                                                           India’s strength—as a share of total world activity—
We looked at India from two different levels of
                                                           proves to be diverse, with Chemistry predominant
focus: first, a broad overview across the twenty-two
                                                           for the most recent five-year period. It is followed
major areas in Thomson Reuters Essential Science
                                                           closely by Agricultural Sciences, but agriculture
IndicatorsSM; then, a more detailed examination
                                                           has fallen back relative to the earlier period while
of the 250 specific fields covered in the Web
                                                           Pharmacology has expanded rapidly. In fact, India’s
of Science.
                                                           portfolio is markedly balanced between the life
In a recent five-year period, India produced roughly       sciences and physical sciences.
126,000 papers, constituting 2.75% of the world’s



TABLE 1
India’s share of world publications on Thomson Reuters databases
                                           1999-2003                  2004-2008                     Rank
                                       Count      Share(%)         Count      Share(%)      Share      Growth

 Chemistry                            21,206            4.42      33,504         5.71         1            10


 Agricultural Sciences                 4,303            5.91       5,634         5.65         2            17


 Materials Science                     6,960            4.08       11,126        4.81         3            9


 Pharmacology & Toxicology             2,034            2.80       3,866         4.25         4            3


 Plant & Animal Science                8,132            3.58       10,190        3.77         5            19


 Physics                              11,700            3.00       17,295        3.70         6            14


 Engineering                           8,101            2.69       14,103        3.57         7            5


 Geosciences                           2,839            2.64       4,266         3.13         8            13


 Space Science                         1,322            2.44       1,665         2.79         9            18


 Microbiology                          1,078            1.62       2,273         2.79        10            2




.......................................................................................................................
GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
Most striking of all might be the figures in the         By tracking the numerous subfields covered in the
                        right-hand column, which track each field’s growth,      Web of Science, we can fine-tune the analysis to
                        in terms of percent increase, between the 1999-          examine more closely the specific fields in which
                        2003 and 2004-2008 periods. Two life-sciences            India is concentrated.
                        fields, Microbiology and Pharmacology & Toxicology,
                                                                                 Here, India’s historical strength in agriculture
                        have accounted for notable growth, reflecting
                                                                                 is more clearly delineated, with Agricultural
                        the relatively high expenditure of the drugs and
                                                                                 Engineering topping the list and three other
                        pharmaceuticals industry which accounts for around
                                                                                 agriculture-related fields present. Medical fields are
                        45% of India’s private sector R&D. It will likely also
                                                                                 also prominent, notably what might be considered
                        signal a new prominence for India in these fields.
                                                                                 the traditionally important field of Tropical Medicine,
                        Computer Science, although not shown in the table,
                                                                                 along with a more recent refinement, Integrative
                        actually accounted for the highest increase between
                                                                                 & Complementary Medicine. Two fields related
                        the two intervals, increasing by more than 100% —
                                                                                 to materials also embrace both traditional and
                        a testament to the nation’s acknowledged strength
                                                                                 reinvented industries (Textiles) and wholly different
                        in information technology. This has reportedly not
                                                                                 approaches to materials (Crystallography).
                        been a sector of significant industrial-technological
                        R&D investment, but the effect of the sector on
                        workforce skills and competency may be reflected in
                        these figures.

                        TABLE 2
                        India’s share of world output in ten fields in Web of Science
                                                                            Share                               Volume
                         Field                                           (% of world)                      (papers 2004-08)

                         Agricultural Engineering                            11.21                                800


                         Tropical Medicine                                   8.32                                  716


                         Organic Chemistry                                   8.29                                7,834


                         Dairy & Animal Science                              8.24                                 2,184


                         Multidisciplinary Agriculture                       7.89                                 1,735


                         Crystallography                                     7.51                                3,397

                         Integrative & Complementary
                                                                             7.47                                 382
                         Medicine

                         Textiles                                            6.76                                 400


                         Medicinal Chemistry                                 6.50                                2,756


                         Agronomy                                            6.07                                1,686




.......................................................................................................................
                                                                                             GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
COLLABORATION WITH INDIA
In an assessment of India’s top ten research           thus appears to have been less well connected to
partners over the last ten years, the USA stands       international networks than some other countries
apart in terms of its frequency of co-authorship       but it therefore also retains a significant capacity to
with India-based institutions. However, the            expand its collaborative links.
level of collaboration—as a fraction of national
                                                       India’s partners, as the table indicates, have
domestic output—is lower for India than it is for
                                                       remained largely stable, although there are some
other emergent nations such as Brazil and much
                                                       discernible changes between the 1999-2003 and
lower than for established G8 partnerships. India


TABLE 3
India’s leading international research partners in the last decade
                                                                                          Share (%) of
                         Papers collaborative with India                                   India Total
               1999-2003                               2004-2008

 USA                       6,725         USA                       10,728                      6.7

 Germany                   2,667         Germany                   4,284                        2.7

 UK                        2,137         UK                        3,646                       2.3


 Japan                     1,908         Japan                       3,017                      1.9


 France                    1,393         France                    2,402                        1.5


 Canada                     927          South Korea               2,074                        1.3


 Italy                     822           China                      1,665                       1.0


 China                      674          Canada                     1,590                      .98


 Australia                 643           Australia                   1,338                     .83


 Netherlands               563           Italy                      1,309                       .81


 South Korea               558           Switzerland                 1,067                     .66


 Taiwan                    540           Taiwan                      1,102                     .63


 Switzerland               493           Russia                      940                       .58


 Russia                    482           Netherlands                 874                       .54




.......................................................................................................................
GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
2004-2008 periods. While the Netherlands and              The diversity of India’s research ties is elaborated in
                        Italy have slipped in their positions, South Korea        Table 4, which presents a selection of international
                        has hugely increased its percentage of papers             organizations that have made especially numerous
                        collaborative with India in what is generally a           collaborations with India institutions in the last five
                        doubling in volume of Indian collaborative output         years. The list is not a complete reflection of just
                        with Asian partners. The exception to that is Japan,      the top ten organizations, but has been selectively
                        which already had a strong presence. Whether this         edited to give a more diverse flavor to the richness
                        signals the emergence of a clearer regional research      of India’s links. Even so, the relative sparsity
                        network is perhaps too early to say but it is certainly   of European partners—and the absence of UK
                        an issue which other regions will want to watch.          institutions—will be a surprise to policy observers.


                        TABLE 4
                        International organizations collaborating frequently with India
                         Organization                           Country                             Number of co-authored papers

                         University of Tokyo                    Japan                                               686


                         University of Texas                    USA                                                 642


                         Tohoku University                      Japan                                               639

                         Centre National de la
                                                                France                                              534
                         Recherche Scientifique

                         Korea University                       South Korea                                         534


                         Chinese Academy of Sciences            China                                               533


                         National Taiwan University             Taiwan                                              466


                         National University of Singapore       Singapore                                           429


                         University of Melbourne                Australia                                           423


                         University of Amsterdam                Netherlands                                         384




.......................................................................................................................
                                                                                             GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
OVERVIEW
India has a long and distinguished history as a             diversity and that is beginning to appear in its
country of learning, knowledge and innovation.              emerging strength in, for example, pharmaceuticals
India is a huge part of and a vital source of influence     and the now rapid growth in the still surprisingly
on the future global economy. In the recent past,           small research base in computer sciences.
however, it has failed to realize its undoubted
                                                            With all its diversity and capacity it seems a surprise
potential as a home for world-class research. There
                                                            that India does not collaborate more, that there are
are signs that there is now a change in trajectory
                                                            not more partners treading the trail to work with
that will bring India up to the level where it can
                                                            key Indian institutions. The collaborative network
begin to realize its potential, to the benefit of its own
                                                            does now seem to be expanding, and it is expanding
population and economy as well as contributing to
                                                            eastwards towards other new and emerging
global knowledge networks.
                                                            research economies and not to the traditional
During the 1980s and early 1990s the output of              trans-Atlantic research axis. This is, perhaps, one
India’s research base was almost static while other         of the most intriguing outcomes of the analyses
countries grew rapidly, particularly other countries        implemented for this report. It deserves further
in Asia. China expanded with an intensity and drive         investigation.
that led it rapidly to overtake leading European
                                                            For the meantime, we suggest that it is important
countries in the volume of its research publications.
                                                            for G8 partners to look to invest in their relationship
India is just beginning on that gradient and has only
                                                            with India before the opportunity to engage in such
now got back to the relative position it held thirty
                                                            links with a reinvigorated sub-continent is pre-
years ago.
                                                            empted by equally innovative regional neighbors.
India’s research portfolio is grounded in traditional       The possibility is that the new geography of research
disciplines such as those related to agriculture,           may see not just new leading nations but a change
which is no bad thing with a huge population                in regional balances. Europe and the USA will want
to feed, and tropical medicine, with an obvious             to be partners, not just observers, of what happens.
domestic demand. But its research base needs




.......................................................................................................................
GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
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Global Research Report of India by Thomson Reuters

  • 1. GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT INDIA Research and collaboration in the new geography of science OCTOBER 2009 JONATHAN ADAMS CHRISTOPHER KING VINAY SINGH EVIDENCE
  • 2. THE AUTHORS Jonathan Adams is Director, Research Evaluation. He was a founding Director of Evidence Ltd, the UK specialist on research performance analysis and interpretation. Christopher King is Editor of Science Watch (ScienceWatch.com), a newsletter and web resource tracking trends and performance in basic research. Vinay Singh is National Manager of India, Healthcare & Science business of Thomson Reuters. He has over 14 years of extensive experience in the academic publishing and information industry. This report has been published by Evidence Ltd, a Thomson Reuters company 103 Clarendon Road, Leeds LS2 9DF, UK T/ +44 113 384 5680 F/ +44 113 384 5874 E/ enquiries@evidence.co.uk Copyright © 2009 Thomson Reuters ISBN: 1-904431-21-6 ....................................................................................................................... GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
  • 3. THE NEW GEOGRAPHY OF SCIENCE: RESEARCH AND COLLABORATION IN INDIA : OCTOBER 2009 INTRODUCTION This report is part of a series launched by Despite these achievements, recent years Thomson Reuters to inform policymakers have seen a growing realization among about the changing landscape and dynamics scholars, policymakers, and other observers of the global research base. that India lags behind other key countries and some of its BRIC partners in research The previous Global Research Report investment and output. The government examined Brazil and its growing presence has made concerted efforts to invest in on the world scientific stage. Here, we education by creating facilities such as turn to another component nation in the the Indian Institutes of Science Education so-called “BRIC” group: India, which, like and Research, dedicated to the highest Brazil and fellow BRIC members Russia international standards of scientific research and China, is building on its vast resources and science education. Funding for education and potential in becoming a lead economic and research has been a priority and has risen power. Underpinning the realization of that accordingly. The latest five-year plan, covering economic potential will be a significant the years 2007 to 2012, includes a four-fold expansion in its ability to generate and exploit increase for education over the previous plan. its knowledge resources through research Overall, as Nature reported earlier in 2009, and the related skills of its workforce. The government spending on science research growth of knowledge and innovation capacity currently accounts for roughly 0.9% of gross in the BRIC is already impacting on the global domestic product; by 2012, the figure is research system. expected to rise to 1.2%. The tradition of science in India, of course, A nagging problem, however—perhaps extends back millennia, with Aryabhatta, paradoxically for the second-most populous Bhaskara, Brahmagupta, and others still nation on earth—is a current lack of human celebrated for their foundational contributions resources: the availability of qualified to the fields of mathematics, astronomy, researchers has not kept pace with the and chemistry. In the modern era, science increased funding. Government action has and technology have been central to India’s made progress in this regard. A report from development efforts since the nation achieved India’s National Council of Applied Economic independence in 1947. Since then, via Research reported that the proportion of government directives such as the Scientific the population holding graduate degrees Policy Resolution (1958), the Technology increased from 2.4% of the population (20.5 Policy Statement (1983), and Science and million) in 1991 to 4.5% (48.7 million) in 2005. Technology Policy (2003), the nation has Increase in government support of science, achieved notable scientific successes. and the subsequent improvement of existing These include self-sufficiency in food grain institutions or the establishment of new production; a space program that has enabled ones, is beginning to result in the return of satellite launches and a moon mission; expatriate researchers. an atomic energy program; indigenously developed missiles and aircraft; and exports Against this background of impressive in biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, and achievement and ongoing challenges, information-technology services. we can assess India’s current place in world science. ....................................................................................................................... GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
  • 4. THE NEW GEOGRAPHY OF SCIENCE: RESEARCH AND COLLABORATION IN INDIA India’s recent increase is striking, rising sharply in contrast to the other nations’ largely static changes in growth since 2000. However, what many observers may note is the change in trajectory for India. References have been made in the science policy literature to India as a “sleeping giant.” DATA ON RESEARCH The data described in this report are drawn from the databases of Thomson Reuters, which regularly indexes data on articles in about 10,000 journals published worldwide. Numerous studies have confirmed that Thomson Reuters data-management policy ensures that its databases cover serials regarded by researchers as the most significant in their field. The Thomson Reuters data allow us to examine India’s particular areas of scientific concentration and strength, as well as the nation’s international links. International collaboration is an important marker of the significance of research activity to partners and of those other countries’ ability to engage with the domestic research base. Joint projects, and specific data on funding for joint research, are valuable information but tend to be collated inconsistently and incompletely. By contrast, joint publications are a sound and valid marker. Publication data are readily available, cover a wide range of countries, and can be grouped by year and subject. Every research paper includes the names and addresses of the authors. Thus, both the country of origin of authors and the association between co-authoring nations can be indexed and evaluated. ....................................................................................................................... GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
  • 5. INDIA AND RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS Growth in Papers Within the last decade or so, India has seen a substantial and recent growth in its annual output of scientific publications. Figure 1, covering 1998 to 2007, charts the increase in the number of Thomson Reuters- indexed papers bearing at least one author address in India. From an essentially flat line between 1998 and 2000, the quantity of publication outputs begins rising steadily, increasing from roughly 16,500 papers in 1998 to nearly 30,000 in 2007. FIGURE 1 India’s research output has increased substantially since 1998 The rise is even more impressive given that, in 1981, 30000 India accounted for just above 14,000 papers in the Thomson Reuters database. The 2007 total constitutes an increase of roughly 80% in seven years from 2000. Nonetheless, the absolute volume 25000 for India is still only about half that for countries such as the UK, Germany, China or Japan. This is a Annual publications in Web of Science surprise given the capacity of its economy. It has typically taken a 2.5%, now rising to 3%, share of 20000 world outputs. We can assess India’s increased output in another way, because the world literature indexed by Thomson Reuters databases is growing. We can 15000 index each country’s “relative growth” by setting the volume of publication output on Web of Science® for each of a set of nations at a standard “100” in 1981, 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 and then work forwards. In Figure 2 we compare India to such well-established research nations as France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The analysis charts each nation’s year-by-year rise over its respective starting point. FIGURE 2 India’s recent year-by-year growth has begun to increase sharply compared India’s recent increase is striking, rising sharply to well-established European and Asian research nations in the G8 in contrast to the other nations’ largely static changes in growth since 2000. However, what many observers may note is the change in trajectory for India. References have been made in the science 250 policy literature to India as a “sleeping giant.” The JAPAN reasons for that emerge in this analysis. Compared FRANCE GERMANY to other nations with a major research base it did WORLD indeed slumber—deeply through the 1980s and only 200 starting to awaken in the 1990s. But its research Volume of publications compared to 1981=100 UK INDIA capacity and experience are such that, once moved, it has caught up with other nations in a strikingly 150 brief period. If this trajectory continues then India’s productivity will be on a par with most G8 nations within 7-8 100 years and overtake them between 2015-2020. 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 ....................................................................................................................... GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
  • 6. Where is India focused? papers published in journals indexed by Thomson Along with charting India’s increase in scientific Reuters. Here we examine how that share panned output in the last decade, we must also examine out across different subject areas. its scientific focus and assess the ways in which its India’s publications are analyzed here by Essential areas of concentration map to the rest of the world. Science Indicators categories for two successive These matters are important for those interested in five-year periods. The top ten categories ranked by how best to engage with India’s growing research India’s share of world publications in 2004-2008 base and to take advantage of the opportunities for are shown. innovation that they will surely create. India’s strength—as a share of total world activity— We looked at India from two different levels of proves to be diverse, with Chemistry predominant focus: first, a broad overview across the twenty-two for the most recent five-year period. It is followed major areas in Thomson Reuters Essential Science closely by Agricultural Sciences, but agriculture IndicatorsSM; then, a more detailed examination has fallen back relative to the earlier period while of the 250 specific fields covered in the Web Pharmacology has expanded rapidly. In fact, India’s of Science. portfolio is markedly balanced between the life In a recent five-year period, India produced roughly sciences and physical sciences. 126,000 papers, constituting 2.75% of the world’s TABLE 1 India’s share of world publications on Thomson Reuters databases 1999-2003 2004-2008 Rank Count Share(%) Count Share(%) Share Growth Chemistry 21,206 4.42 33,504 5.71 1 10 Agricultural Sciences 4,303 5.91 5,634 5.65 2 17 Materials Science 6,960 4.08 11,126 4.81 3 9 Pharmacology & Toxicology 2,034 2.80 3,866 4.25 4 3 Plant & Animal Science 8,132 3.58 10,190 3.77 5 19 Physics 11,700 3.00 17,295 3.70 6 14 Engineering 8,101 2.69 14,103 3.57 7 5 Geosciences 2,839 2.64 4,266 3.13 8 13 Space Science 1,322 2.44 1,665 2.79 9 18 Microbiology 1,078 1.62 2,273 2.79 10 2 ....................................................................................................................... GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
  • 7. Most striking of all might be the figures in the By tracking the numerous subfields covered in the right-hand column, which track each field’s growth, Web of Science, we can fine-tune the analysis to in terms of percent increase, between the 1999- examine more closely the specific fields in which 2003 and 2004-2008 periods. Two life-sciences India is concentrated. fields, Microbiology and Pharmacology & Toxicology, Here, India’s historical strength in agriculture have accounted for notable growth, reflecting is more clearly delineated, with Agricultural the relatively high expenditure of the drugs and Engineering topping the list and three other pharmaceuticals industry which accounts for around agriculture-related fields present. Medical fields are 45% of India’s private sector R&D. It will likely also also prominent, notably what might be considered signal a new prominence for India in these fields. the traditionally important field of Tropical Medicine, Computer Science, although not shown in the table, along with a more recent refinement, Integrative actually accounted for the highest increase between & Complementary Medicine. Two fields related the two intervals, increasing by more than 100% — to materials also embrace both traditional and a testament to the nation’s acknowledged strength reinvented industries (Textiles) and wholly different in information technology. This has reportedly not approaches to materials (Crystallography). been a sector of significant industrial-technological R&D investment, but the effect of the sector on workforce skills and competency may be reflected in these figures. TABLE 2 India’s share of world output in ten fields in Web of Science Share Volume Field (% of world) (papers 2004-08) Agricultural Engineering 11.21 800 Tropical Medicine 8.32 716 Organic Chemistry 8.29 7,834 Dairy & Animal Science 8.24 2,184 Multidisciplinary Agriculture 7.89 1,735 Crystallography 7.51 3,397 Integrative & Complementary 7.47 382 Medicine Textiles 6.76 400 Medicinal Chemistry 6.50 2,756 Agronomy 6.07 1,686 ....................................................................................................................... GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
  • 8. COLLABORATION WITH INDIA In an assessment of India’s top ten research thus appears to have been less well connected to partners over the last ten years, the USA stands international networks than some other countries apart in terms of its frequency of co-authorship but it therefore also retains a significant capacity to with India-based institutions. However, the expand its collaborative links. level of collaboration—as a fraction of national India’s partners, as the table indicates, have domestic output—is lower for India than it is for remained largely stable, although there are some other emergent nations such as Brazil and much discernible changes between the 1999-2003 and lower than for established G8 partnerships. India TABLE 3 India’s leading international research partners in the last decade Share (%) of Papers collaborative with India India Total 1999-2003 2004-2008 USA 6,725 USA 10,728 6.7 Germany 2,667 Germany 4,284 2.7 UK 2,137 UK 3,646 2.3 Japan 1,908 Japan 3,017 1.9 France 1,393 France 2,402 1.5 Canada 927 South Korea 2,074 1.3 Italy 822 China 1,665 1.0 China 674 Canada 1,590 .98 Australia 643 Australia 1,338 .83 Netherlands 563 Italy 1,309 .81 South Korea 558 Switzerland 1,067 .66 Taiwan 540 Taiwan 1,102 .63 Switzerland 493 Russia 940 .58 Russia 482 Netherlands 874 .54 ....................................................................................................................... GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
  • 9. 2004-2008 periods. While the Netherlands and The diversity of India’s research ties is elaborated in Italy have slipped in their positions, South Korea Table 4, which presents a selection of international has hugely increased its percentage of papers organizations that have made especially numerous collaborative with India in what is generally a collaborations with India institutions in the last five doubling in volume of Indian collaborative output years. The list is not a complete reflection of just with Asian partners. The exception to that is Japan, the top ten organizations, but has been selectively which already had a strong presence. Whether this edited to give a more diverse flavor to the richness signals the emergence of a clearer regional research of India’s links. Even so, the relative sparsity network is perhaps too early to say but it is certainly of European partners—and the absence of UK an issue which other regions will want to watch. institutions—will be a surprise to policy observers. TABLE 4 International organizations collaborating frequently with India Organization Country Number of co-authored papers University of Tokyo Japan 686 University of Texas USA 642 Tohoku University Japan 639 Centre National de la France 534 Recherche Scientifique Korea University South Korea 534 Chinese Academy of Sciences China 533 National Taiwan University Taiwan 466 National University of Singapore Singapore 429 University of Melbourne Australia 423 University of Amsterdam Netherlands 384 ....................................................................................................................... GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
  • 10. OVERVIEW India has a long and distinguished history as a diversity and that is beginning to appear in its country of learning, knowledge and innovation. emerging strength in, for example, pharmaceuticals India is a huge part of and a vital source of influence and the now rapid growth in the still surprisingly on the future global economy. In the recent past, small research base in computer sciences. however, it has failed to realize its undoubted With all its diversity and capacity it seems a surprise potential as a home for world-class research. There that India does not collaborate more, that there are are signs that there is now a change in trajectory not more partners treading the trail to work with that will bring India up to the level where it can key Indian institutions. The collaborative network begin to realize its potential, to the benefit of its own does now seem to be expanding, and it is expanding population and economy as well as contributing to eastwards towards other new and emerging global knowledge networks. research economies and not to the traditional During the 1980s and early 1990s the output of trans-Atlantic research axis. This is, perhaps, one India’s research base was almost static while other of the most intriguing outcomes of the analyses countries grew rapidly, particularly other countries implemented for this report. It deserves further in Asia. China expanded with an intensity and drive investigation. that led it rapidly to overtake leading European For the meantime, we suggest that it is important countries in the volume of its research publications. for G8 partners to look to invest in their relationship India is just beginning on that gradient and has only with India before the opportunity to engage in such now got back to the relative position it held thirty links with a reinvigorated sub-continent is pre- years ago. empted by equally innovative regional neighbors. India’s research portfolio is grounded in traditional The possibility is that the new geography of research disciplines such as those related to agriculture, may see not just new leading nations but a change which is no bad thing with a huge population in regional balances. Europe and the USA will want to feed, and tropical medicine, with an obvious to be partners, not just observers, of what happens. domestic demand. But its research base needs ....................................................................................................................... GLOBAL RESEARCH REPORT
  • 11.
  • 12. Science Head Offices Americas Philadelphia +1 800 336 4474 +1 215 386 0100 Europe, Middle East and Africa London +44 20 7433 4000 Asia Pacific Singapore +65 6411 6888 Tokyo +81 3 5218 6500 India New Delhi +91 11 3044 6419 Bangalore +91 80 2555 0333 For a complete office list visit: science.thomsonreuters.com/contact AG0908174 Copyright ©2009 Thomson Reuters